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Council of Trent – Wikipedia

Council of Trent – Wikipedia

2023-06-02 08:09:52

Catholic Church ecumenical council 1545–1563

The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento), now in northern Italy, was the nineteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.[1] Prompted by the Protestant Reformation on the time, it has been described because the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.[2][3]

The Council issued condemnations of what it outlined to be heresies dedicated by proponents of Protestantism, and in addition issued key statements and clarifications of the Church’s doctrine and teachings, together with scripture, the biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, and the veneration of saints.[4] The Council met for twenty-five periods between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563.[5] Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the primary eight periods (1545–47), whereas the twelfth to sixteenth periods (1551–52) had been overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth periods (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.

The implications of the Council had been additionally important with regard to the Church’s liturgy and practices. In its decrees, the Council made the Latin Vulgate the official biblical textual content of the Roman Church (with out prejudice to the unique texts in Hebrew and Greek, nor to different conventional translations of the Church, however favoring the Latin language over vernacular translations, such because the controversial English-language Tyndale Bible). In doing so, they commissioned the creation of a revised and standardized Vulgate in mild of textual criticism, though this was not achieved till the 1590s. The Council additionally formally affirmed (for the second time at an ecumenical council) the standard Catholic Canon of biblical books in response to the growing Protestant exclusion of the deuterocanonical books.[2] The previous dogmatic affirmation of the Canonical books was on the Council of Florence within the 1441 bull Cantate Domino, as affirmed by Pope Leo XIII in his 1893 encyclical Providentissimus Deus (#20). In 1565, a 12 months after the Council completed its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (after Tridentum, Trent’s Latin identify) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in flip, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church’s major type of the Mass for the subsequent 4 hundred years.

Greater than 300 years handed till the subsequent ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869.

Background info[edit]

Obstacles and occasions earlier than the Council’s downside space[edit]

Pope Paul III, convener of the Council of Trent

On 15 March 1517, the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its actions with quite a lot of reform proposals (on the collection of bishops, taxation, censorship and preaching) however not on the key issues that confronted the Church in Germany and different elements of Europe. A couple of months later, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg.

A basic, free council in Germany[edit]

Luther’s place on ecumenical councils shifted over time,[6] however in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church on the time, if needed with a council in Germany,[7] open and freed from the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther’s theses as heresy, German opinion thought of a council the very best methodology to reconcile current variations. German Catholics, diminished in quantity, hoped for a council to make clear issues.[8]

It took a era for the council to materialise, partly on account of papal fears over probably renewing a schism over conciliarism; partly as a result of Lutherans demanded the exclusion of the papacy from the Council; partly due to ongoing political rivalries between France and the Holy Roman Empire; and partly as a result of Turkish risks within the Mediterranean.[8][9] Below Pope Clement VII (1523–34), troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, “raping, killing, burning, stealing, the like had not been seen because the Vandals“. Saint Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel had been used for horses.[10] Pope Clement, scared of the potential for extra violence, delayed calling the Council.[9]

Charles V strongly favoured a council however wanted the assist of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I typically opposed a basic council on account of partial assist of the Protestant trigger inside France. In 1532 he[who?] agreed to the Nuremberg Religious Peace granting non secular liberty to the Protestants, and in 1533 he additional sophisticated issues when suggesting a basic council to incorporate each Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that may devise a compromise between the 2 theological methods. This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and in addition elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church issues. Confronted with a Turkish assault, Charles held the assist of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent.[11]

Event, periods, and attendance[edit]

In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X (1520), Martin Luther burned the doc and appealed for a basic council. In 1522 German diets joined within the enchantment, with Charles V seconding and urgent for a council as a way of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII (1523–1534) was vehemently towards the concept of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France, after Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis (1460) and his reply to the University of Cologne (1463), put aside the idea of the supremacy of basic councils laid down by the Council of Constance.[12]

Pope Paul III (1534–1549), seeing that the Protestant Reformation was now not confined to some preachers, however had received over numerous princes, particularly in Germany, to its concepts, desired a council. But when he proposed the concept to his cardinals, it was virtually unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he despatched nuncios all through Europe to suggest the concept. Paul III issued a decree for a basic council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to start on 23 Could 1537.[13] Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the final council. The Smalcald Articles had been designed to sharply outline the place the Lutherans might and couldn’t compromise. The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 Could 1537. It didn’t convene after one other struggle broke out between France and Charles V, leading to a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants refused to attend as nicely. Monetary difficulties in Mantua led the Pope within the autumn of 1537 to maneuver the council to Vicenza, the place participation was poor. The Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 Could 1539. Pope Paul III then initiated a number of inside Church reforms whereas Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants and Cardinal Gasparo Contarini on the Diet of Regensburg, to reconcile variations. Mediating and conciliatory formulations had been developed on sure subjects. Specifically, a two-part doctrine of justification was formulated that may later be rejected at Trent.[14] Unity failed between Catholic and Protestant representatives “due to totally different ideas of Church and justification“.[15]

Nonetheless, the council was delayed till 1545 and, because it occurred, convened proper earlier than Luther’s loss of life. Unable, nonetheless, to withstand the urging of Charles V, the pope, after proposing Mantua because the place of assembly, convened the council at Trent (at the moment dominated by a prince-bishop below the Holy Roman Empire),[12] on 13 December 1545; the Pope’s resolution to switch it to Bologna in March 1547 on the pretext of avoiding a plague[2] didn’t take impact and the Council was indefinitely prorogued on 17 September 1549. Not one of the three popes reigning over the length of the council ever attended, which had been a situation of Charles V. Papal legates had been appointed to symbolize the Papacy.[16]

Reopened at Trent on 1 Could 1551 by the convocation of Pope Julius III (1550–1555), it was damaged up by the sudden victory of Maurice, Elector of Saxony over Emperor Charles V and his march into surrounding state of Tirol on 28 April 1552.[17] There was no hope of reassembling the council whereas the very anti-Protestant Paul IV was Pope.[2] The council was reconvened by Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) for the final time, assembly from 18 January 1562 at Santa Maria Maggiore, and continued till its closing adjournment on 4 December 1563. It closed with a sequence of formality acclamations honouring the reigning Pope, the Popes who had convoked the Council, the emperor and the kings who had supported it, the papal legates, the cardinals, the ambassadors current, and the bishops, adopted by acclamations of acceptance of the religion of the Council and its decrees, and of anathema for all heretics.[18]

The historical past of the council is thus divided into three distinct durations: 1545–1549, 1551–1552 and 1562–1563. In the course of the second interval, the Protestants current requested for a renewed dialogue on factors already outlined and for bishops to be launched from their oaths of allegiance to the Pope. When the final interval started, all intentions of conciliating the Protestants was gone and the Jesuits had grow to be a robust pressure.[2] This final interval was begun particularly as an try to stop the formation of a general council including Protestants, as had been demanded by some in France.

The variety of attending members within the three durations diverse significantly.[12] The council was small to start with, opening with solely about 30 bishops.[19] It elevated towards the shut, however by no means reached the variety of the First Council of Nicaea (which had 318 members)[12] nor of the First Vatican Council (which numbered 744). The decrees had been signed in 1563 by 255 members, the very best attendance of the entire council,[19] together with 4 papal legates, two cardinals, three patriarchs, twenty-five archbishops, and 168 bishops, two-thirds of whom had been Italians. The Italian and Spanish prelates had been vastly preponderant in energy and numbers. On the passage of a very powerful decrees, no more than sixty prelates had been current.[12] Though most Protestants didn’t attend, ambassadors and theologians of Brandenburg, Württemberg, and Strasbourg attended having been granted an improved safe conduct.[20]

The French monarchy boycotted your complete council till the final minute when a delegation led by Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine lastly arrived in November 1562. The primary outbreak of the French Wars of Religion had occurred earlier within the 12 months and the French Church, going through a big and highly effective Protestant minority in France, skilled iconoclasm violence relating to the usage of sacred photos. Such issues weren’t major within the Italian and Spanish Church buildings.[clarification needed] The last-minute inclusion of a decree on sacred photos was a French initiative, and the textual content, by no means mentioned on the ground of the council or referred to council theologians, was based mostly on a French draft.[21]

Goals and general outcomes[edit]

The primary goals of the council had been twofold, though there have been different points that had been additionally mentioned:

  1. To sentence the ideas and doctrines of Protestantism and to make clear the doctrines of the Catholic Church on all disputed factors. This had not been performed formally because the 1530 Confutatio Augustana. It’s true that the emperor supposed it to be a strictly basic or really ecumenical council, at which the Protestants ought to have a good listening to. He secured, in the course of the council’s second interval, 1551–1553, an invite, twice given, to the Protestants to be current and the council issued a letter of protected conduct (thirteenth session) and supplied them the suitable of debate, however denied them a vote. Melanchthon and Johannes Brenz, with another German Lutherans, really began in 1552 on the journey to Trent. Brenz supplied a confession and Melanchthon, who received no farther than Nuremberg, took with him the Confessio Saxonica. However the refusal to provide the Protestants the vote and the consternation produced by the success of Maurice in his marketing campaign towards Charles V in 1552 effectually put an finish to Protestant cooperation.[12]
  2. To impact a reformation in discipline or administration. This object had been one of many causes calling forth the reformatory councils and had been calmly touched upon by the Fifth Council of the Lateran below Pope Julius II. The apparent corruption within the administration of the Church was one of many quite a few causes of the Reformation. Twenty-five public periods had been held, however practically half of them had been spent in solemn formalities. The chief work was performed in committees or congregations. All the administration was within the arms of the papal legate. The liberal parts misplaced out within the debates and voting. The council abolished among the most infamous abuses and launched or really useful disciplinary reforms affecting the sale of indulgences, the morals of convents, the schooling of the clergy, the non-residence of bishops (additionally bishops having plurality of benefices, which was pretty frequent), and the careless fulmination of censures, and forbade duelling. Though evangelical sentiments had been uttered by among the members in favour of the supreme authority of the Scriptures and justification by religion, no concession by any means was made to Protestantism.[12]
  3. The Church is the final word interpreter of Scripture.[22] Additionally, the Bible and church tradition (the custom that composed a part of the Catholic religion) had been equally and independently authoritative.
  4. The connection of religion and works in salvation was outlined, following controversy over Martin Luther‘s doctrine of “justification by faith alone“.
  5. Different Catholic practices that drew the ire of reformers throughout the Church, resembling indulgences, pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary had been strongly reaffirmed, although abuses of them had been forbidden. Decrees regarding sacred music and non secular artwork, though inexplicit, were subsequently amplified by theologians and writers to sentence many sorts of Renaissance and medieval types and iconographies, impacting closely on the event of those artwork kinds.

The doctrinal choices of the council are set forth in decrees (decreta), that are divided into chapters (capita), which comprise the optimistic assertion of the conciliar dogmas, and into quick canons (canones), which condemn the dissenting Protestant views with the concluding anathema sit (“let him be anathema”).[12]

Decrees[edit]

WAF im Landesmuseum Zürich 64.jpg

The doctrinal acts are as follows: after reaffirming the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (third session), the decree was handed (fourth session) confirming that the deuterocanonical books had been on a par with the opposite books of the canon (towards Luther’s placement of those books within the Apocrypha of his edition) and coordinating church custom with the Scriptures as a rule of religion. The Vulgate translation was affirmed to be authoritative for the textual content of Scripture.[12]

Justification (sixth session) was declared to be supplied upon the idea of human cooperation with divine grace[12] versus the Protestant doctrine of passive reception of grace. Understanding the Protestant “faith alone” doctrine to be one among easy human confidence in Divine Mercy, the Council rejected the “vain confidence” of the Protestants, stating that nobody can know who has obtained the grace of God. Moreover, the Council affirmed—towards some Protestants—that the grace of God might be forfeited by means of mortal sin.

The best weight within the Council’s decrees is given to the sacraments. The seven sacraments had been reaffirmed and the Eucharist pronounced to be a real propitiatory sacrifice in addition to a sacrament, wherein the bread and wine had been consecrated into the Eucharist (thirteenth and twenty-second periods). The time period transubstantiation was utilized by the Council, however the particular Aristotelian clarification given by Scholasticism was not cited as dogmatic. As an alternative, the decree states that Christ is “actually, really, considerably current” within the consecrated kinds. The sacrifice of the Mass was to be supplied for useless and residing alike and in giving to the apostles the command “do that in remembrance of me,” Christ conferred upon them a sacerdotal energy. The apply of withholding the cup from the laity was confirmed (twenty-first session) as one which the Church Fathers had commanded for good and adequate causes; but in sure circumstances the Pope was made the supreme arbiter as as to if the rule needs to be strictly maintained.[12] On the language of the Mass, “opposite to what’s usually stated”, the council condemned the assumption that solely vernacular languages needs to be used, whereas insisting on the usage of Latin.[23]

Ordination (twenty-third session) was outlined to imprint an indelible character on the soul. The priesthood of the New Testomony takes the place of the Levitical priesthood. To the efficiency of its features, the consent of the individuals will not be needed.[12]

Within the decrees on marriage (twenty-fourth session) the excellence of the celibate state was reaffirmed, concubinage condemned and the validity of marriage made dependent upon the marriage going down earlier than a priest and two witnesses, though the shortage of a requirement for parental consent ended a debate that had proceeded from the twelfth century. Within the case of a divorce, the suitable of the harmless get together to marry once more was denied as long as the opposite get together was alive,[12] even when the opposite get together had dedicated adultery. Nonetheless the council “refused … to claim the need or usefulness of clerical celibacy“.[23][dubious ]

Within the twenty-fifth and final session,[24] the doctrines of purgatory, the invocation of saints and the veneration of relics had been reaffirmed, as was additionally the efficacy of indulgences as disbursed by the Church in accordance with the facility given her, however with some cautionary suggestions,[12] and a ban on the sale of indulgences. Brief and relatively inexplicit passages regarding non secular photos, had been to have great impact on the event of Catholic Church art. Rather more than the Second Council of Nicaea (787), the Council fathers of Trent burdened the pedagogical function of Christian photos.[25]

See Also

The council appointed, in 1562 (eighteenth session), a fee to organize a listing of forbidden books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum), nevertheless it later left the matter to the Pope. The preparation of a catechism and the revision of the Breviary and Missal had been additionally left to the pope.[12] The catechism embodied the council’s far-reaching outcomes, together with reforms and definitions of the sacraments, the Scriptures, church dogma, and duties of the clergy.[4]

Ratification and promulgation[edit]

On adjourning, the Council requested the supreme pontiff to ratify all its decrees and definitions. This petition was complied with by Pope Pius IV, on 26 January 1564, within the papal bull, Benedictus Deus, which enjoins strict obedience upon all Catholics and forbids, below ache of ex-communication, all unauthorised interpretation, reserving this to the Pope alone and threatens the disobedient with “the indignation of Almighty God and of his blessed apostles, Peter and Paul.” Pope Pius appointed a fee of cardinals to help him in decoding and imposing the decrees.[12]

The Index Librorum Prohibitorum was introduced in 1564 and the next books had been issued with the papal imprimatur: the Career of the Tridentine Religion and the Tridentine Catechism (1566), the Breviary (1568), the Missal (1570) and the Vulgate (1590 after which 1592).[12]

The decrees of the council had been acknowledged in Italy, Portugal, Poland and by the Catholic princes of Germany on the Diet of Augsburg in 1566. Philip II of Spain accepted them for Spain, the Netherlands and Sicily inasmuch as they didn’t infringe the royal prerogative. In France, they had been formally recognised by the king solely of their doctrinal elements. Though the disciplinary or ethical reformatory decrees had been by no means revealed by the throne, they obtained official recognition at provincial synods and had been enforced by the bishops. Holy Roman Emperors Ferdinand I and Maximilian II by no means acknowledged the existence of any of the decrees.[26] No try was made to introduce it into England. Pius IV despatched the decrees to Mary, Queen of Scots, with a letter dated 13 June 1564, requesting that she publish them in Scotland, however she dared not do it within the face of John Knox and the Reformation.[12]

These decrees had been later supplemented by the First Vatican Council of 1870.

Publication of paperwork[edit]

A complete historical past is present in Hubert Jedin‘s The Historical past of the Council of Trent (Geschichte des Konzils von Trient) with about 2,500 pages in 4 volumes: The Historical past of the Council of Trent: The struggle for a Council (Vol I, 1951); The Historical past of the Council of Trent: The primary Classes in Trent (1545–1547) (Vol II, 1957); The Historical past of the Council of Trent: Classes in Bologna 1547–1548 and Trento 1551–1552 (Vol III, 1970, 1998); The Historical past of the Council of Trent: Third Interval and Conclusion (Vol IV, 1976).

The canons and decrees of the council have been revealed fairly often and in lots of languages. The primary situation was by Paulus Manutius (Rome, 1564). Generally used Latin editions are by Judocus Le Plat (Antwerp, 1779) and by Johann Friedrich von Schulte and Aemilius Ludwig Richter (Leipzig, 1853). Different editions are in vol. vii. of the Acta et decreta conciliorum recentiorum. Collectio Lacensis (7 vols., Freiburg, 1870–90), reissued as unbiased quantity (1892); Concilium Tridentinum: Diariorum, actorum, epistularum, … collectio, ed. Sebastianus Merkle (4 vols., Freiburg, 1901 sqq.); in addition to Mansi, Concilia, xxxv. 345 sqq. Be aware additionally Carl Mirbt, Quellen, 2nd ed, pp. 202–255. An English version is by James Waterworth (London, 1848; With Essays on the Exterior and Inner Historical past of the Council).[12]

The unique acts and debates of the council, as ready by its basic secretary, Bishop Angelo Massarelli, in six giant folio volumes, are deposited within the Vatican Library and remained there unpublished for greater than 300 years and had been delivered to mild, although solely partly, by Augustin Theiner, priest of the oratory (d. 1874), in Acta genuina sancti et oecumenici Concilii Tridentini nunc primum integre edita (2 vols., Leipzig, 1874).[12]

Many of the official paperwork and personal studies, nonetheless, which bear upon the council, had been made identified within the sixteenth century and since. Probably the most full assortment of them is that of J. Le Plat, Monumentorum advert historicam Concilii Tridentini collectio (7 vols., Leuven, 1781–87). New supplies(Vienna, 1872); by JJI von Döllinger (Ungedruckte Berichte und Tagebücher zur Geschichte des Concilii von Trient) (2 elements, Nördlingen, 1876); and August von Druffel, Monumenta Tridentina (Munich, 1884–97).[12]

Checklist of doctrinal decrees[edit]

Protestant response[edit]

Out of 87 books written between 1546 and 1564 attacking the Council of Trent, 41 had been written by Pier Paolo Vergerio, a former papal nuncio turned Protestant Reformer.[27] The 1565–73 Examen decretorum Concilii Tridentini[28] (Examination of the Council of Trent) by Martin Chemnitz was the principle Lutheran response to the Council of Trent.[29] Making intensive use of scripture and patristic sources, it was introduced in response to a polemical writing which Diogo de Payva de Andrada had directed towards Chemnitz.[30] The Examen had 4 elements: Quantity I examined sacred scripture,[31] free will, authentic sin, justification, and good works. Quantity II examined the sacraments,[32] together with baptism, affirmation, the sacrament of the eucharist,[33] communion below each varieties, the mass, penance, excessive unction, holy orders, and matrimony. Quantity III examined virginity, celibacy, purgatory, and the invocation of saints.[34] Quantity IV examined the relics of the saints, photos, indulgences, fasting, the excellence of meals, and festivals.[35]

In response, Andrada wrote the five-part Defensio Tridentinæ fidei,[36] which was revealed posthumously in 1578. Nonetheless, the Defensio didn’t flow into as extensively because the Examen, nor had been any full translations ever revealed. A French translation of the Examen by Eduard Preuss was revealed in 1861. German translations had been revealed in 1861, 1884, and 1972. In English, an entire translation by Fred Kramer drawing from the unique Latin and the 1861 German was revealed starting in 1971.

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Joseph Francis Kelly, The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church: A Historical past, (Liturgical Press, 2009), 126–148.
  2. ^ a b c d e “Trent, Council of” in Cross, F. L. (ed.) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford College Press, 2005 (ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3).
  3. ^ Quoted in Responses to Some Questions Regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine on the Church Archived August 13, 2013, on the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Wetterau, Bruce. World Historical past. New York: Henry Holt and Firm, 1994.
  5. ^ Hubert Jedin, Konciliengeschichte, Verlag Herder, Freiburg, [p.?] 138.
  6. ^ Jedin, Hubert (1959), Konziliengeschichte, Herder, p. 80
  7. ^ An den Adel deutscher Nation (in German), 1520
  8. ^ a b Jedin 81
  9. ^ a b “Clemente VII”. Treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 July 2021. Ma l’ostilità del papa alla convocazione di un concilio period grandissima e già allora ben conosciuta, tanto che l’ambasciatore di Carlo V, il duca di Sessa, non ebbe il coraggio di affrontare direttamente l’argomento. Concorrevano advert alimentare story ostilità da un lato le ombre ancora vicine del conciliarismo e l’esperienza del contrasto coi “gallicani”, dall’altro il timore che il concilio potesse trovare nella sua nascita illegittima un buon pretesto per deporlo (ancora durante il conclave di Adriano VI, Soderini lo aveva trattato pubblicamente da bastardo).
  10. ^ Hans Kühner Papstgeschichte, Fischer, Frankfurt 1960, 118
  11. ^ Jedin 79–82
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Public Domain A number of of the previous sentences incorporates textual content from a publication now within the public domainJackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). “Trent, Council of”. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
  13. ^ Joseph Francis Kelly, The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church: A Historical past, 133.
  14. ^ Catholic OR Protestant? The Story of Contarini and the Reformation, footnote seven
  15. ^ Jedin 85
  16. ^ O’Malley, 29–30
  17. ^ Trenkle, Franz Gross sales (3 March 2003). “Council of Trent”. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  18. ^ “CT25”. historical past.hanover.edu.
  19. ^ a b O’Malley, 29
  20. ^ Trent, Council of from the Christian Cyclopedia, Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson. Concordia Publishing Home: 2000
  21. ^ O’Malley, 32–36
  22. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church Paragraph 85
  23. ^ a b O’Malley, 31
  24. ^ Council of Trent: Decree De invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis sanctorum, et de sacris imaginibus, 3 December 1563, Sessio 25.
  25. ^ Bühren 2008, p. 635f.; in regards to the historic context of the decree on sacred photos cf. Jedin 1935.
  26. ^ Meyer, Herbert T. (1962). The Story of the Council of Trent. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing Home. pp. 19–20.
  27. ^ Lutheran Patristic Catholicity By Quentin D. Stewart, 2015
  28. ^ Examen, Volumes I–II: Quantity I begins on p. 46 of the pdf and Quantity II begins on p. 311. Examen Volumes III–IV: Quantity III begins on p. 13 of the pdf and Quantity IV begins on p. 298. All volumes free on Google Books
  29. ^ “This monumental work is to this present day the traditional Protestant reply to Trent.” from web page three of Martin Chemnitz on the Doctrine of Justification Archived 2017-04-01 on the Wayback Machine by Jacob A. O. Preus
  30. ^ Martin Chemnitz’s views on Trent: the genesis and the genius of the Examen Concilii Tridentini by Arthur Carl Piepkorn, 1966
  31. ^ Chemnitz On The Authority Of The Sacred Scripture (An Examination) by Fred Kramer, pp. 165–175
  32. ^ Chemnitz on Rites and Ceremonies by Charles Henrickson, 2000.
  33. ^ See p. 141 and following of Should Lutherans Reserve the Consecrated Elements for the Communion of the Sick? by Roland F. Ziegler
  34. ^ see web page 82 of Lutheran Patristic Catholicity The Vincentian Canon and the Consensus Patrum in Lutheran Orthodoxy Sequence: Arbeiten zur Historischen und Systematischen Theologie by Quentin D. Stewart
  35. ^ See p. 9 of The Contribution of Martin Chemnitz to Our Lutheran Heritage By: Mark Hanna, 2004
  36. ^ Defensio, 716 pages, free on Google Books.

References[edit]

Additional studying[edit]

  • Dogmatic canons and decrees : authorized translations of the dogmatic decrees of the Council of Trent, the decree on the Immaculate Conception, the Syllabus of Pope Pius IX, and the decrees of the Vatican Council. New York: Devin-Adair Firm. 1912. Archived from the unique on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020. (with imprimatur of cardinal Farley)
  • Paolo Sarpi, Historia del Concilio Tridentino, London: John Invoice,1619 (Historical past of the Council of Trent, English translation by Nathaniel Brent, London 1620, 1629 and 1676)
  • Francesco Sforza Pallavicino, Istoria del concilio di Trento. In Roma, nella stamperia d’Angelo Bernabò dal Verme erede del Manelfi: per Giovanni Casoni libraro, 1656–57
  • John W. O’Malley: Trent: What Occurred on the Council, Cambridge (Massachusetts), The Belknap Press of Harvard College Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-674-06697-7
  • Hubert Jedin: Entstehung und Tragweite des Trienter Dekrets über die Bilderverehrung, in: Tübinger Theologische Quartalschrift 116, 1935, pp. 143–88, 404–429
  • Hubert Jedin: Geschichte des Konzils von Trient, 4 vol., Freiburg im Breisgau 1949–1975 (A Historical past of the Council of Trent, 2 vol., London 1957 and 1961)
  • Hubert Jedin: Konziliengeschichte, Freiburg im Breisgau 1959
  • Mullett, Michael A. “The Council of Trent and the Catholic Reformation”, in his The Catholic Reformation (London: Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-18915-2, pbk.), pp. 29–68. N.B.: The writer additionally mentions the Council elsewhere in his guide.
  • Schroeder, H. J., ed. and trans. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent: English Translation, trans. [and introduced] by H. J. Schroeder. Rockford, Ailing.: TAN Books and Publishers, 1978. N.B.: “The unique 1941 version contained [both] the Latin textual content and the English translation. This version comprises solely the English translation…”; includes solely the Council’s dogmatic decrees, excluding the purely disciplinary ones.
  • Mathias Mütel: Mit den Kirchenvätern gegen Martin Luther? Die Debatten um Custom und auctoritas patrum auf dem Konzil von Trient, Paderborn 2017 (= Konziliengeschichte. Reihe B., Untersuchungen)

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