Now Reading
Consciousness and Anesthesia – PMC

Consciousness and Anesthesia – PMC

2023-06-14 04:00:15

Science. Creator manuscript; obtainable in PMC 2009 Sep 14.

Printed in remaining edited kind as:

PMCID: PMC2743249

NIHMSID: NIHMS127862

Summary

Once we are anesthetized, we anticipate consciousness to fade. However does it at all times? Though anesthesia undoubtedly induces unresponsiveness and amnesia, the extent to which it causes unconsciousness is more durable to ascertain. As an illustration, sure anesthetics act on areas of the mind’s cortex close to the midline and abolish behavioral responsiveness, however not essentially consciousness. Unconsciousness is more likely to ensue when a fancy of mind areas within the posterior parietal space is inactivated. Consciousness vanishes when anesthetics produce purposeful disconnection on this posterior complicated, interrupting cortical communication and inflicting a lack of integration; or after they result in bistable, stereotypic responses, inflicting a lack of info capability. Thus, anesthetics appear to trigger unconsciousness after they block the mind’s capability to combine info.

How consciousness arises within the mind stays unknown. But, for practically two centuries our ignorance has not hampered using common anesthesia for routinely extinguishing consciousness throughout surgical procedure. Sadly, as soon as in each 1000–2000 operations a affected person could briefly regain consciousness and even stay aware throughout surgical procedure (1). Such intraoperative consciousness arises partly as a result of our capability to guage ranges of consciousness stays restricted. Nonetheless, progress is being made in figuring out common rules that underlie how anesthetics result in unconsciousness (26) and the way, sometimes, they could fail to take action.

Mobile actions of anesthetics

The mobile and molecular pharmacology of anesthetics has been reviewed extensively (68). Basic anesthetics fall into two major courses: intravenous brokers used to induce anesthesia, typically administered along with sedatives or narcotics; and unstable brokers, typically used for anesthesia upkeep (). Anesthetics are thought to work by interacting with ion channels that regulate synaptic transmission and membrane potentials in key areas of the mind and spinal twine. These ion channel targets are differentially delicate to varied anesthetic brokers ().

Desk 1

Ionic mechanisms and targets of present scientific anesthetics (references in (6, 8))

Anesthetics hyperpolarize neurons by rising inhibition or reducing excitation (9) and alter neuronal exercise: The sustained firing typical of the aroused mind adjustments to a bistable burst-pause sample (10) that can be noticed in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep. At intermediate anesthetic concentrations, neurons start oscillating, roughly as soon as a second, between a depolarized up-state and a hyperpolarized down-state (11). The up-state is just like the sustained depolarization of wakefulness. The down-state exhibits full cessation of synaptic exercise for a tenth of a second or extra, after which neurons revert to a different up-state. As anesthetic doses enhance, the up-state turns to a brief burst and the down-state turns into progressively longer. These adjustments in neuronal firing patterns are mirrored within the electroencephalogram (EEG) (electrical recording from the scalp) as a transition from the low-voltage, excessive frequency sample of wakefulness (often known as activated EEG), to the sluggish wave EEG of deep NREM sleep, and eventually to an EEG burst-suppression sample (12).

The anesthetized affected person: Unconscious or unresponsive?

Clinically, at low-sedative doses anesthetics trigger a state just like drunkenness, with analgesia, amnesia, distorted time notion, depersonalization, and elevated sleepiness. At barely increased doses, a affected person fails to maneuver in response to a command and is taken into account unconscious. This behavioral definition of unconsciousness, which was launched with anesthesia over 160 years in the past, whereas handy, has drawbacks. As an illustration, unresponsiveness can happen with out unconsciousness. Once we dream, we have now vivid aware experiences, however are unresponsive as a result of inhibition by the brainstem induces muscle paralysis (13). Equally, paralyzing brokers used to stop undesirable actions throughout anesthesia don’t take away consciousness (14).

Sure anesthetics could impair an individual’s willfulness to reply by affecting mind areas the place govt choices are made. This isn’t a difficulty for anesthetics that globally deactivate the mind, however it might be problematic for dissociative anesthetics like ketamine. Low doses of ketamine trigger depersonalization, out of physique experiences, forgetfulness, and lack of motivation to comply with instructions (15). At increased doses, it causes a attribute state through which the eyes are open and the face takes on a disconnected clean stare. Neuroimaging knowledge present a fancy sample of regional metabolic adjustments (16), together with a deactivation of govt circuits in anterior cingulate cortex and basal ganglia () (17). An identical open-eyed unresponsiveness is seen in akinetic mutism after bilateral lesions across the anterior cingulate cortex (18). In no less than a few of these circumstances, sufferers perceive questions, however could fail to reply. Certainly, a lady with massive frontal lesions who was clinically unresponsive was requested to think about taking part in tennis or to navigate her room and she or he confirmed cortical activation patterns indistinguishable from these of wholesome topics (19). Thus, scientific unresponsiveness shouldn’t be essentially synonymous with unconsciousness.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is nihms127862f1.jpg

Mind areas related to anesthetic results (references within the textand 2).

At doses close to the unconsciousness threshold, some anesthetics block working reminiscence (20). Thus, sufferers could fail to reply as a result of they instantly neglect what to do. At a lot decrease doses, anesthetics trigger profound amnesia. Research with the remoted forearm approach, through which a tourniquet is utilized to the arm earlier than paralysis is induced (to permit the hand to maneuver whereas the remainder of the physique is paralyzed), present that sufferers beneath common anesthesia can generally keep it up a dialog utilizing hand alerts, however post-operatively deny ever being awake (21). Thus, retrospective oblivion is not any proof of unconsciousness.

Nonetheless, at some stage of anesthesia between behavioral unresponsiveness and the induction of a flat EEG [indicating the cessation of the brain’s electrical activity, one of the criteria for brain death (22)], consciousness should vanish. Due to this fact, using mind perform screens may enhance consciousness evaluation throughout anesthesia (23). As an illustration, bispectral index screens document the EEG sign over the brow and scale back the complicated sign right into a single quantity that tracks a affected person’s depth of anesthesia over time (12). Such gadgets assist information anesthetic supply and should scale back circumstances of intraoperative consciousness (24), however they continue to be restricted at straight indicating the presence or absence of consciousness, particularly across the transition level. The remoted forearm approach has proven that particular person sufferers might be conscious and responsive throughout surgical procedure regardless that their bispectral index worth suggests they don’t seem to be (25). Both the EEG shouldn’t be delicate sufficient to the neural processes underlying consciousness, or we nonetheless don’t but absolutely perceive what to search for.

The thalamus – swap or readout?

Essentially the most constant regional impact produced by anesthetics at (or close to) lack of consciousness is a discount of thalamic metabolism and blood stream (), suggesting that the thalamus could function a consciousness swap (2). Certainly, switch-like results have been discovered with plenty of thalamic manipulations. For instance, GABA agonists (mimicking anesthetic motion) injected into the intralaminar nuclei trigger rats to quickly go to sleep, with a corresponding slowing of the EEG (26). Conversely, rats beneath anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane might be woke up by a minute injection of nicotine into the intralaminar thalamus (27). In people, midline thalamic injury may end up in a vegetative state (18). Conversely, restoration from the vegetative state is heralded by the restoration of purposeful connectivity between thalamus and cingulate cortex (28). Additionally, deep mind electrical stimulation of the central thalamus improved behavioral responsiveness in a affected person who was minimally aware (29).

Nonetheless, thalamic exercise doesn’t lower with all anesthetics. Ketamine will increase international metabolism, particularly within the thalamus (16). Different anesthetics can considerably scale back thalamic exercise at doses that trigger sedation, not unconsciousness. As an illustration, sevoflurane sedation causes a 23% discount of relative thalamic metabolism when topics are nonetheless awake and responsive (30). Certainly, anesthetic results on the thalamus could also be largely oblique (6, 31, 32). Spontaneous thalamic firing throughout anesthesia is essentially pushed by suggestions from cortical neurons (33), particularly anesthetic-sensitive layer V cells (34). Many of those cells additionally mission onto brainstem arousal facilities, so cortical deactivation can scale back each thalamic exercise and arousal (35). Additionally, the metabolic and electrophysiological results of anesthetics on the thalamus in animals are abolished by removing of the cortex (33, 34, 36). In contrast, after thalamic ablation, the cortex nonetheless produces an activated EEG (37), suggesting that the thalamus shouldn’t be the only real mediator of cortical arousal, nor maybe is it essentially the most direct one. In sufferers with implanted mind electrodes present process a second surgical procedure to position a deep mind stimulator, the cortical EEG modified dramatically the moment the sufferers misplaced consciousness (38). Nevertheless, there was little change in thalamic EEG exercise till 10 minutes later. Conversely, in epileptic sufferers, throughout REM sleep (often related to dreaming) the cortical EEG was activated as if awake, however the thalamic EEG confirmed sluggish wave exercise as if asleep (39). Thus, the consequences of anesthetics on the thalamus impact could signify a readout of worldwide cortical exercise fairly than a consciousness swap, and thalamic exercise will not be a enough foundation for consciousness.

Nonetheless, it’s untimely to put in writing off the thalamus altogether. Maybe environment friendly communication amongst cortical areas requires a thalamic relay (40), through which case thalamic lesions would result in a purposeful disconnection regardless of an activated cortex. A purposeful thalamic disconnection throughout anesthesia has been discovered with neuroimaging (41). Subthreshold depolarization to many cortical areas could also be offered by calbindin-positive matrix cells, that are particularly concentrated inside some intralaminar thalamic nuclei and mission diffusely to superficial layers of cortex (42). Cells in intralaminar nuclei can fireplace at excessive frequencies, thus offering a coherent oscillatory bias that will facilitate lengthy vary cortico-cortical interactions. Due to this fact, whereas cortical arousal could happen with out the thalamus, consciousness could not.

Cortical results of anesthetics

Are some cortical areas extra necessary than others for the induction of unconsciousness by anesthetics? Evoked responses in major sensory cortices – the primary relay for incoming stimuli – are sometimes unchanged throughout anesthesia, deep sleep and in vegetative sufferers. Additionally, exercise in major sensory areas usually doesn’t correlate with perceptual expertise (43). Frontal cortex too will not be important for anesthetic unconsciousness, as totally different anesthetics have variable results on this space. As an illustration, at equal hypnotic doses, each propofol and thiopental deactivate posterior mind areas, however solely propofol deactivates frontal cortex (44). Moreover, massive lesions of the frontal cortex don’t by themselves produce unconsciousness (45).

Anesthetic-induced unconsciousness is often related to deactivation of mesial parietal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus () (46). These similar areas are deactivated in vegetative sufferers however are the primary to reactivate in those that get better (28). Furthermore, neural exercise in these areas is altered throughout seizures related to an impairment of consciousness (47) and in sleep (48). These mesial cortical areas are strategically positioned on the major hub of the mind’s connectional core (49). They’re additionally a part of a default community that’s particularly energetic at relaxation and could also be concerned in international monitoring of the inner surroundings and several other features associated to the self (50). Nonetheless, mesial cortical areas are deactivated in REM sleep (48), when topics expertise vivid desires. It’s intriguing that at intermediate doses, sure anesthetics, equivalent to nitrous oxide, produce a reasonably selective deactivation of posterior mesial cortex (51), but when these areas begin to flip off, topics report dreamlike emotions with depersonalization and out of physique experiences, fairly than unconsciousness.

Along with the core mesial cortical areas, many anesthetics additionally deactivate or disconnect a lateral temporo-parieto-occipital complicated of multimodal associative areas centered on the inferior parietal cortex (). On this case, lesion and anesthesia knowledge are mutually supportive: sufferers with bilateral lesions on the temporo-parieto-occipital junction present no signal of perceptual expertise, regardless of a flurry of undirected motor exercise, a situation known as hyperkinetic mutism (18). Thus, a fancy of posterior mind areas comprising the lateral temporo-parieto-occipital junction and maybe a mesial cortical core are the more than likely the ultimate frequent goal for anesthetic-induced unconsciousness.

Disruption of cortical integration

Lack of consciousness could not essentially require that neurons in these posterior mind areas be inactivated. As a substitute, it might be enough that dynamic elements of neural exercise change, particularly if these have an effect on the mind’s capability to combine info (, 3, 5).

See Also

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is nihms127862f2.jpg

Unconsciousness is related to a lack of cortical integration. (A) The corticothalamic system is represented metaphorically as a big die having many faces, every similar to a special mind firing sample. Throughout aware waking, the die rolls on a selected face, ruling out all of the others and thus producing built-in info. If integration is misplaced (as in anesthesia or sleep), the die disintegrates into many two-faced cube, every producing 1 bit of data. (B) Anesthesia reduces cortical integration within the rat. (High) Throughout waking, switch entropy, a measure of directional interactions amongst mind areas, is balanced within the feedforward (inexperienced) and suggestions (pink) instructions. Throughout anesthesia, suggestions switch entropy (pink) is decreased, implying a lower in front-toback interactions. (Backside) Responses to a flashing mild delivered at 0.2 Hz (arrow) from a consultant rat when awake and beneath 1.1% isoflurane anesthesia (56). When the rat is awake, every flash evokes a sustained gamma frequency (20 to 60 Hz) response in visible occipital cortex (blue) and a later response in parietal affiliation cortex (pink). Throughout anesthesia, the occipital response is preserved, though it’s shorter (blue), and the parietal response is attenuated, indicating that anesthesia reduces cortical interactions and thus reduces integration. (C) Sleeping reduces cortical integration in people. EEG voltages and present densities are proven from a consultant topic through which the premotor cortex was stimulated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (black arrow). Throughout waking (prime), stimulation evokes EEG responses first close to the stimulation website (black circle; the white cross is the location of most evoked present) after which in sequence at different cortical areas. Throughout deep sleep (backside), the stimulus-evoked response stays native, indicating a lack of cortical integration.

Take into account first large-scale integration, loosely outlined as the flexibility of various cortical areas to work together successfully (52). When consciousness fades throughout anesthesia there’s a drop in EEG coherence within the γ frequency vary (20 to 80 Hz) between proper and left frontal cortices and between frontal and occipital areas (4). Anesthetics additionally suppress fronto-occipital γ coherence in animals, each beneath visible stimulation and at relaxation (53). The impact is gradual and far stronger for long-range than for native coherence (53). Anesthetics could disrupt cortical integration (5) by appearing on buildings that facilitate long-range cortico-cortical interactions, such because the posterior cortical connectional hub (49), sure thalamic nuclei (42), or presumably the claustrum (54). Anesthetics can also disrupt synchronization amongst distant areas by slowing neural responses (55).

The lack of suggestions interactions within the cortex could also be particularly crucial. When rats turn into unresponsive beneath anesthesia, info switch first decreases within the suggestions course () (56). Additionally, anesthesia suppresses the late element (>100 ms) of visible responses, presumably by inhibiting suggestions connections (57), however not the early feedforward parts. Furthermore, anesthesia abolishes contextual and attentional modulation of firing, presumably mediated by suggestions connections (58). The corticothalamic system could also be particularly susceptible to anesthetics on account of its small-world group. Small-world networks have principally native connectivity with comparatively few long-range connections. Augmented with hubs, such networks maximize interactions whereas minimizing wiring. By the identical token, anesthetics want solely disrupt a number of long-range connections to provide a set of disconnected parts. Certainly, laptop simulations exhibit a speedy state transition at a crucial anesthetic dose (59), in line with a breakdown in community integration.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is nihms127862f3.jpg

Unconsciousness is related to a lack of info capability. (A) As in , the corticothalamic system is represented metaphorically as a big die having many faces, every similar to a special mind firing sample. Throughout aware waking, the die rolls on a selected face, ruling out all of the others and thus producing built-in info. If info is misplaced (as in anesthesia or sleeping), the die is flattened in order that it has solely two faces (firing patterns). As a result of lack of repertoire, it generates only one bit of data. (B) Anesthesia reduces info capability in rat cortex. (High) Discipline potentials recorded earlier than and through mild flashes (marks under every hint). Throughout waking (left), flash-evoked subject potentials (blue) (mild flashes indicated by marks under every hint) are small and variable, being masked by spontaneous neuronal exercise. Throughout deep anesthesia (proper), bursts of exercise happen spontaneously and after every mild flash. (Backside) Throughout anesthesia, the g-burst response is uniform throughout all three mind areas. Thus, responses are stereotypic and lack regional specificity, indicating a lack of info capability. (C) Sleeping reduces cortical info carrying capability in people. (High) Throughout waking, stimulation over the mesial parietal cortex produces a selected, sequential sample of activation. (Backside) Throughout sleep, stimulation produces a world, stereotypic response that spreads from the stimulation website to many of the cortex, indicating a lack of info capability. Black traces signify averaged voltage potentials recorded in any respect electrodes and superimposed, whereas estimated present density is displayed in absolute scale (63, 64).

Disruption of cortical info capability

Take into account now how anesthetics have an effect on info, outlined loosely because the variety of discriminable exercise patterns. When the repertoire of discriminable firing patterns obtainable to the corticothalamic system shrinks, neural exercise turns into much less informative, regardless that it might be globally built-in (52). As described above, at excessive sufficient doses a number of anesthetics produce a burst-suppression sample through which a near-flat EEG is interrupted each few seconds by transient, quasi-periodic bursts of worldwide activation – a stereotypic, international on-off sample. Such stereotypic burst-suppression will also be elicited by visible, auditory, and mechanical stimuli (Fig. 4) (60, 61). Thus, throughout deep anesthetic unconsciousness the corticothalamic system can nonetheless be energetic in actual fact hyperexcitable and might produce international, built-in responses. Nevertheless, the repertoire of responses has shrunk to a stereotypic burst-suppression sample, with a corresponding lack of info, basically making a system having solely two attainable states (on or off). Generalized convulsive seizures present one other instance through which consciousness might be misplaced regardless that neural exercise stays excessive and extremely synchronized: a big portion of the corticothalamic complicated is engaged in robust, hypersynchronous exercise, however this exercise is stereotypic (60, 61).

A bit like sleep

Sleep is the one time when wholesome people frequently lose consciousness. Topics woke up throughout sluggish wave sleep early within the night time could report brief, thought-like fragments of expertise or usually, nothing in any respect (13). Though anesthesia shouldn’t be the identical as pure sleep, mind arousal programs are equally deactivated (6, 62). Additionally, as beneath anesthesia, throughout sluggish wave sleep cortical and thalamic neurons turn into bistable and endure sluggish oscillations (1 Hz or much less) between up- and down-states. Like animal research throughout anesthesia (), human research throughout sluggish wave sleep recommend that the bistability of cortical neurons has penalties for the mind’s capability to combine info (Fig. 5 and 6). Throughout wakefulness, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) utilized to premotor cortex and different cortical areas induces a sustained response (300 ms) involving the sequential activation of particular mind areas, the id of which relies upon upon the exact website of stimulation (63, 64). Throughout early non-REM sleep, presumably because of the induction of a neighborhood down-state, TMS pulses produce as a substitute a brief (<150 ms) native response (64), suggesting a lack of integration. Intriguingly, TMS pulses to mesial parietal areas, overlying the principle hub within the cortical connectional core (49), set off a stereotypic, high-amplitude sluggish wave intently resembling spontaneous sluggish waves (63). This stereotypic response, presumably because of the simultaneous activation of the cortical connectional core and to the induction of a world down state, displays a restricted repertoire of exercise patterns and thus a lack of info.

Consciousness and built-in info

The proof from anesthesia and sleep states (–) converges to recommend that lack of consciousness is related to a breakdown of cortical connectivity and thus of integration, or with a collapse of the repertoire of cortical exercise patterns and thus of data (). Why ought to this be the case? A latest idea suggests a principled purpose: info and integration stands out as the very essence of consciousness (52). Classically, info is the discount of uncertainty amongst alternate options: when a coin falls on one in all its two sides, it offers 1 bit of data, whereas a die falling on one in all six faces offers ~2.6 bits. However then having any aware expertise, even one in all pure darkness, have to be terribly informative, since we may have had numerous different experiences as a substitute (consider all of the frames of each attainable film). Having any expertise is like throwing a die with a trillion faces and figuring out which quantity got here up (). However, each expertise is an built-in entire that can’t be subdivided into unbiased parts. For instance, with an intact mind you can not expertise the left half of the visible subject independently of the suitable half, or visible shapes independently of their colour. In different phrases, the die of expertise is a single one throwing a number of cube and mixing the numbers won’t do.

Much less metaphorically, the idea claims that the extent of consciousness of a bodily system is said to the repertoire of various states (info) that may be discriminated by the system as a complete (integration). A measure of built-in info, known as phi (Φ), can be utilized to quantify the knowledge generated when a system enters one specific state of its repertoire, above and past the knowledge generated independently by its components (52). In follow, Φ can solely be measured rigorously for small, simulated programs. Nevertheless, empirical measures may very well be devised to guage built-in info on the premise of EEG knowledge, resting purposeful connectivity, or TMS-evoked responses. This method may enable the event of consciousness screens that consider each lack of integration, as revealed by decreased purposeful or efficient connectivity, and lack of info, as evidenced by stereotypic responses.

This idea has some fascinating implications for anesthesia. For instance, it explains why a corticothalamic complicated is important for consciousness and is thus the right goal for anesthesia: by conjoining purposeful specialization (every cortical space and neuronal group inside every space is exquisitely specialised) with purposeful integration (because of in depth corticocortical and corticothalamocortical connectivity), a corticothalamic complicated is effectively suited to behave as a single dynamic entity endowed with a lot of discriminable states. In contrast, components of the mind made up of small, quasi-independent modules, such because the cerebellum, and parallel loops by the basal ganglia, should not sufficiently built-in, which is maybe why they are often lesioned with out lack of consciousness (18, 52). The speculation means that one shouldn’t interpret particular person motor responses, or localized activations, as indicators of consciousness, and conversely shouldn’t interpret the absence of motor responses as a positive signal of unconsciousness. Lastly, from this theoretical perspective, consciousness shouldn’t be an all-or-none property, however it’s graded: particularly, it will increase in proportion to a system’s repertoire of discriminable states. The shrinking or dimming of the sector of consciousness throughout sedation is in line with this concept. However, the abrupt lack of consciousness at a crucial focus of anesthetics means that the built-in repertoire of neural states underlying consciousness could collapse non-linearly.

Conclusions

Regardless of totally different mechanisms and websites of motion, most anesthetic brokers seem to trigger unconsciousness by focusing on, straight or not directly, a posterior lateral corticothalamic complicated centered across the inferior parietal lobe, and maybe a medial cortical core. Whether or not the medial or lateral element is extra necessary, and whether or not anterior cortical areas are crucial primarily for govt features and maybe self-reflection, stay questions for future work. Second, anesthetics may cause unconsciousness not simply by deactivating this posterior corticothalamic complicated, but additionally by producing a purposeful disconnection between subregions of this complicated. Third, though assessing lack of consciousness with verbal instructions could often be sufficient, it might sometimes be deceptive. Lastly, one theoretical framework that appears to suit effectively with present empirical knowledge means that consciousness requires an built-in system with a big repertoire of discriminable states. In accordance with this framework, anesthetics would produce unconsciousness both by stopping integration (blocking the interactions amongst specialised mind areas) or by lowering info (shrinking the variety of exercise patterns obtainable to cortical networks). Different frameworks for consciousness, emphasizing entry to a world workspace (65, 66), or the formation of enormous coalitions of neurons (43), are additionally in line with most of the findings described right here, particularly these in regards to the position of cortical integration. Altogether, these concepts ought to assist in creating brokers with extra particular actions, in higher monitoring their results on consciousness, and in using anesthesia as a software for characterizing the neural substrates of consciousness.

References and Notes

3. Hudetz AG. Seminars in Anesthesia, Perioperative Medication and Ache. 2006;25:196. [Google Scholar]
13. Hobson JA, Tempo-Schott EF, Stickgold R. Behav Mind Sci. 2000 Dec;23:793. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
15. Tucker MR, Hann JR, Phillips CL. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1984 Oct;42:668. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
17. Alkire MT, Gruver RL, Langsjo JW, Kaisti Ok, Scheinin H. Anesthesiology. 2007;104:A1219. [Google Scholar]
18. Posner JB, Plum F. Up to date neurology collection. 4. Oxford College Press; Oxford ; New York: 2007. Plum and Posner’s analysis of stupor and coma; p. xiv.p. 401. [Google Scholar]
20. Veselis RA, Reinsel RA, Feshchenko VA, Dnistrian AM. Anesthesiology. 2002 Aug;97:329. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
24. Myles PS, Leslie Ok, McNeil J, Forbes A, Chan MT. Lancet. 2004 Might 29;363:1757. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Schneider G, Gelb AW, Schmeller B, Tschakert R, Kochs E. Br J Anaesth. 2003 Sep;91:329. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
27. Alkire MT, McReynolds JR, Hahn EL, Trivedi AN. Anesthesiology. 2007 Aug;107:264. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
33. Vahle-Hinz C, Detsch O, Siemers M, Kochs E. Exp Mind Res. 2007 Jan;176:159. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
35. French JD, Hernandez-Peon R, Livingston RB. J Neurophysiol. 1955 Jan;18:74. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
36. Nakakimura Ok, Sakabe T, Funatsu N, Maekawa T, Takeshita H. Anesthesiology. 1988 Might;68:777. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
39. Magnin M, Bastuji H, Garcia-Larrea L, Mauguiere F. Cereb Cortex. 2004 Aug;14:858. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
51. Gyulai FE, Firestone LL, Mintun MA, Winter PM. Anesth Analg. 1996 Aug;83:291. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
53. Imas OA, Ropella KM, Wooden JD, Hudetz AG. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 24;402:216. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
55. Munglani R, Andrade J, Sapsford DJ, Baddeley A, Jones JG. Br J Anaesth. 1993 Nov;71:633. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
56. Imas OA, Ropella KM, Ward BD, Wooden JD, Hudetz AG. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Oct 28;387:145. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
59. Steyn-Ross ML, Steyn-Ross DA, Sleigh JW, Wilcocks LC. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Gentle Matter Phys. 2001 Jul;64:011917. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

67. GT has a patent pening on using TMS-EEG in anesthesia

Source Link

What's Your Reaction?
Excited
0
Happy
0
In Love
0
Not Sure
0
Silly
0
View Comments (0)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

2022 Blinking Robots.
WordPress by Doejo

Scroll To Top