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~ajxs/How Far Again in Time Can I Take My Web site’s Design

~ajxs/How Far Again in Time Can I Take My Web site’s Design

2023-09-14 01:54:22

They are saying {that a} builder’s dwelling isn’t completed.
This saying is actually true of the web site you are studying proper now.
All too usually I discover myself tweaking the padding of listing components,
fastidiously calibrating the ratios between heading sizes,
or painstakingly fussing over the distinction between completely different shades of inexperienced.
All in an effort to make the location extra
In any case, I do not need the duty of studying this weblog to any extra painful for my expensive readers than it must be.

On this pursuit of ‘readability’,
I’ve executed my greatest to maintain the location’s design as easy as I could make it.
The content material is squeezed right into a single column as large because the eyes can comfortably scan.
There are not any advanced sidebars, calendars, or tag clouds cluttering up the format,
and the color palette is chosen to minimise eye pressure when studying in a darkened room.

Lately I learn this great article
from interface designer Anthony Hobday,
by which he lays out a listing of simple to observe visible design guidelines that even a design-challenged technical particular person like myself can perceive.
I blame credit score this text for uplifting me to (but once more) roll up my sleeves and get caught into this weblog’s design.

Between pruning container divs and eradicating collapsed margins the thought occurred to me that my website
—with its
design and low-tech philosophy—
might have remained just about equivalent because the web’s early days.
This raised an attention-grabbing query:
Precisely how far again in time might my website’s design have remained the identical?
How far previously might this website’s present design have originated?
5 years? 10 years? extra?

The one factor to do now can be to place this unusual thought to the check.
What follows is a tedious account of my trial and error doing simply that.

Should you’re not within the technical play-by-play of testing my website towards classic browsers,
be happy to skip forward to the end section
for some extra private content material about my nostalgia for the online’s early days,
and what the scent net means to me.

A Few Floor Guidelines

Earlier than I start, I ought to set up just a few guidelines…

The problem is to amend the markup so the location
—because it appears now—
works on
browsers from the past,
not to give you a superb design that labored again then and now.

The positioning must look roughly equivalent to the present design,
on each modern, and fashionable browsers.
It could be no good in any case if I managed to make my website show appropriately on antiquated browsers,
solely to have my expensive fashionable viewers (you) undergo for it at the moment.

After all,
there are some issues I do know will simply by no means work regardless of how a lot effort is utilized,
so I am keen to make just a few small compromises right here and there,
so long as the design of the location stays more-or-less equivalent.

My website does not use any Javascript.
Because of this I’ve determined to not contemplate any options utilizing Javascript trickery to resolve compatibility points.

With the foundations established, there was nothing left to do however bounce proper in.
I am going to dial the clock again 5 years at a time, documenting the difficulties as I’m going.
With none additional ado, let’s take a stroll down reminiscence lane…

2008: T Minus 15 Years

Because it seems,
we’ve got to dial the clock again 15 years earlier than something attention-grabbing begins occurring.

The 12 months is 2008.
Google have simply launched the beta of their new Chrome browser,
and a a lot much less cynical world is happy on the prospect of something however Microsoft.
Stack Overflow has simply launched,
and YouTube nonetheless appears like
The innovative browsers in the marketplace are Web Explorer 7.0 and Firefox 3.0.
AOL had very lately
that they might be ending all assist for the ailing Netscape Navigator,
giving their customers an endorsement of Firefox as a parting reward.

Firefox 3.0

For what it is price,
I used to be an early Firefox adopter, and had already been a devoted person for a number of years by this level.
Whereas it
wasn’t the first
browser to characteristic a tabbed interface,
Firefox’s reintroduction of tabs to the brand new era of net browsers was an absolute recreation changer.

Drawback: Content material Container Styling

Standing: Solved

The reason for these format issues did not take lengthy to trace down:
The ‘rem’ unit wasn’t even a part of the CSS normal in 2008.
After changing them to ‘px’ with some crude ‘Discover+Exchange’ wizardry,
issues had been beginning to take form.

Funnily sufficient,
despite the fact that no styling was really utilized to the weblog merchandise headings,
the browsers falling again to their default heading kinds made the web page largely resemble its supposed design.
I assume my pedantic adherence to semantic markup may really pay dividends in any case.

Drawback: Mangled Web page Header

Standing: Solved

This turned out to be the results of Firefox making use of a default inline
type to the unsupported HTML5 <header> aspect.

How browsers ought to,
and even do really deal with unknown HTML components is a matter of great conjecture within the net design neighborhood.
Studying the precise WHATWG
for a way this could work is not for the faint of coronary heart both.
Understanding the usual would not assist us a lot at any price,
as the primary browsers to assist these guidelines would really be Firefox 4.0, and Web Explorer 10.

Happily, Mark Pilgrim’s unbelievable
Dive Into HTML5 has a
comprehensive guide
to how this really works in observe throughout completely different browsers.

Drawback: <determine> components not styled appropriately

Standing: Unresolved

The <determine> components I had utilized in a number of articles weren’t rendering appropriately both for a similar
motive because the difficulties I skilled above with the web page header.

Every of the person entries on this weblog consists in plain HTML and saved in an SQLite database,
earlier than being rendered into the ultimate product by my homegrown
static-site generator.
Somewhat than eradicating the <determine>
tags from every particular person article,
I made a decision that I’d simply must stay with this downside and transfer on.

Web Explorer 7

Switching again to Web Explorer, it was clear far more work wanted to be executed.

Drawback: Weblog Index Styling

Standing: Solved

At first I suspected there was no approach IE7 supported the ‘youngster combinator’ CSS selector I used to be utilizing to type the weblog index’s entries.
It turned out I used to be underestimating Web Explorer’s CSS assist.
A mistake I might make greater than as soon as writing this text.

After a fast session of debugging
trial and error I discovered this was one other occasion of the browser not recognising HTML5’s
futuristic semantic markup components.
As Mark Pilgrim’s ‘Dive Into HTML5’ information notes,
when encountering an unknown HTML aspect Web Explorer not solely does not apply any styling to it,
it does not apply styling to any of its descendants both!

Altering the <part>, and <article>
tags again into plain outdated <div> components resolved these points.
Web Explorer additionally added a default margins for lists,
which I took the chance to reset.

Drawback: Inline-Block Listing Parts

Standing: Solved

‘Inline-block’ components, such because the entrance web page tag listing,
had been being rendered as block.
Between Firefox rendering block HTML5 components inline,
and IE rendering inline components as block, it was all getting very complicated.

Including the zoom: 1; *show: inline;
hack as per
this helpful page
from Mozilla resolved the difficulty.
One way or the other this does not appear to have any side-effects on different browsers, fortunately.

Drawback: Desk Of Contents Merchandise Numbering

Standing: (Partially) Resolved

After placing in approach an excessive amount of time debugging,
it appears like my use of the counters()
perform was breaking IE7’s CSS parsing,
inflicting it to cease making use of any subsequent definitions from the stylesheet.
Unsurprisingly, this induced a terrific load of different issues,
like breaking the TL;DR block and code snippet styling.

This perform is used to create the merchandise numbering within the ‘Desk of Contents’ part utilized in articles.
In contrast to the native list-style property,
utilizing CSS counters permits creating numbering for the nested sub-lists, comparable to 2.1.1., and so forth.

I attempted varied
to get this throughout the road. All in useless.
Even utilizing Web Explorer’s dreaded ‘Conditional Comments’
to incorporate an IE-specific stylesheet could not accomplish a lot.
attention-grabbing article offers an especially intelligent hack for implementing CSS numbering in early IE variations,
nevertheless it appears fragile, and extra work than it is price.
My choices right here appeared considerably restricted.

After loads of testing, it seems that the
perform (Versus counters) does not really trigger the identical subject.
Sadly this does not get us any nearer to precise numbering,
as IE7 and under did not even assist the ::earlier than,
and ::after CSS pseudo-elements, or the content material
property used to put the numbering within the first place.
This resolution additionally does not enable for the ‘recursive’ sub-list numbering on browsers that truly assist counters,
which was the entire level of utilizing the perform over the native listing styling within the first place.

After approach an excessive amount of messing round,
I made a decision the perfect compromise was to revert to utilizing the native list-style
to quantity the Desk of Contents objects.
This allowed for some numbering in each IE7, and different browsers.
I apologise to anybody nonetheless struggling via this text.

As if simply to heap insult upon damage,
the CSS define property isn’t supported
in IE7 both,
so my fashionable double-border is not going to indicate up both.
I assume I am going to simply must stay with out that one.
Surprisingly, CSS counters had been really
in IE way back to 2009, so we solely simply missed out.

2003: T Minus 20 Years

Again in 2003 the browser panorama was just like the wild-west.
The browser wars had been raging,
and the web was nonetheless an untamed frontier to be gained.
Browser distributors solid forward on their very own, breaking new floor wherever they may,
leading to such regrettable components as
and even the

2003 would additionally see net builders Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little launch the primary model of the WordPress
Content material Administration System into the wild,
irreconcilably entrenching PHP into the legacy of the complete web.
In case you are on the lookout for who guilty, it is them.

Web Explorer 6.0

After dialling the clock again a full 20 years, issues actually started to collapse.

Drawback: Fundamental Web page Styling

Standing: Solved

At this level Web Explorer 6 wasn’t styling the front-page weblog entries in any respect.
I had a hunch, based mostly on’s suggestion,
that this might be because of IE missing assist for the <ul> aspect…

It turned out that this time it was really IE’s lack of assist for the kid combinator CSS selector.
This now meant that I wanted to explicitly forestall the nested ‘tagged as’ lists from choosing
up the styling of the principle weblog index entries.
No downside, I assume.
Nonetheless this induced a problem on fashionable browsers the place the nested lists don’t behave
appropriately when the principle weblog index merchandise is hovered.
To treatment this with out utilizing youngster combinators I needed to make even handed use of the
background-color: unset; property on the nested listing objects.
I assume that that is the form of factor that also conjures up hate for CSS.

Drawback: Index Entry Objects Do not Spotlight on Hover

Standing: Unresolved

Sadly IE6 does not assist the :hover CSS selector on arbitrary components,
so the front-page index weblog entry components now not spotlight when hovered over.
I am certain this might be simply resolvable with Javascript,
however since that is out of the query we’ll sadly simply must push on with out it.

Wrapping the complete index entry merchandise in a hyperlink, and
the tag hyperlinks creates all types of chaos,
so we can’t be contemplating that both.

Because the earlier hyperlink notes,
it is positively potential to make use of some CSS positioning trickery to make the hyperlinks seem visually nested.
That is just a bit bit too hacky for me although.
This sort of CSS format crime wizardry was positively a trademark of early 2000s net design,
with its ubiquitous three column layouts
precariously held along with the CSS equivalents of thumb-tacks and duct-tape.
The Flexbox CSS format methodology would finally make this far more easy,
however establishing a superb vertical navbar within the 90s/00s was no laughing matter.

Drawback: Clear PNG Help

Standing: Solved

PNG transparency is not supported in IE6.
there simply wasn’t the rest (affordable) to do however convert the PNG photos to clear GIFs.
Some fast imagemagick acquired the job executed very quickly,
though the anti-aliasing impact of the PNG alpha channel is gone.
I assume we are able to simply make do prefer it’s 2003 and stay with that.

Being confronted with the ghastly outcomes of my hasty resolution introduced again reminiscences of tweaking GIF picture palettes
in Paint Store Professional (again when it was nonetheless owned by Jasc).
It was just about normal in these days for any respectable website to have a page-width banner picture of their header,
and —after all— optimising them was severe enterprise.
Modern specialists suggested net designers to set whole web page dimension budgets stretching into the tons of of kilobytes,
the lion’s share of which was usually completely superfluous banner imagery.

Fortunately these days of bloated, picture heavy layouts are lengthy gone…
Solely to get replaced as a substitute by tons of of kilobytes of bloated Javascript frameworks and analytics libraries.
This epidemic of obese web sites has steadily declined into what the good Maciej Cegłowski has so aptly titled
The Website Obesity Crisis.
In response to this worrisome pattern,
varied websites have emerged encouraging these of us within the developer neighborhood to place our designs on a weight loss plan.
Amongst them, the 1MB Club,
512kB Club,
250kB Club,
and the really daring 10kB Club.
I do not fairly make the lower for the latter, tipping the scales someplace across the 20kB mark.
Possibly this may be my subsequent home-improvement mission?

Netscape Navigator 7.0

I did not even have to attend for the Netscape 7.0
to complete earlier than I might begin feeling nostalgic.
The supply to put in RealPlayer and Winamp was really a blast from the previous.

Drawback: Tag Merchandise Hovered Background Color

Standing: Unresolved

Sadly, the difficulty I tackled above with the nested lists not choosing
up their guardian listing merchandise’s highlighted color on hover was reoccurring in Netscape.
The repair I used earlier of eradicating any implicit background color did not appear to perform something right here.
Surprisingly, apart from this all the things else was completely positive,
so I used to be pleased sufficient to put in writing this one off and transfer on.

As a aspect notice, have a look at that interface!
Take a look at the icons within the decrease left-hand nook!

1998: T Minus 25 Years

Web Explorer 5.0

To veterans of the browser wars,
any point out of ‘cross-browser compatibility points’
brings to thoughts one offender specifically: Web Explorer.
I actually bear in mind burning the midnight oil painstakingly aligning div components in Firefox,
solely to see my work reinterpreted as summary artwork by the quirks of IE’s format engine.

In all equity, the collective ‘people historical past’ of the online has been a little bit unfair to Web Explorer.
In his wonderful discuss ‘Hindsight can be 50/50’,
Jay Freeman makes a really convincing case that Microsoft won’t even have been the villain of browser historical past all of us bear in mind them to be.
He lays out a really compelling argument that Microsoft really adhered far more carefully to the W3C’s specs than their rivals,
and had been arguably no worse company residents than their modern rivals.
I like to recommend everybody give this extremely well-researched, eye-opening presentation a watch.

The extra analysis I did for this text,
the extra I realised the historical past of web browsers is definitely far more attention-grabbing and nuanced than I might anticipated,
and much too huge for me to do any justice to right here on this article.
Jay Hoffmann’s The History of the Web,
offers a splendidly written chronicle of the online’s historical past.
Anybody concerned with understanding the historic selections and personalities
that formed the online of at the moment ought to positively give it a learn!

Getting a replica of Web Explorer 5 up and operating turned out to be extra concerned than I might anticipated.
Up till this level I might been utilizing BrowserStack
to check the location in several browsers, however IE5 was sadly a bit past the choice they provide.
I ended up taking a a lot larger journey down reminiscence lane than I might anticipated,
operating the browser inside a
occasion operating Home windows 98.
trick made accessing my native growth surroundings from Virtualbox a bit of cake.

Drawback: Fundamental Web page Content material Container

Standing: Solved

On first load, the principle centre column format was stretched to the web page width.
It is because IE5 does not assist making use of a width rule to the web page’s
<physique> aspect.
Wrapping the principle web page content material in a div solved the difficulty of the content material container.
Nonetheless now it is incorrectly aligned…

Including text-align: middle; to the principle physique aspect
as per this resolution
put it again the place it was purported to be.

Drawback: Picture Most Measurement

Standing: (Partially) Solved

Sadly the max-width CSS property of block components did not exist in 1998.
It was added as a part of the
CSS 2.1 specification in 2010.
I bear in mind how revolutionary this CSS property was.
It allowed designers to free themselves from so many precarious hacks!

After making an attempt a dozen completely different approaches in useless,
I resorted to utilizing an IE-specific stylesheet,
imported utilizing a ‘Conditional Remark’ within the web page’s header.
Previous to writing this text I had really utterly forgotten this performance even existed.
With a bit of luck, I’ll neglect once more.

In just a few weblog articles I might used the HTML5
aspect to wrap captioned photos.
Trying to pick any <img> aspect inside a <determine> aspect with CSS wasn’t going to work.
As talked about earlier, Web Explorer will not type any unknown components or their kids.
Including a rule to my new IE-only stylesheet to set a hard and fast width for any picture contained in the entry physique someway appeared to do the trick.

Granted, this is not actually a most picture width,
however this patchy resolution does clear up the difficulty.
So far as I am conscious all the thumbnail photos in my article are above the utmost picture dimension,
so no stretching will really happen.

Drawback: Inline-Block Parts

Standing: Solved

Eradicating the inline block listing components that wrap the anchor components resolved some points.

See Also

Netscape Navigator 4.5

I can not bear in mind how precisely I acquired launched to the web,
however I do know that the primary time I noticed it was via a Netscape Navigator window.
Whereas I get a bit lengthy within the tooth now, I am not fairly
sufficiently old to have needed to fear about Netscape’s share of CSS points.
Now was my likelihood to make amends for all of the enjoyable I missed…

For a lot of this part, I might be referring to’s bug guide.
This unbelievable useful resource accommodates an exhaustive listing of up to date browser bugs.

Drawback: Background

Standing: Solved

The CSS3 Background module
draft specification
recommends that
“authors specify the background for the BODY aspect reasonably than the HTML aspect”.
Doing simply that restored the web page’s misplaced background color.

Drawback: Listing Objects

Standing: Solved

Now that we’ve got a background color once more,
it is plain to see that one thing goes actually incorrect with the entrance web page weblog index styling.
It seems Netscape does not like the way in which I constructed the principle weblog index out of a listing aspect.
Changing the person index entry objects from <li> to <div>
resolved the difficulty.

Drawback: Background Solely Utilized To Textual content

Standing: Solved

As soon as once more, I’ve to thank for an answer which will have taken me years to search out alone.
Apparently this ghastly impact is the results of a bug in Netscape 4.x.
Including the border: none property to components resolved this subject.

Drawback: Physique Font Shade

Standing: Solved

This downside was solved by explicitly including the font color property to all the related components,
one tedious definition after one other.

Drawback: Centre Div

Standing: Unresolved

In accordance with, “Auto is interpreted as 0”,
so the trendy resolution of margin: 0 auto will not accomplish something in Netscape.

As a battle-scarred veteran of the browser wars,
I recalled the outdated trick of mixing an absolute place and a unfavourable margin, comparable to:
place: absolute; left: 50%; margin-left: -320px;
Nonetheless all this achieved was pushing the centre column midway off the web page,
as Netscape 4.5 does not appear to assist unfavourable margins.

In desperation I even tried utilizing Netscape’s dreaded
rendered erroneously within the Queen’s King’s English as <centre>.
I’ll as properly have left it that approach for all the great it did me.

Greedy at straws, I attempted including the align="middle" attribute,
as instructed here,
to no avail.
There’s solely a lot time I am keen to spend fixing this specific downside.
With heavy coronary heart, and with my remaining endurance shortly evaporating,
I made a decision to let this one go.

Drawback: Picture Measurement

Standing: Solved

Having barely mentally recovered from the final irritating subject,
I used to be keen to think about extra expedient approaches to fixing any additional issues.
I figured there was no must complicate issues any additional,
so I manually resized the picture recordsdata to their last, right dimension.
I am not even certain why I hadn’t executed this already.

To align the newly resized photos appropriately I resorted to utilizing a <desk> aspect.
Very naughty.
The one approach this might be any worse can be utilizing clear ‘spacer’ photos to nudge issues round.

1993: T Minus 30 Years

Okay, so I did not do such a superb job again there in 1998 with Netscape…
In my defence
—as identified by Wikipedia
CSS adoption earlier than the flip of the millennium was patchy at greatest.
Good factor that the place we’re going, we do not want have CSS…

NCSA Mosaic 1.2

Giggle in case you should,
however I am genuinely shocked that monitoring down copies of the web’s earliest browsers is as arduous because it was.

After looking excessive and low,
I stumbled upon
‘Ancient Web Browsers’,
a tremendous catalogue of the online’s earliest browsers.
Observe the provision of binaries for all kinds of up to date platforms,
comparable to NeXT, DEC, RS6000, SGI, and SPARC.

The novelty of testing my website towards Mosaic did not take lengthy to start out sporting off.
The entire problematic endeavour was sophisticated,
not the least of which, by the truth that the Mosaic browser really predates
the HTTP 1.0 specification.
Which means that some fashionable webservers can have some bother honouring its requests.

Firing up
NCSA Mosaic 2.1 for Windows
in my Home windows 98 VM was a lot much less of a headache,
however my conscience merely would not allow me passing this off as the actual deal.
With my journalistic integrity intact, I pressed onward…

For the sake of expediency,
I ended up constructing xmosaic from the supply obtainable
Just a few tweaks had been wanted for it to construct on a contemporary Linux distro,
however this did not take too lengthy.
On account of being Mosaic for X,
it takes its colour-scheme from
~/.Xresources file,
rendering Mosaic in an all however unusable state.

After shortly cobbling a brand new X colour-scheme collectively, I used to be prepared for the following problem…

Drawback: Every thing

Standing: Not possible

Nicely… I simply needed to see for myself.
After all, any try to get my website rendering —in an inexpensive trend—
within the Mosaic browser was completely doomed from the beginning.
If for no different motive than the truth that,
at this level,
CSS would not be created for
another three years.
On account of this limitation,
no quantity of bending, bashing, or technical trickery might ever make my website show appropriately in Mosaic.

Working backwards via the historical past of web browsers,
it is attention-grabbing to see how shortly the design of the world-wide-web
crystallised into one thing we would recognise at the moment as the trendy web.
And on that notice, how little the idea has modified total.
Whereas the complexity of on-line user-interfaces might have converged with that of conventional desktop functions,
the unique UI/UX paradigm of simply clicking on textual content stays the dominant approach of interacting with the online.
A time traveller from 1993 would positively be dazzled by a website like YouTube, Netflix, or Amazon,
however beneath the all of the wealthy and vibrant
they’d nonetheless discover a acquainted interface.

A mirror of my website,
with the amended markup created within the writing of this text,
is out there for a restricted time at

Nostalgia and The Small Net

Not the least amongst my many follies is a tragic sentimentality for the web of my teenage years.
A wistful nostalgia for a much less cynical age of technological optimism.
When the world-wide-web was the inventive, secret area of an rising
cyberpunk counterculture.
An period when artists, entrepreneurs, and activists alike had been excited on the prospect of a technological future,
ripe with the potential to empower mankind’s best qualities.
Earlier than the everlasting September of the social media age,
and earlier than the Patriot Act, PRISM, or the emergent ‘Large Tech’ oligarchy and its company panopticon.

Paradoxically, for many individuals the web appeared a a lot larger place when it was smaller.
The our on-line world of the 90s/00s appeared just like the non-public canvas of a completely new form of artist.
Fertile floor the place a era of hackers might discover new, emergent types of creativity.
The place they may discover a sense of belonging,
interacting with extremely personalised areas designed by like-minded people the world over.
Regardless of fashionable expertise empowering extra individuals than ever to entry the web,
a rising variety of customers really feel that the web of at the moment has stopped being a private house in any respect.
Somewhat than empowering customers with a clean canvas for his or her creativeness,
at the moment’s web has turn out to be a spot the place customers are acted upon.
Definitely nobody would ever anticipate that
Googling a specific matter would ever discover them the non-public, inventive work of an particular person anymore.
Customers have more and more turn out to be accustomed to a company web,
consisting primarily of platforms in search of to commodify their consideration,
or monetise their interactions in more and more exploitative, predatory methods.

I am not alone in feeling this fashion.
A rising motion of on-line content material creators is working to reclaim the sensation of a extra private, artisanal web.
A neighborhood of retro web sites has blossomed round
Webrings are re-emerging within the wild;
and fully
new protocols
have been devised to recapture the sensation of the web’s earliest days.
One title for this motion that I significantly like is ‘The Small Net’,
popularised by Parimal Satyal’s great essay
‘Rediscovering the Small Web’.
Others have written wonderful materials about rediscovering the user-centric ‘small-web’,
comparable to Ben Hoyt’s
‘The small web is beautiful’,
essay by Aral Balkan.

This motion to recreate the small-web is not simply involved with the online as an inventive medium,
but additionally the philosophical, environmental, and political implications of an more and more related world.
A rising concern for a lot of is the rising focus of energy in solely a handful of on-line content material platforms,
and the rising subject of sovereignty over their very own knowledge.
communities have sprung up devoted to self-hosting their very own infrastructure,
and the
federation of those platforms.
Concern in regards to the rising technological complexity of net design,
and the web as an entire, has pushed a resurgence in less complicated, ‘static’ websites
and using static-site generator frameworks comparable to

In defence of my nostalgia, I used to be there.
Like so many different kids of the 90s,
I did not want any convincing when it got here to the web,
I simply acquired it,
and as quickly as I realised I might create pages of my very own, I wished in.
Someplace in the course of placing a primary-school project collectively I found that I might use
Microsoft Writer 98 to construct HTML pages.
Immediately I used to be hooked.
My household did not even have the web at dwelling and but there I used to be,
designing a web site of my very personal.
I had completely no thought how I might really get it on-line, however that did not sluggish me down for a second.
Finally I might transfer on to actual WYSIWYG editors like Microsoft FrontPage,
and finally Macromedia Dreamweaver after a household good friend introduced again an —clearly bootleg—
copy of Macromedia’s Studio MX from a enterprise journey to Hong Kong.
Ten years later I used to be nonetheless hooked,
taking my first steps within the trade creating the first-generation of what we now name SPAs,
utilizing Actionscript in Adobe Flash.
Twenty (plus) years later, I am nonetheless right here.
Whereas the online may need modified, I have never.
I nonetheless have the identical pleasure about expertise that invigorated my childhood creativeness,
and nonetheless need to construct webpages to inform the world all about it.
Regardless of the web step by step changing into a less-welcoming neighbourhood,
I hope I will help encourage individuals in my very own small approach,
and encourage others like myself to discover their creativity
in what continues to be a unbelievable inventive medium:
The web.

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