Now Reading
Campanology – Wikipedia

Campanology – Wikipedia

2023-04-04 05:21:22

Scientific and musical research of bells

Campanology () is the scientific and musical research of bells. It encompasses the know-how of bells – how they’re founded, tuned and rung – in addition to the historical past, strategies, and traditions of bellringing as an artwork.[2]

It’s common to gather collectively a set of tuned bells and deal with the entire as one musical instrument. Such collections – corresponding to a Flemish carillon, a Russian zvon, or an English “ring of bells” used for change ringing – have their very own practices and challenges; and campanology is likewise the research of perfecting such devices and composing and performing music for them.

On this sense, nevertheless, the phrase campanology is most frequently utilized in reference to comparatively giant bells, typically hung in a tower. It isn’t often utilized to assemblages of smaller bells, corresponding to a glockenspiel, a set of tubular bells, or an Indonesian gamelan.

Etymology and definition[edit]

Campanology is a hybrid word. The primary half is derived from the Late Latin campana, which means ‘bell’; the second half is derived from the Ancient Greek -λογία (-logia) which means ‘the research of’.

A campanologist is one who research campanology, although it’s popularly misused to confer with a bell ringer.[3]

Types of bellringing[edit]

Full circle ringing[edit]

Change ringing in a church in Devon, England

The bells of St Bees Priory, England proven within the “up” place. When being rung they swing by way of a full circle from mouth upwards spherical to mouth upwards, after which again once more.

In English fashion (see beneath) full circle ringing, the bells in a church tower are hung in order that on every stroke the bell swings by way of an entire circle; truly a bit of greater than 360 levels. Between strokes, it briefly sits poised ‘upside-down’, with the mouth pointed upwards; pulling on a rope related to a big diameter wheel hooked up to the bell swings it down and the meeting’s personal momentum propels the bell again up once more on the opposite facet of the swing. Every alternate pull or stroke is recognized as both handstroke or backstroke – handstroke the place the “sally” (the fluffy space coated with wool) is pulled adopted by a pull on the plain “tail”. At East Bergholt within the English county of Suffolk, there’s a distinctive set of bells that aren’t in a tower and are rung full circle by hand.[4] They’re the heaviest ring of 5 bells listed in Dove’s Guide for Church Bell Ringers[5] with a tenor of 26 lengthy cwt 0 qr 8 lb (2,920 lb or 1,324 kg) and a mixed weight of 4 lengthy tons 5 cwt 2 qr 24 lb (9,600 lb or 4.354 t)

These rings of bells have comparatively few bells, in contrast with a carillon; six or eight-bell towers are widespread, with the most important rings in numbering as much as sixteen bells. The bells are often tuned to fall in a diatonic scale with out chromatic notes; they’re historically numbered from the highest downwards in order that the best bell (known as the treble) is numbered 1 and the bottom bell (the tenor) has the best quantity; it’s often the tonic notice of the bells’ scale.

To swing the heavy bells requires a ringer for every bell. Moreover, the good inertias concerned imply {that a} ringer has solely a restricted capability to retard or speed up his/her bell’s cycle. Together with the comparatively restricted palette of notes obtainable, the upshot is that such rings of bells don’t simply lend themselves to ringing melodies.

It is a diagram of 1 sort of methodology ringing. Every bell strikes as soon as in each sequence, or change, and repetition is averted. Right here 1 is the highest-pitched, and 6 is the bottom

As an alternative, a system of change ringing advanced, most likely early within the seventeenth century, which centres on mathematical permutations. The ringers start with rounds, which is solely ringing down the dimensions in numerical order. (On six bells this may be 123456.) The ringing then proceeds in a sequence of rows or adjustments, every of which is a few permutation of rounds (for instance 214365) the place no bell adjustments by multiple place from the previous row (that is also referred to as the Steinhaus–Johnson–Trotter algorithm).

In name change ringing, one of many ringers (often called the Conductor) calls out to inform the opposite ringers how one can differ their order. The timing of the calls and adjustments of sample accompanying them are made on the discretion of the Conductor and so don’t essentially contain a change of ringing sequence at every successive stroke as is attribute of methodology ringing. Some ringers, notably within the West of England the place there’s a robust call-change custom, ring name adjustments solely however for others, the essence of change ringing is the considerably completely different methodology ringing. As of 2015 there are 7,140 English fashion rings. The Netherlands, Pakistan, India, and Spain have one every. The Windward Isles and the Isle of Man have 2 every. Canada and New Zealand 8 every. The Channel Isles 10. Africa as a continent has 13. Scotland 24, Eire 37, USA 48, Australia 59 and Wales 227. The remaining 6,798 (95.2%) are in England (together with three cell rings).[6]

Veronese bell ringing[edit]

Bolognese bell ringing[edit]

Change ringing[edit]

Peal board at St Peter and St Paul Church, Chatteris, Cambridgeshire, commemorating the ringing of a peal in 1910; 5,040 adjustments have been rung in two hours and forty-nine minutes.

Change ringing is the artwork of ringing a set of tuned bells in a tightly managed method to supply exact variations of their successive placing sequences, often called “adjustments”. This may be by method ringing wherein the ringers decide to reminiscence the foundations for producing every change, or by call changes, the place the ringers are instructed how one can generate every change by directions from a conductor. This creates a type of bell music which can’t be discerned as a traditional melody, however is a sequence of mathematical sequences.

Change ringing originated following the invention of English full-circle tower bell ringing within the early seventeenth century, when bell ringers discovered that swinging a bell by way of a a lot bigger arc than that required for swing-chiming gave management over the time between successive strikes of the clapper. Ordinarily a bell will swing by way of a small arc solely at a set pace ruled by its dimension and form within the nature of a easy pendulum, however by swinging by way of a bigger arc approaching a full circle, management of the strike interval might be exercised by the ringer. This culminated within the strategy of full circle ringing, which enabled ringers to independently change the speeds of their particular person bells precisely to mix in ringing completely different mathematical permutations, often called “adjustments”.

Pace management of a tower bell is exerted by the ringer solely when every bell is mouth upwards and transferring slowly close to the stability level; this constraint and the intricate rope manipulation concerned usually requires that every bell has its personal ringer. The appreciable weights of full-circle tower bells additionally means they can’t be simply stopped or began and the sensible change of interval between successive strikes is restricted. This locations limitations on the foundations for producing easily-rung adjustments; every bell should strike as soon as in every change, however its place of placing in successive adjustments can solely change by one place.

Change ringing is practised worldwide, however it’s by far commonest on church bells in English church buildings, the place it first developed.

Change ringing can be carried out on handbells, the place conventionally every ringer holds two bells, and chimed on carillons and chimes of bells, although these are extra generally used to play standard melodies.

Methodology ringing[edit]

In methodology or scientific ringing every ringer has memorized a sample describing his or her bell’s course from row to row; taken collectively, these patterns (together with solely occasional calls made by a conductor) kind an algorithm which cycles by way of the assorted obtainable permutations dictated by the variety of bells obtainable. There are tons of of those strategies which have been composed over the centuries and all have names, some being very fanciful. Higher-known examples corresponding to Plain Bob, Reverse Canterbury, Grandsire and Double Oxford are acquainted to most ringers.

Severe ringing all the time begins and ends with rounds; and it should all the time be true — every row should be distinctive, by no means repeated. A efficiency of some hundred rows or so known as a contact. A efficiency of all of the potential permutations potential on a set of bells known as an extent, with bells there are ! potential permutations. With 5 bells 5! = 120 which takes about 5 minutes. With seven bells 7! = 5,040 which takes about three hours to ring. That is the definition of a full peal on 7 (5,000 or extra for different numbers of bells.) Much less demanding is the quarter peal of 1,260 adjustments. When ringing peals and quarter peals on fewer bells a number of full extents are rung consecutively. When ringing on greater numbers of bells lower than an entire extent is rung. On eight bells the extent is 8!=40,320 which has solely been achieved as soon as, taking practically nineteen hours.

Ringing in English belltowers turned a preferred passion within the late seventeenth century, within the Restoration period; the scientific method which led to trendy methodology ringing might be traced to 2 books of that period, Tintinnalogia or the Artwork of Ringing (revealed in 1668 by Richard Duckworth and Fabian Stedman) and Campanalogia (additionally by Stedman; first launched 1677; see Bibliography). At the moment change ringing stays hottest in England however is practiced worldwide; over 4 thousand peals are rung every year.

Dorothy L. Sayers‘s thriller story, The Nine Tailors (1934) centres round change ringing of bells in a Fenland church; her father was a priest.

Russian Orthodox bellringing[edit]

Bell-ringer demonstrating Russian chiming on a transportable belfry

The bells in Russian custom are sounded by their clappers, hooked up to ropes; a particular system of ropes is developed individually for each belltower. All of the ropes are gathered in a single place, the place the bell-ringer stands. The ropes (often all ropes) should not pulled, however quite pressed with palms or legs. Since one finish of each rope is fastened, and the ropes are stored in pressure, a press or perhaps a punch on a rope makes a clapper transfer.

The Russian Tsar Bell is the most important extant bell on the planet.[citation needed]


A man plays a carillon's wooden keyboard with his fists.
A steel structure containing 56 hanging bells of various sizes and topped with a roof spire and a cross

A carillon is a pitched percussion instrument that’s performed with a keyboard and consists of at the very least 23 bells. The bells are cast in bronze, hung in fastened suspension, and tuned in chromatic order in order that they are often sounded harmoniously collectively. They’re struck with clappers related to a keyboard of picket batons performed with the palms and pedals performed with the toes. Typically housed in bell towers, carillons are often owned by church buildings, universities, or municipalities. They will embrace an computerized system by way of which the time is introduced and easy tunes are performed all through the day.

Carillons are available in many designs, weights, sizes, and sounds. They’re among the many world’s heaviest devices, and the heaviest carillon weighs over 91 metric tons (100 brief tons). Most weigh between 4.5 and 15 metric tons (5.0 and 16.5 brief tons). To be thought-about a carillon, a minimal of 23 bells are wanted; in any other case, it’s known as a chime. Normal-sized devices have about 50, and the world’s largest has 77 bells. The looks of a carillon is determined by the quantity and weight of the bells and the tower wherein it’s housed. They might be present in towers that are free-standing or related to a constructing. The bells of a carillon could also be instantly uncovered to the weather or hidden contained in the construction of their tower.

The origins of the carillon might be traced to the Low Countries—present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and the French Netherlands—within the sixteenth century. The fashionable carillon was invented in 1644 when Jacob van Eyck and the Hemony brothers solid the primary tuned carillon. The instrument skilled a peak till the late-18th century, a decline through the French Revolution, a revival within the late nineteenth century, a second decline through the First and Second World Wars, and a second revival thereafter. UNESCO has designated 56 belfries in Belgium and France as a World Heritage Site and acknowledged the carillon tradition of Belgium as an intangible cultural heritage.

In response to counts by numerous registries, there are about 700 carillons worldwide. Most are in and across the Low Nations, although practically 200 have been constructed in North America. Nearly all extant carillons have been constructed within the twentieth century. Moreover, there are about 500 “non-traditional” carillons, which as a result of some part of its motion being electrified or computerized, most registries don’t take into account to be carillons. A plurality are located in the United States, and a lot of the others in Western Europe. A couple of “touring” or “cell” carillons are fastened to a body that allows them to be transported.


Eight-bell chime in its body (McShane Bell Foundry, Maryland). Be aware that the underside bells are static-chimes, and the highest bell can be hung for swing-chiming by itself.

A chime () or set of chimes is a carillon-like instrument, i.e. a pitched percussion instrument consisting of twenty-two or fewer bells. Chimes are primarily performed with a keyboard, however may also be performed with an Ellacombe apparatus. Chimes are sometimes automated, previously with mechanical drums related to clocks and within the current with digital motion. Bellfounders typically didn’t try to tune chime bells to the identical precision as carillon bells. Chimes are outlined as particularly having fewer than 23 bells to tell apart them from the carillon. American chimes often have one to 1 and a half diatonic octaves. In response to a latest rely, there are over 1,300 current chimes all through the world. Nearly all are within the Netherlands and america, with a lot of the the rest in Western European international locations.

Ellacombe equipment[edit]

Ellacombe equipment for six bells

The Ellacombe equipment is an English mechanism devised for chiming by placing stationary bells with exterior hammers. Nonetheless it doesn’t have the identical sound as full circle ringing as a result of absence of the doppler impact derived from bell rotation and the dearth of a damping impact of the clapper after every strike.

It requires just one individual to function. Every hammer is related by a rope to a set body within the bell-ringing room. When in use the ropes are taut, and pulling one of many ropes in direction of the participant will strike the hammer towards the bell. To allow regular full circle ringing on the identical bells, the ropes are slackened to permit the hammers to drop away from the transferring bells.

The system was devised in 1821 by Reverend Henry Thomas Ellacombe of Gloucestershire, who first had such a system put in in Bitton in 1822. He created the system to make standard bell-ringers redundant, so church buildings didn’t should tolerate the behaviour of what he thought have been unruly bell-ringers.

See Also

Nonetheless, in actuality, it required very uncommon experience for one individual to ring adjustments. The sound of a chime was a poor substitute for the wealthy sound of swinging bells, and the equipment fell out of trend. Consequently, the Ellacombe equipment has been disconnected or faraway from many towers within the UK. In towers the place the equipment stays intact, it’s typically used like a Carillon, however to play easy tunes, or if experience exists, to play adjustments.


Bellfounding is the casting and tuning of huge bronze bells in a foundry to be used corresponding to in churches, clock towers and public buildings, both to suggest the time or an occasion, or as a musical carillon or chime. Massive bells are made by casting bell metal in moulds designed for his or her meant musical pitches. Additional effective tuning is then carried out utilizing a lathe to shave metallic from the bell to supply a particular bell tone by sounding the proper musical harmonics.

Bellfounding in East Asia dates from about 2000 BCE[8] and in Europe from the 4th or fifth century CE. In Britain, archaeological excavations have revealed traces of furnaces, exhibiting that bells have been typically solid on website in pits in a church or its grounds. Centralised foundries turned widespread when railways allowed simple transportation of bells, resulting in the dominance of founders such because the Whitechapel Bell Foundry and John Taylor & Co of Loughborough.

Elsewhere on the planet a variety of foundries are nonetheless energetic, some utilizing conventional strategies, and a few utilizing the most recent foundry strategies. Fashionable foundries produce harmonically tuned bells utilizing rules established within the late nineteenth century; a few of these are additionally extremely ornamental.

Bell tuning[edit]

The harmonics produced by Erfurt bell (1497)[9] or any well-tuned bell:[10] strike notice on E with hum notice, minor third, fifth, octave or nominal, and main third and excellent fifth within the second octave.

The tuning of a bell is totally depending on its form. When first solid it’s roughly appropriate, however it’s then machined on a tuning lathe to take away metallic till it’s in tune. It is a very complicated train which took centuries of empirical follow, and latterly trendy acoustic science, to grasp.

If a bell is a part of a set to be rung or performed collectively, then the preliminary dominant perceived sound, known as the strike notice, should be tuned to a chosen notice of a standard scale. As well as every bell will emit harmonics, or partials, which should even be tuned in order that these should not discordant with the bell’s strike notice. That is what Fuller-Maitland writing in Grove’s dictionary of music and musicians meant when he mentioned : “Good tone implies that a bell should be in tune with itself.”[10]

The principal partials are;

  • hum notice -an octave beneath the strike notice,
  • strike notice
  • tierce – minor third above the strike notice
  • quint – excellent fifth above the strike notice
  • nominal – octave above the strike notice

Additional, much less dominant, partials embrace the foremost, third and excellent fifth within the octave above these.

“Whether or not a founder tunes the nominal or the strike notice makes little distinction, nevertheless, as a result of the nominal is without doubt one of the predominant partials that determines the tuning of the strike notice.”[13] A heavy clapper brings out decrease partials (clappers typically being about 3% of a bell’s mass), whereas a better clapper velocity strengthens greater partials (0.4 m/s being reasonable). The relative depth of the “bowl” or “cup” a part of the bell additionally determines the quantity and power of the partials with the intention to obtain a desired timbre.

Bells are typically round 80% copper and 20% tin (bell metal), with the tone various based on materials.

Tone and pitch can be affected by the strategy wherein a bell is struck. Asian giant bells are sometimes bowl formed however lack the lip and are sometimes not free-swinging. Additionally notice the particular form of Bianzhong bells, permitting two tones. The scaling or dimension of most bells to one another could also be approximated by the equation for round cylinders:


the place h is thickness, D is diameter, and C is a continuing decided by the fabric and the profile.[14]

The foremost third bell[edit]

On the idea that items in main keys might higher be accommodated, after many unsatisfactory makes an attempt, within the Nineteen Eighties, utilizing pc modeling for help in design by scientists on the Technical College in Eindhoven, bells with a major-third profile have been created by the Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry within the Netherlands,[13] being described as resembling outdated Coke bottles[15] in that they’ve a bulge across the center;[16] and in 1999 a design with out the bulge was introduced.[14]

Bell organizations[edit]

The next organizations promote the research, music, assortment and/or preservation and restoration of bells.[17] Nation(s) coated are given in parenthesis.

See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ From Glossary of the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers 2016; “Campanology – Research of the historical past, artwork and science of creating and ringing bells.
  2. ^ From Glossary of the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers 2016; ” Campanologist – One who research campanology, (popularly mis-used to confer with a ringer).
  3. ^ East Bergholt and Constable Country: The Bell Cage, retrieved 27 September 2016
  4. ^ Dove’s Guide for Church Bell Ringers, Central Council of Church Bell Ringers, archived from the original on 10 October 2016, retrieved 27 September 2016
  5. ^ County Lists from Dove’s Guide for Church Bell Ringers, Central Council of Church Bell Ringers, archived from the original on 16 October 2015, retrieved 12 October 2015
  6. ^ “QUMONTOR”. Archived from the unique on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 27 Might 2021.
  7. ^ Falkenhausen (1994), 132, Appendix I pp. 329, 342.
  8. ^ Musical Affiliation (1902). Proceedings of the Musical Association, Volume 28, p.32. Whitehead & Miller, ltd.
  9. ^ a b John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1910). Grove’s dictionary of music and musicians, p.615. The Macmillan firm. Strike notice proven on C. Hemony seems to be the primary to suggest this tuning.
  10. ^ Roads, Curtis, ed. (1992). Harvey Jonathan. “Moruos Plango, Vivos Voco: A Realization at IRCAM”, The Music Machine, p.92. ISBN 978-0-262-68078-3. Harvey added, “a clearly audible, slow-decaying partial at 347 Hz with a beating part in it. It’s a resultant of the assorted F harmonic sequence partials that may be clearly seen within the spectrum (5, [6], 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, and many others.) beside the C-related partials.”
  11. ^ Downes, Michael (2009). Jonathan Harvey: Music choices and White as jasmine, p.22. ISBN 978-0-7546-6022-4.
  12. ^ a b Neville Horner Fletcher, Thomas D. Rossing (1998). The Physics of Musical Devices, p.685. ISBN 978-0-387-98374-5. Cites Schoofs et al., 1987 for major-third bell.
  13. ^ a b Rossing, Thomas D. (2000). Science of Percussion Devices, p.139. ISBN 978-981-02-4158-2.
  14. ^[bare URL PDF]
  15. ^ Major third bell Archived 2007-10-18 on the Wayback Machine“,
  16. ^ Rama, Jean-Pierre (1993). Cloches de France et d’ailleurs, Le Temps Apprivoisé, pp.229–230. Paris, France. ISBN 2283581583.


Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

  • Basic
  • Carillons
  • Chimes
  • Russian Orthodox bells
  • British bells
  • Indian Bells

Source Link

What's Your Reaction?
In Love
Not Sure
View Comments (0)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

2022 Blinking Robots.
WordPress by Doejo

Scroll To Top