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2023-06-04 10:04:00

Each time the navy goes to conflict there are quite a few D-Days and H-Hours.
These are routine identifications of the day and time of an assault. But, to most Individuals
alive right this moment, once they hear “D-Day” they consider 6 June 1944 when joint Allied
forces invaded Nazi-occupied France.

The Normandy landings have been codenamed Operation Neptune and have been a part of
the Allied invasion known as Operation Overlord. This was the best seaborne
invasion in historical past. 5000 vessels transported over 150,000 males and almost 30,000 autos
throughout the English Channel to the goal seashores in France. Six parachute regiments with
over 13,000 males have been flown from 9 British airfields in over 800 planes. 11,000 planes,
and almost three million troopers, marines, airmen, and sailors was assembled in England
for the assault. On the identical time, greater than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over Normandy
upfront of the invasion. The 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into
5 sectors: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword Seashore. The boys landed beneath heavy fireplace
from gun emplacements overlooking the seashores, and the shore was mined and coated with
obstacles similar to wood stakes, steel tripods, and barbed wire.

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The Longest Day

There are dozens of flicks with “D-Day” of their title. In all probability the
finest identified is “The Longest Day, launched in 1962 and starring John Wayne and a bunch
of different stars in numerous cameo roles. There are in all probability a whole bunch of books with
“D-Day of their title. I be aware that has a minimum of 20 pages of such books for

On this article we won’t inform of battles gained and misplaced or floor taken and
dying on the battlefield. We are going to simply point out a number of the propaganda paper produced by
the Allied and the enemy particularly for the invasion. There are actually hundreds of
completely different leaflets dropped throughout WWII; their complete numbers someplace within the billions. We
will simply have a look at people who have been particularly ready for, or point out the invasion. The
reader ought to perceive that I may depict dozens of paper merchandise right here. I’ll simply
present just a few to provide a basic impression of what was being ready and disseminated on the

U.S. to Pleasant Troops

Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Basic Eisenhower’s Letter to his Troops

Earlier than the invasion, Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower advised his troops partially:

Troopers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary

You’re about to embark upon the Nice Campaign, towards which we’ve striven
these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty
loving individuals in all places march with you. In firm with our courageous Allies and
brothers-in-arms on different Fronts, you’ll convey concerning the destruction of the German conflict
machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and
safety for ourselves in a free world.

Your activity won’t be a straightforward one. Your enemy is effectively skilled, effectively geared up
and battle-hardened. He’ll struggle savagely…

…The tide has turned! The free males of the world are marching collectively
to Victory! I’ve full confidence in your braveness, devotion to obligation and ability in battle.
We are going to settle for nothing lower than full Victory!

Good Luck! And allow us to beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this nice
and noble endeavor.

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raised stamp on Basic Eisenhower’s Letter to his Troops

There was a time once I noticed a whole bunch of those letters in order that they have been clearly
ready in nice numbers. Some had a raised stamp on the high or backside, nearly like a
company seal. The seal stated:


The mission assigned Central Base Part was to supply the entire provides and
companies for all American Military items in London which included the U. S. Military Forces within the
British Isles, the European Theater of Operations U. S. Military, the Headquarters, Allied
Drive for North Africa, and the Headquarters Companies of Provide, and Headquarters, 1st
Military Group (later twelfth A. G.). The “SOS” is Service of Provide.” The
“ETO USA” is “U.S. Military, European Theater of Operations.”
at all times thought these with the seal have been the rarest and most fascinating.

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Eisenhower’s Accepts Accountability for defeat.

Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower knew that the D-Day touchdown may simply be pushed
again into the ocean. He ready a letter upfront the place he acknowledged the blame was his
ought to the invasion fail. The paper stated:

Our landings within the Cherbourg-Havre space have failed to achieve a passable
foothold and I’ve withdrawn the troops. My resolution to assault presently and place was
based mostly upon one of the best info out there. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that
Bravery and devotion to obligation may do. If any blame or fault attaches to the try it’s
mine alone.

This can be a great be aware and exhibits the true interior energy of Basic Eisenhower. In
the occasion of failure he may have blamed the climate, his allies, or the Navy or Air
Forces for touchdown troops on the fallacious place. As a substitute, he accepts full accountability. We
don’t see a lot of that accountability by our leaders right this moment. Word the date on the backside
of the paper. Do you suppose the final had a lot on his thoughts? He really wrote “July
5” as a substitute of “June 5.” His thoughts was whirling and he was filled with confidence
and dread and apprehension. This can be a true look into the guts and thoughts of a terrific man
carrying all the troubles of the world on his again.

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Supreme Allied Commander U.S. Military Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower speaks with a hundred and first
Airborne Division paratroopers earlier than they board airplanes and gliders to participate in a
parachute assault into Normandy as a part of the Allied Invasion of Europe, D-Day, 6 June
1944. I’ve learn that Ike believed they may all be killed within the assault and wished to
personally say goodbye to them.

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Basic Montgomery’s Letter to his Troops

The British Commander-in-Chief Basic Montgomery, a person who usually fought with
Eisenhower about how the conflict ought to be fought and thought he ought to have led the invasion,
additionally wrote a letter to his troops. Discover that he quotes a poem from James Graham, 1st
Marquis of Montrose, a Scottish nobleman and soldier who supported King Charles I within the
English Civil Struggle.

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Eve of Battle Dedication Service

An 8-page booklet printed for the Eve of Battle Dedication Service 1944 of the
Second Military previous to D-Day. The duvet shows the cross-within-shield of the Second Military
and the sword inside printed in silver. Printed by Second Military Headquarters, Portsmouth, 4
June 1944. Contained in the booklet are prayers and hymns of safety for the approaching battle. I
quote two of the Chaplain’s feedback:

Lord, we want to position ourselves and what we’re about to undertake in thy
palms. Information, direct and prosper us, we beseech thee; and if thou seest that this
endeavor will likely be for thy glory, grant us good success…

To Second Military there was given a wonderful half in a terrific activity; to alleviate
the oppressed, to revive freedom in Europe, and to convey peace to the world…As we stand
upon the edge of the best journey in our historical past, allow us to now provide to Almighty
God all our powers, of physique, thoughts and spirit, in order that our nice endeavor could also be totally

Germany to their Troops

There have been German letters as effectively. As typical, Hitler ordered his males to face and
die. This “high secret” letter is from Commanding Basic Neumann of the German
712th Division:

The Fuhrer has personally telephoned and ordered that our current major line of
protection should be held beneath all circumstances; a withdrawal of items even surrounded by the
enemy is out of the query. Orders for a withdrawal from unknown officers are on no
account to be obeyed.

We may be destroyed in our positions, however we should not give floor. If the enemy
breaks into our major line of protection at any level he should be thrown again once more by an
instant counter-attack.

This order is to be made identified verbally to each man, so far as it’s in any manner
potential. The written order is to be destroyed as quickly as potential and should not be allowed
to fall into the palms of the enemy. Formations and items will report when this order has
been circulated and destroyed.

Allied PSYOP to Occupied Europe

Within the latter months of the conflict the Workplace of Struggle Data’s Intelligence
and Leaflet Unit, Space III, produced a Leaflet Information Letter. A number of the knowledge on
this topic is:

Leaflet Operations by the eighth Air Drive between D-Day and February

Within the interval from D-Day to 1 February 1945, the 406th Squadron flew 1,133
sorties and distributed roughly 701,040,000 leaflets. A further 43,000,000
leaflets have been dropped on tactical targets by plane flying in bomber formations on the
daylight shut cooperation missions detailed beneath:

Complete daylight distribution by the Eighth Air Drive for the interval D-Day to 1
February 1945, was 872,818,163 leaflets. The grand complete distribution for this air drive
throughout this era was 1,573,858,163 leaflets. The effectiveness of one of these air
cooperation has been confirmed by reviews from all floor echelons and above all, by
interrogation of hundreds of enemy prisoners in whose give up it has performed an element

Caroline Reed mentioned “D-Day Propaganda” in an article revealed in Historical past
In the present day
, dated 6 June 1984:

Scant consideration is given within the official histories of Operation Overlord to the
large propaganda operation which accompanied the preliminary D-day landings after which
introduced their success to occupied Europe. Specifically geared up bombers carrying a number of
million leaflets have been the primary Allied plane, aside from airborne troop transporters,
to fly over the Normandy seashores on June sixth, 1944. Inside two days of the invasion 9
million leaflets had been dropped, bringing the information to pal and foe alike.

By early 1944 a ‘Particular Leaflet Squadron’, the American 422nd, was established
and provided with unarmed B-17’s, camouflaged and modified for evening flying. It was this
unit which was to precede the Allied bomber drive into France, mockingly as daylight
dawned on D-Day morning, dropping warning leaflets for the civilian inhabitants and particular
directions for transport employees.

The warning leaflets seem, from a number of accounts, to have emerged as one thing
of an afterthought to the preliminary invasion plans. Initially, it had been meant that an
announcement of the Allied landings, within the type of a ‘proclamation’ from Eisenhower,
could be dropped on the evening of D-Day following their success. It was solely after
appreciable stress had been exerted by French representatives in London, via the
British Premier, that SHAEF headquarters was persuaded of the need for prior
leafleting of these areas which have been to be the goal for Allied air and naval
bombardment. French statisticians and Churchill estimated that the ‘softening up’ course of
of bombing transport and communications facilities and coastal areas in use by the Wehrmacht
may price some 80,000 civilian lives.

As Churchill emphasised in a letter to Eisenhower, written in early April 1944,
‘post-war France should be our pal. It isn’t alone a query of humanitarianism, it’s
additionally a query of excessive state coverage’. Eisenhower in his Campaign in Europe, first
revealed in 1948, maintains that the predictions have been unrealistic and that ample plans
for warnings by radio and different means have been already effectively in hand earlier than the French protests
had been acquired. Basic Robert McClure, Chief of the Psychological Warfare Division,
nevertheless, confided to his colleagues Frank Kaufman and Richard Crossman that it was solely
as a result of the British Overseas Workplace had been ‘getting hell from the French’ that the
unique leafleting plan was modified. McClure was significantly involved by the proposed
new timing of the warning leaflet drop as most safety required this to be a daylight
operation, giving just some half-hour’ discover of the approaching bombardments. He feared that
all 422nd Squadron’s new, defenseless, black-painted bombers, meant to play a serious
function within the liberation marketing campaign, could be misplaced with out their protecting cowl of darkness.
This was an opinion shared by a lot of their crews and it was with appreciable rigidity
that take-off was made after a 2am briefing on June sixth. Lengthy hours later, after the primary
radio reviews of the landings had been broadcast, the squadron returned to nice scenes of
jubilation, its mission achieved with out an enemy airplane seen.

The Erdmann Thesis

The PSYOP plan for the invasion in response to James M. Erdmann’s PhD thesis Leaflet
Operations of the Second World Struggle

Simply previous to the assault on the Normandy seashores…Allied planes have been to
saturate the villages and countryside contained in the invasion perimeter with hundreds of thousands of
warning leaflets telling the French civilians to evacuate instantly. Different hundreds of thousands of
leaflets could be dropped by airplane on Holland, Belgium and Denmark, and the remainder of
France, to announce the invasion.

The September 1945 challenge of ARMY TALKS, an Data and Training Division
information journal for Allied troops mentions D-Day propaganda:

The primary allied air missions over the continent within the early hours of D-Day was
that of the British 406th Squadron with leaflets warning French civilians of the bombings
to return. The primary part of the invasion lasted from 6 June to 27 July. Leaflet themes
throughout this era careworn the unmatchable weight of Allied arms; the pincer actions
closing in on Germany from 4 separate fronts, the lack of the German conflict machine
to guard the coast…

Throughout the first week after D-Day, broadcast messages emphasised the tenseness
and urgency of the touch-and-go operations. Radio messages have been accompanied within the first
seven days by the dropping of greater than 20,000,000 leaflets…

Researcher Lee Richards discovered a wartime High Secret doc to the Chiefs of Workers,
SHAEF, outlining covert propaganda methods being utilized in assist of Operation
is a number of pages in size so I’ll simply point out just a few highlights:

The media for covert propaganda throughout operation OVERLORD have been 4: The
mixed radio program of reports and music for the German Armed Forces referred to as
Soldatensender Calais and Kurzwellensender Atlantik; The each day newspaper for the German
troops within the West (Nachrichten fur die Truppe); The medium-wave program of talks for the
opposition motion: And solid paperwork and subversive leaflets distributed in Germany
and occupied international locations by brokers and by balloon.

The enemy seems to treat as most harmful a handbook on strategies of
malingering which has been printed beneath numerous disguises. An order from the Excessive Command
warning towards this doc and expressing concern on the unfold of malingering amongst
the troops is in our possession.

Plane distribution of the newspaper for the troops was begun a month earlier than
D-day and is assumed to have performed an element in deceptive the enemy about our navy


ready by Main Robert H. Garet, provides:

With the Allied landings on D-Day, the leaflet marketing campaign turned a intently
built-in a part of the navy operations. From D-Day on, though the Military
Group and Military Psychological Warfare Items within the subject produced substantial
portions of leaflets for native distribution by fighter bombers and
artillery, the good bulk of the leaflets, roughly 90 %, have been produced
by PWD-SHAEF, and distributed by plane based mostly in the UK. For
essentially the most half, they fell into two classes: tactical leaflets geared toward
lowering the enemy’s fight energy by impairing morale and persuading the
particular person soldier to cease combating, and strategic leaflets, designed to
make civilians act favorably to the Allied navy operations. Throughout this
interval, a complete of three,240,000,000 leaflets have been distributed: 405,000,000 by
the Royal Air Drive, 1,577,000,000 by the Particular Leaflet Squadron,
1,176,000,000 by the Eighth Air Drive. on daylight bombing missions and
82,000,000 on particular leaflet missions by medium bombers of the Allied
Expeditionary Air Forces earlier than they moved to the Continent.

Many allied commanders had little use for PSYWAR.
They considered it as a waste of plane and ammunition to ship leaflets
over enemy strains. Basic Eisenhower was not one in every of them. He stated within the
SHAEF official historical past:

On this conflict, which was complete in each sense of the phrase, we’ve seen many
nice modifications in navy science. It appears to me that not the least of
these was the event of psychological warfare as a selected and
efficient weapon.

From the early and humble beginnings earlier than the landings in North Africa,
via the trial-and-error interval of operations in North Africa, Northern
France and Germany, Allied psychological warfare grew from infancy to
vigorous maturity.

The precise contribution of psychological warfare towards the ultimate victory
depend, after all, can’t be measured by way of cities destroyed or limitations
handed. Nonetheless, I’m satisfied that the expenditure of males and cash in
wielding the spoken and written phrase was an necessary contributing consider
undermining the enemy’s will to withstand and supporting the combating morale of
our potential Allies within the occupied international locations…No doubt, psychological
warfare has proved its proper to a spot of dignity in our navy arsenal.

I believed it may be fascinating to say what
Basic (Previous blood and guts) George S. Patton stated about dropping
leaflets on the enemy:

I’m not right here to write down ‘em letters, I’m right here to kill the S.O.B.s.

Black Operations

1945 says about black operations:

In black propaganda, an try is made to trigger the goal audiences to
consider that the supply is one thing aside from it truly is. The media for
covert propaganda throughout Operation “OVERLORD” have been 4. (1) a mixed
radio program of reports and music for the German Armed Forces referred to as
“Soldatensender_Calais” and “Kurzwellensender Atlantik” broadcast each day, (2)
a each day newspaper dropped by American plane; (3) talks for the opposition
motion throughout the SS; (4) leaflets distributed in occupied international locations and
Germany aiming at undermining pro-Nazi morale. These operations have been
generally called “black” propaganda. Each earlier than and after D-Day the principle
tone of black propaganda was to pay attention the eye of the German
soldier on the enemy inside his personal ranks, i.e., Nazi Social gathering authorities
slightly than on the enemy with out.

Subversive or “black” propaganda was a separate operation which was the
Joint accountability of PID and the Workplace of Strategic Companies
(representing the U.S. Struggle Division). This operation is simply briefly
coated on this report because it was not a Psychological Warfare Division
accountability, though the Leaflet Part participated within the
distribution of “black” propaganda. Black Leaflets, which presupposed to
originate from enemy sources, have been the joint accountability of PID and OSS.
This was a particular secret operation and can’t be mentioned intimately in
this report. Substantial portions of this materials have been distributed by
packing roughly 5 % of them into the leaflet bombs together with
the propaganda newspaper Nachrichten, and it’s believed to have been a really
efficient type of propaganda. Black propaganda handled such topics as
malingering, subversion and the aiding and abetting of desertion.

Purporting to return from enemy sources, these leaflets tried to
accomplish their goals by subtlety and indirection. They coated a mess
of themes, and generally, have been designed to weaken the enemy’s morale by
undermining the troopers’ confidence within the Nazi Social gathering and the Excessive Command.
There have been additionally particular leaflets, similar to solid German meals and clothes
coupons, journey orders, and so forth., which have been Meant so as to add to the enemy’s
administrative difficulties and supply further work for the SS and the

Small portions of leaflets, principally “black,” have been commonly disseminated by
British businesses working first in the UK and later the
Continent, utilizing balloons particularly tailored for this work, designed to
launch bundles of leaflets at a given time after the balloons had been set

The Allies ready propaganda leaflets for nearly all of the European nations occupied
by the Germans to announce the touchdown of troops on the Continent. The codes have been often
“Z” for invasion adopted by a letter for the nation. A number of the leaflets are:
ZD.1 for Denmark (The Allies’ touchdown has begun); ZH.1 for Holland (Allied troops
land!); ZN.1 for Norway (The Allied Troops touchdown has begun!) and ZB.1 for Belgium (The
Allied armies are touchdown).

There have been 12 Allied leaflets coded ZF all with the goal of driving again the
Germans from the Normandy beach-head with the assistance of the French individuals
. The
“F” signifies “France.” These leaflets have been all designed by the
Political Warfare Division of SHAEF. Discover that the leaflets weren’t dropped in
numerical order. The official title of the leaflets and the date of first dissemination
seem beneath as present in A Full Index of Allied Airborne Leaflets and Magazines,
The 12 leaflets have been dropped beginning in June and ending in September 1944.
In some circumstances I add further info

ZF.1 – Proclamation of Basic Eisenhower. 7 June.

The Allied Armies have landed.

ZF.2 – French (and Belgian) transport employees. 6 June.

To the important thing males within the transport and communication companies.

ZF.3 – Proclamation of Basic Eisenhower. 14 June.

Proclamation to the residents of France.

ZF.4 – Warning message. 6 June.

Pressing message of the Supreme Commander.

ZF.5 – Assertion of Basic de Gaulle. 7 June.

Assertion of Basic De Gaulle on 6 June 1944.

ZF.6 – Message to the individuals of Cherbourg. 22 June.

ZF.7 – Key Males of the Transportation and Communication Companies!

ZF.8 – 14th of July Launch

ZF.9 – Declaration of the Supreme Commander of the Allied
Expeditionary Forces

The PWD/SHAEF leaflets to the Germans have been coded “VG.” There have been 94 of
them in 1944, and in June alone there have been 18.

VG.1 – Human landmine theme. 6 June.

From entrance…Attacked! From behind…Written off!

VG.2 – 4-front conflict. 6 June.

4 fronts – east entrance – dwelling entrance – south entrance – and now the west entrance

VG.4 – Why? 11 June.

VG.5 – Human landmine theme. 10 June.

From entrance…Attacked! From behind…Written off!

We are going to depict just a few of them and examples of different leaflets are: Z.6 “Message
to the Folks of Cherbourg,” ZF.10 “Folks of the Fight Zones,” ZF.11
“To the Folks of Alsace-Lorraine,” and ZF.12 “French males.”

Erdmann makes a basic assertion concerning the leafleting marketing campaign:

The D-Day drops in Normandy marked the true acceptance
by SHAEF and the upper workers in Eighth Air Drive of the 422nd squadron and
the would-be operators within the Psychological Warfare Division. Their mixed
motion had, inside a painfully quick time restrict, produced and distributed a
outstanding quantity of leaflets and had fulfilled utterly the Supreme
Commander’s want to provide all potential warning to the French civilians. “Thousands and thousands of leaflets are mendacity in all of the roads and subject of France,”
confessed the Berlin radio on 8 June, citing a German reporter’s
observations. The “Particular Leaflet Squadron” had demonstrated a brand new
versatility and was prepared for larger
issues. “After D-Day” recalled Frank Kaufman, Chief of the Psychological
Warfare Division Leaflet Part, “We simply set as much as function; we have been in
stable with the Eighth Air Drive.”

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Military Talks

The 16 September 1945 challenge of Military Talks depicts a number of WWII leaflet
dropped on the Axis and truly has a bit simply mentioning these leaflets dropped from
6 June to 31 July 1944. They don’t checklist all of the leaflets, simply chosen ones. The
journal says partially:

Scenario: The bridgehead consolidated, the Cherbourg Peninsula minimize off, port of
Cherbourg surrounded and captured, U.S. third Military dedicated and approached Rennes, the
British and Canadians preserve the Caen “hinge.”

Leaflets: Secure Conduct (July solely), 880,000; Warning to French civilians (June
solely), 6,400,000; A division written off, 7,000,000; Eisenhower’s declaration to the
French, 4,000,000; Germany can’t support human land mines, 7,000.000; Propaganda and
actuality, 5,640,000; How your comrades fared, 3,640,000.

Leaflet ZF.1 – The Allied Armies Land

I discovered this leaflet a number of years after I discovered
ZB.1 to Belgium. I translated a number of the messages on the back and front in
the Belgian leaflet, so I ask the readers to look beneath to ZB.1 to see some
of what this leaflet says.

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Transportation and Communication Leaflet ZF.2 Entrance

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Transportation and Communication Leaflet ZF.2 Again

This leaflet depicts the principle transportation programs in France and Belgium. The textual content on
the entrance is:

France and Belgium – Most important strains of communications.

Frenchmen, Belgians; don’t overlook the secondary strains.

The again is all textual content. It says partially:

To the important thing males within the Transport and Communication Companies

To railroad personnel: railway employees, mechanics, stokers, switch-men, grade
crossing supervisors, and assistant station masters.

To the personnel of freeway communications: Engineers of the bridges, roads and

To the personnel of waterways: lock keepers and their assistants, haulers (or towing
crews) and tugboat males.

You may play a particularly necessary half within the battle waged towards enemy strains of
communication. From now there can’t be any secondary railroads, roads or waterways. From
the enemy’s viewpoint, all communications are vitally necessary. If the Germans
try to reroute their site visitors via so-called secondary strains, you have to see to it
that, each time, they get right into a dead-end scenario.

Each kilometer of street, rail or canal of use to the enemy counts. Allied Air Forces
do their share by harassing German facilities and contours of communications. Assist them of their

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Eisenhower Proclamation – ZF.3

Basic Eisenhower additionally ready a proclamation to the peoples of Europe coded ZF.3.
Forty million copies have been printed in in 5 languages. This leaflet was first dropped
a few week after D-Day on 14 June, so I simply add it to finish the image. A number of the
textual content is:


The day of liberation has dawned. Your comrades in arms are on French soil. I’m
proud to have beneath my command the gallant forces of France who’ve so lengthy skilled and
waited for today once they can participate within the liberation of their dwelling nation.
United we come to choose the battlefield the conflict you’ve continued heroically via
years of cussed resistance. We will destroy the Nazi Tyranny, root and department, in order that
the individuals of Europe shall have a brand new delivery of freedom….Those that made frequent trigger
with the enemy will likely be eliminated. It is going to be for the French individuals to supply their very own
civil administration and to safeguard my troops for the efficient upkeep of regulation and

As Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Drive, there may be imposed
on me the obligation and accountability of taking all measures important to the
prosecution of the conflict. Immediate obedience to such orders as I’ll challenge is
essential. All individuals should proceed within the efficiency of their current
duties except in any other case instructed. Those that have made frequent trigger with
the enemy and so betrayed their nation will likely be eliminated. It is going to be for
the French individuals to supply their very own civil administration and to
safeguard my troops for the efficient upkeep of regulation and order.
Members of the French navy mission hooked up to me will furnish
help to this finish.

The valor and excessive sacrifice of the hundreds of thousands who’ve fought beneath the
banner of resistance have helped and can proceed to assist the success of
our arms. The presence of the enemy amongst you has made tragically
essential the aerial bombardment and navy and naval operations which
have triggered you loss and struggling. This you’ve accepted courageously in
the heroic custom of France, as a part of the inevitable worth wo all
should pay to realize our purpose, which is our freedom.

Each useful resource will likely be required for the expulsion of the enemy out of your
nation. Battle could inflict on you additional deprivation. You’ll notice
that munitions of conflict should come first, however each endeavor will likely be made to
convey to your help that you simply want so sorely. I depend on your
help within the closing crushing Of Hitlerite Germany and the
re-establishment of the historic French liberties. When victory is gained and
France is liberated from her oppressors the French individuals will likely be free to
select on the earliest potential second, beneath democratic strategies and
situations, the Authorities beneath which they want to stay.

The enemy will struggle with the braveness of despair. He’ll neglect no
measure, nevertheless ruthless, which he thinks could delay our progress. However our
trigger is simply, our armies are robust. With our valiant Russian allies from
the east, we will march to sure victory.

This can be a very fascinating political assertion. Eisenhower threatens the
collaborationists amongst the French however doesn’t say precisely what’s going to occur to
them. He talks a few French authorities which upset De Gaulle because the Basic believed
that France had surrendered whereas he fought on and now De Gaulle was France. Lastly, in a
politically right ending, Eisenhower mentions Russia which might make Stalin glad,
though the Russians had nothing to do with this invasion. In truth, they’d been
complaining and demanding the invasion for years hoping to take a number of the stress off
their entrance strains

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Invasion Warning Leaflet ZF.4 Entrance

The warning leaflet was coded ZF.4. Because the bombers left for France on D-Day the
Allied radio advised the French individuals:

…To all who stay inside 35 kilometers of any a part of the coast…The
Supreme Commander has directed that advance warning wherever potential shall be given to
the cities wherein these targets will likely be bombed…The warning will likely be given by the use of
particular warning leaflets dropped by plane…Get as rapidly as potential into open
nation…Don’t collect in giant teams that may be mistaken for enemy formations.

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Invasion Warning Leaflet ZF.4 Again

So, any Frenchman discovering a warning leaflet that morning knew that he was about to
be bombed and had higher transfer his household inland as quick as potential. The warning leaflet
was dropped on 16 cities in Normandy by the black-painted B-17 bombers of the 422nd Particular
Leaflet Squadron. They have been the primary Allied bombers over France on D-Day. The textual content was
quick and stated partially:

Pressing message from the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces to
the inhabitants of this city…To win the battle towards our frequent enemy, the Allied
air forces will assault transportation facilities and amenities of communication important to the
enemy. Orders have been given accordingly. You who learn this leaflet stay close to or in a
middle important to the enemy’s motion. It’s important that you simply ship your loved ones and
take away yourselves without delay for some days out of the hazard zone wherein you reside…Preserve
off the highways; disperse within the open nation. Begin now. You haven’t a minute to lose.

James Erdmann provides:

The drafting of the texts and the printing of hundreds of thousands of leaflets would
require a number of days’ work. The heads of state of the occupied international locations
must compose and file their addresses earlier than D-Day…The Allies
desired that the broadcasts and leaflets mirrored a concerted, total plan
for the liberation of Western Europe. When the tactical resolution to launch
OVERLORD was made, your complete program was to be transferred to the BBC and
launched for broadcast. Such urgency of language was a tip-off that the
invasion was imminent…

Navy paperwork present that these leaflets have been printed by Odhams, Samuel Stephens
and Waterlows. They first printed 9,600,000 copies; then reprinted one other 10,000,000
copies. The leaflets have been initially delivered on 4 and 5 June 1944 and first disseminated
on 6 June 1944.

My favourite story of your complete PSYOP marketing campaign considerations this warning leaflet. The
time and place of the invasion was high secret. It was in all probability guarded greater than every other
D-Day secret. It may imply the life or dying of 100,000 males. If this warning leaflet
ought to one way or the other get out; maybe from a employee hiding a valued memento, the placement of
the 16 cities on the leaflet would inform the Germans precisely the place the invasion fleet was
headed. How do you assure that this secret is stored? Straightforward! You lock all of the printers up
and principally refuse to allow them to depart. The printers have been ordered into the Solar plant on 1
June to arrange the warning leaflet. The place was sealed and the managers, engravers,
printers and employees have been locked inside for the subsequent 5 days. On 6 June, the doorways have been
unlocked; the employees streamed out, noticed the solar, and heard that France had been invaded.

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ZF.5 – Basic De Gaulle’s Deal with of 6 June 1944

Leaflet ZF.5 (“F” for “France”) was ready by the Allies
and quoted in a radio broadcast given by Free-French Basic Charles De Gaulle, the pinnacle of
the French Committee of Nationwide Liberation on 6 June 1944. It defined the necessity for the
invasion and advised the French individuals what to anticipate. The again of the leaflet was a brief
one sentence assertion from De Gaulle and his signature.  Since France was the precise goal and could be bombed and bombarded by Allied
Plane and ships, it was necessary that they understood why this ferocious assault on
their homeland was necessary. A number of the textual content is:

The supreme battle is engaged. After so many struggles, a lot fury, so
a lot ache, we at the moment are confronted with the decisive blow, the blow for which we’ve hoped so
a lot. It’s, it ought to be understood, the battle of France, and it’s the battle waged by
France. Immense equipment of assault, that’s to say equipment meant to convey us succor has
commenced to deploy from previous England. It was earlier than this final western bastion of Europe
that the tide of German oppression was as soon as halted.
In the present day it’s the base from which a liberation offensive is launched. France is submerged for 4
years, however not lowered or vanquished. France is on her toes to participate in
this offensive. For the sons of France wherever they could be, or whoever they
could also be, the straightforward and sacred obligation is to struggle by each means at their

It’s a query of destroying the enemy, the enemy which crushes and
defiles our nation. the detested enemy. the dishonored enemy, the enemy
will do all he can to flee his destiny and to cling to our soil so long as
potential. However for a while, he’s not more than a wild boast in retreat.
From Stalingrad to Tarnopol, from the borders of the Nile to Bizerte,
from Tunis to Rome he has now acquired a behavior of defeat.

France will wage this battle with fury however she’s going to wage it in good order.
It’s thus that for 1,500 years we’ve gained all our victories; it’s thus that wo shall win this victory. In good order for
our forces on land, at sea and within the air. There is no such thing as a downside right here. By no means
have been our navy forces extra ardent, extra expert, extra disciplined.
Africa, Italy, the Oceans, and the skies have witnessed their energy and
their revived glory. Our fatherland will see them tomorrow!

For a nation which fights with toes and palms tied towards an oppressor
armed to the tooth good order within the wrestle calls for many situations.

The primary is that the directions given by the French Authorities and by
the French leaders who’ve been entrusted with the obligation of giving the
orders on a nationwide airplane and on an area airplane ought to be exactly

The second situation is that our motion behind the enemy strains ought to be
coordinated as intently as potential with that on the battle entrance by the
allied and French armies. Everybody should now foresee that the motion of the
armies will likely be laborious fought and extended. That’s to say the motion of the
forces of resistance should maintain out with a view to develop on an rising
scale up to date of the German rout.

The third situation is that each one those that can act both by armed drive or
by destruction or by giving info or by refusing helpful labor to the
enemy mustn’t enable themselves to be made prisoners. All these steps
ought to be taken upfront to keep away from arrest or deportation, no matter could also be
the difficulties. Something is best than to be put out of the struggle
with out combating.

The battle of France has commenced. There is no such thing as a longer within the nation, in
the empire, within the armies, something however one single will, one single hope.
Behind the cloud laden with our blood and with our tears we see showing
the solar of our nationwide grandeur.

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The Again of the De Gaulle Leaflet ZF.5

As I stated above, the message could be very quick:

“…that the motion taken by us on the bitter enemy be joined as rapidly
as potential with the Allies and French armies working collectively.”

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Key Males of the Transportation and Communication Companies! ZF.7

One once more the Allies stress the significance of the transportation and communication
individuals. The message is much like others we translate right here similar to ZF.2, so I’ll simply
translate just a few paragraphs:


You proceed to play a extremely necessary half within the battle waged towards the enemy
strains of communication.

There not exists, as you recognize, any secondary street or waterways. From the
enemy’s standpoint all communications are vitally necessary.

Moreover, you recognize the enemy is doing his finest to restore the injury you’ve
triggered him.

You, in your half will proceed in your marketing campaign of destruction and you’ll
hinder the restore work tried by the enemy. Allied aviation, for its half, continues
to batter the German strains and facilities of communication. Allow us to proceed to assist every
different mutually in our activity…

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The Allied Armies Land

Leaflet ZB-1 (“B” for Belgium”) consists of 4 pages in two
languages (Flemish and Walloon) with a signed assertion from the Allied Supreme Commander
Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower on the entrance and a signed letter from the Belgian Prime
Minister–in-exile Hubert Pierlot on the again. The title is “To the Belgian
Folks.” I’ll simply translate the primary paragraph of the Eisenhower assertion:


Peoples of Western Europe!

The Allied Troops have landed on the French coasts. This touchdown has been devised
by the United Nations along with Russia with a view to liberate Europe. I deal with this
message to you. Even when the primary assault didn’t happen in your nation, your
liberation is nearing. All of the patriots, males or girls, younger or previous, have in necessary
half to play in our march to victory. To the Resistance’s members I say: “Comply with
the directions you’ve acquired.” To the opposite patriots who aren’t in a
Resistance group I say: “Proceed to withstand however don’t expose your life
uselessly; wait and I offers you the sign to face up and strike the enemy.” The
day will come the place I’ll want your united energy. Till that second I obligate you to
undergo a rigorous self-discipline…

PierlotToBelgianPeople.jpg (1977600 bytes)

the Belgian Folks

A number of the message by Prime Minister Pierlot is:


My Beloved Countrymen:

The hour so lengthy awaited by you is close to. Preliminary operations for the
liberation of Europe have begun. This primary assault is the sure sign in your
deliverance. You’re about to bear tough days in a interval of anxious ready. This
is the time to point out as soon as once more these qualities of self-discipline and self-control which for
4 years you’ve so usually displayed.

The primary rule so that you can observe is to reasonable your impatience; the second is
to not let yourselves be fooled by any of the enemy’s treacherous provocations, and
to not let your self be embroiled in any untimely motion which may lead to horrible

An entire Index of Allied Airborne Leaflets and Magazines 1939-1945 makes
some fascinating factors about leaflets dropped round D-Day. It seems that many of the
regular sequence have been stopped. We see a scarcity of the standard leaflet missions the week earlier than
and after D-Day. It’s nearly as if the Allies wished to focus on the invasion
leaflets and stopped a lot of the standard types of communication with the occupied international locations.
We be aware that the Eisenhower leaflet above (ZB.1) was additionally dropped on Holland (ZH.1),
Norway (ZN.1), Denmark (ZD.1) and France (ZF.1).

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A Message to Transportation and Communication Officers

A second leaflet that was dropped on quite a few completely different international locations beginning 6 June
1944 was Message aux brokers des companies du transport et des communications,
“A Message to Transportation and Communication Officers.” The again was Belges
et Français ne perdez pas de vue les lignes secondaires, “
Belgians and French do
not lose sight of the secondary strains” with a map of the roads and highways close to the
invasion seashores. This can be a 4 web page leaflet in French and Dutch. This leaflet was
dropped on Belgium (ZB.2) and France (ZF.2). The Falling Leaf, the Journal of the
Psywar Society talked about this leaflet in a particular anniversary complement dated June,
1994. It stated:

ZB.2 and ZF.2. A message to Belgian transport employees asking them to sabotage any
secondary roads, railways or canals that may have escaped Allied air assaults. The again
is a map exhibiting main strains of communications…dropped 6 June.

Navy paperwork present that these leaflets have been printed by the Solar Engraving
Firm in Watford. They first printed 2,000,000 copies; then reprinted one other 2,000,000
copies on 12 June. The leaflets have been initially delivered on 1 June 1944 and first
disseminated on 6 June 1944.

A Belgian pal provides:

Earlier than the landings in Normandy, the British and American air forces bombed the
strains of communication in Normandy, Northern France, Belgium and different areas for a number of
months with a view to deceive the Germans concerning the location of the invasion web site. Railway
stations, marshaling yards, bridges, rail junctions, and necessary crossroads have been
severely bombed. The Allies wished to forestall the Germans from sending reinforcements,
provides and armored divisions to the entrance. This leaflet asks the partisans to proceed
that motion. It tells them that the secondary roads, the secondary railways, and so forth., are
additionally crucial in order that they should be watched.

A number of the textual content on the entrance of the leaflet asks the French and Belgians to
block the roads and cease the Germans from shifting their autos freely:

Message to all of the Transportation Companies Males

You may play a key function within the battle towards the enemy strains of communications.
Any further there are not any extra secondary railways, nor secondary roads, nor secondary
waterways. For the enemy ALL the strains of communication are of the very best significance. If
the Germans attempt to use secondary routes, it’s depending on you that they be blocked.
Each kilometer of railway, street, or canal which might be utilized by the enemy is necessary.
For its half the Allied air drive will bomb the strains and facilities of communication utilized by
the Germans. Please assist them of their mission.

While you really take into consideration this leaflet it appears to place the French and Belgians in
nice peril. In the event that they clearly tie up site visitors to cease German motion there’s a good
likelihood that the Germans will shoot them on the spot. In the event that they again up the Germans for
Allied air assault, they’re proper within the hazard zone. Within the navy we’ve a time period
known as “hazard shut.” Which means we don’t wish to fireplace or bomb too shut
to our personal individuals. Bombs do not need eyes. When the fighters and bombers assault the German
autos with machine weapons and explosives, any French truck or civilian within the instant
neighborhood is in nice hazard.

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Transportation Leaflet ZB.4 Again

The map of the final invasion space exhibits the principle strains of communication, and the
textual content says that the secondary strains of communication should not be uncared for. After the
Allied landings, the partisans should watch these roads and in the event that they see the Germans utilizing
these secondary routes they’ve to dam them. The map exhibits railways, rivers, roads and
canals. The textual content at high and backside is:

FRANCE AND BELGIUM major strains of communication

“secondary” strains

 ZG1AttackfromBehind.jpg (60268 bytes)

ZG.1 – FROM FRONT…Attacked! FROM BEHIND…Written off!

Six million copies of leaflet ZG.1 (“G” is for “Germany”)
have been dropped between 6 June and 29 June over German troops telling them of the
hopelessness of their positions. It tells the German troopers that they’re nothing however
human landmines left to sluggish the advance of the Allies. The textual content says partially:

FROM FRONT…Attacked! FROM BEHIND…Written off!

Within the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht protection plan the Atlantic wall and the 40
kilometer vast coastal space behind it are merely a dwelling mine subject. Each soldier within the
coastal space is simply a dwelling mine for the OKW, which is predicted to delay a breakthrough
however to not cease it.


FROM THE SEA the artillery of the Allied ships made vast breaches within the
Atlantic wall. After the shells got here the huge waves of land troops.

IN THE AIR the Luftwaffe fights utilizing all avail­in a position forces, towards an
overwhelming superior drive. For every Allied airplane shot down, ten new ones come. For every
German airplane downed, no new ones come. Everybody can see that the variety of German planes
turns into smaller each day.

ON LAND an Allied infantry firm now assaults each German platoon in any respect
factors of penetration.


A number of the textual content on the again is:

They include males who’re too previous or too younger for actual frontline obligation, males who 6
months in the past have been solely thought-about match for garrison obligation, together with a excessive share of
ethnic German foreigners and males of unreliable international items.

What may be thought-about battle confirmed items on this zone are purported to serve with
these replacements and be sacrificed with them.




There’s a part written in Polish for German troopers that talk the language or
maybe have been from the a part of Poland that had a big German inhabitants:

Polish Talking German Troopers

Attraction of Allied Armies


1. You have been drafted into the German military. Intruders are branded with the disgraceful
identify Volksdeutsch.

2. Your historical enemy compelled you into this seacoast sector with out reserves or
transportation. They use you as human mines in entrance of the German tanks.

3. Allied troopers, sailors and airmen have began a fierce battle towards Hitler’s
Germany – a battle which is able to perpetually cease the tyranny of our frequent enemy and the
enslavement of the Polish individuals.

4. Each shot you fireplace towards the freedom-fighters is a shot into Poland’s coronary heart.

5. Each Pole who ceases this ineffective struggle saves his personal life and the lifetime of Poland.


The “human landmines” theme is talked about in A Report on the Actions
of the Workplace of Struggle Data within the European Theatre of Operations from January 1944
to January 1945

First psychological warfare (PW) personnel landed on the Normandy seashores on D-day,
a tiny group together with a information photographer, a liaison officer between PW, the First Military
and the twenty first Military Group, and an intelligence officer. Though they’d little
psychological warfare to conduct throughout that interval, the air was filled with it within the type of
broadcasts by BBC and ABSIE; and British-based· bomber squadrons have been scattering hundreds of thousands
of leaflets. Some have been addressed primarily to enemy coastal divisions; Volksdeutsche
troops with little abdomen to function “human land-mines” for the Herrenvolk
farther again. Later interrogation indicated that the leaflets in German and in Russian and
Polish for the German-impressed and mercenary troops-played their half within the slightly
speedy give up of those coastal detachments.

Because the Allied troops pushed inland, different psychological warfare teams landed in
France. The group, stemming from SHAEF with management vested within the Psychological
Warfare Division, contained British and American civilian and navy personnel and
included members from the British Ministry of Data, the British Political
Intelligence Division, the U.S. Workplace of Strategic Companies and the U.S. Workplace of Struggle
Data., Along with cellular printing gear, they introduced with them tons of
ready-printed materials already rolled for firing in shells from the 2 most typical
weapons, the 25-pounder on the British entrance and the 105mm. weapon on the American. They
additionally introduced key lists of leaflets out there in the UK, every bearing a code
quantity for reference in indicators from the sector to PWD-SHAEF. Thus ahead PW
operatives-filling a job much like that of artillery spotters have been capable of direct
leaflet fireplace by space and textual content.

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ZG.2 – 4-Entrance Struggle

Six-hundred thousand copies of leaflet ZG.2 have been ready by the Allies to drop
on the Germans from 6 June to fifteen June 1944. The entrance of the big leaflet exhibits the
invasion drive labelled “Western Entrance,” the “Southern Entrance” in
Italy, the “Jap entrance” because the Russians advance, and bombs are depicted
dropping on Germany labelled “Residence Entrance.” The again has a protracted message telling
the German forces of their nation’s peril because of the Jap Entrance, Residence Entrance, and
Southern Entrance. Maybe essentially the most fascinating facet of this leaflet is that the arrow
exhibiting the invasion route from the British Isles depicts the invasion touchdown at Calais.
For the reason that leaflet was dropped beginning June 6, the Allies have been nonetheless hoping to persuade
the Germans that the Normandy landings have been solely a ploy and the true invasion would land
additional east. A number of the textual content is:






East Entrance: Two years in the past Hitler selected the anniversary of the start of
Napoleon’s ill-fated marketing campaign to start his invasion of Russia. Hitler’s
armies have retreated as Napoleon’s military’s retreated. The Russian armies are
already deep into Poland and Romania, and stand on the boundaries of Czechoslovakia. They
await the order for the ultimate offensive.

Residence Entrance: 4 years in the past Hitler issued his communique, “The conflict within the West
is over,” and commenced his assault on the British Residence entrance. His assault was defeated.
The Royal Air Drive and the American Air Drive have now gone over to the air offensive and
have opened a entrance distinctive within the conflict, the German dwelling entrance the place Goering promised no
bombs would fall. By day and by evening Allied air fleets are assaulting plane factories,
oil refineries, heavy industries, and your complete communications community of the Reich…

Disaster on the East Entrance

Disaster on the Residence Entrance

Disaster on the South Entrance



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ZG.4 – WHY?

The entrance of ZG.4, dropped from 11 to fifteen June 1944, is similar “4 Entrance
Struggle” picture as discovered on ZG.2 above. 2,000,000 copies of this learflet have been printed.
The again is all textual content with the title “Why.” The textual content is:

The Allied Expeditionary Military was landed on the British coast with out the German air
drive intervening. Why?

Many hundreds of Allied ships have been docked within the British ports with out the German
air drive intervening. Why?

The Allied Expeditionary Military reached the coast of France, with out the German air
drive intervening. Why?

The Allied Expeditionary Military broke via the primary line of the Atlantic Wall, and
created a bridgehead, with out the German air drive intervening. Why?

Montgomery and Rommel have given the reply. Montgomery stated:

“You will need to first win the battle of the air, solely then you definitely start the land or sea

Rommel stated:

“Above all German fortifications, air superiority will make the distinction,
no matter what the opponent chooses to do.”

ZG.5 – FROM FRONT…Attacked! FROM BEHIND…Written off!

Leaflet ZG.5 was written in German and Polish. 5,530,700 copies of this
leaflet have been printed for dissemination from 10 June to five July 1944. The textual content on the entrance
and again is sort of an identical to that of ZG.1. The one distinction is the addition of a
line or two to the German and Polish texts.

The brand new German textual content after speaking concerning the issues at sea, within the air and on the
floor is:

This explains: Your lack of vehicles; the previous age and the well being of a lot of your
mates; and the variety of international troops in your ranks.

What we see on the entrance line defenses is skilled items meant to assist the
stiffening of the weaker items, however then sacrificed together with the remaining.

The one Polish language addition is:

Present this flyer to our troopers.

Leaflet ZG.6

3,510,219 copies of this leaflet have been printed and disseminated from 14 June
to 31 December 1944. It’s an odd leaflet with a protracted message on the entrance
blaming the Germans for forcing the Allies to invade, and a Pink Cross
message on the again relating to notification of the households and kin of German
troopers in case they have been injured. I believe facet two was the necessary
facet as a result of it implied that the Allies cared concerning the German troopers and
wished to make certain they have been handled kindly and appropriately. It meant they
may give up with out worry of torture or dying. The textual content is lengthy so I’ll
simply translate just a few elements. A number of the message on the entrance telling the
German soldier he’s not accountable, however the NAZI Social gathering is:


Nationwide Socialism – which in 1934 started rearmament on the biggest scale –
which in 1935 gave the German individuals the slogan “Weapons as a substitute of butter” –
which in six years used 90 million Reichsmarks for armaments – which from
1938 onwards annexed contemporary territory each six months beneath risk of
conflict…whose chief stated in November 1940: I’ve ready for this conflict as no
different conflict has ever been ready for – and it has paid a good-looking dividend.”

We will see that this by no means occurs once more. We’re decided to destroy
Nationwide Socialism, and with it the lads who believed it was a method of
rising their energy and enriching themselves, and for that cause plunged
the world into conflict and distress.

A number of the textual content on the again is:


To guarantee essentially the most speedy notification to your subsequent of kin via the
worldwide Pink Cross at Geneva, the next questionnaire ought to be
crammed out. This questionnaire serves solely the aim of reporting to the
Pink Cross and won’t be despatched to the house of the prisoner.


Identify, Christian identify, Rank, Military quantity, Date of Delivery, and Place of Delivery.
The identify and precise deal with of your spouse or subsequent of kin who’s to be suggested
of your seize (with diploma of relationship).

Leaflet VG.7

The guarantees made to enemy troops to get them to give up have modified over
the years. Within the Fifties, North Korean and Chinese language troops have been promised a
heat room, heat garments, cigarettes, and a bowl of rice. That labored fairly

Within the Sixties, Viet Cong and North Vietnamese military troops have been provided by the
Chieu Hoi program: lumber for a home, funds for each member of the
household, job coaching, medical care, and a peaceable life in a protected
hamlet. In principle this labored out effectively. Though the numbers fluctuate broadly,
someplace between 150,000 and 200,000 enemy troops surrendered. Some
skeptics stated they got here for a scorching bathe and a scorching meal after which returned to
the bush.

Throughout the invasion advance in France and Germany in 1944 one thing solely
completely different was provided. Within the leaflet above, the Allies provided numerous
educations courses, maybe a highschool diploma, and information that would
be used to rebuild Germany. The picture on the again of leaflet VG.7 depicts
studious German prisoners-of-war learning in an Allied jail camp. This was
a novel method and I assume it labored. Slightly than sit round idly, these
troops have been capable of higher themselves and preserve busy. The textual content is lengthy on the
back and front so I’ll simply translate a number of the message and present the
picture discovered on the again of the leaflet (edited for brevity):


From an American Prisoner-of-war Camp – Considered one of many

9 courses with a median of 45 males in every, put together the scholars for
senior or intermediate clerical duties and closing examinations.

Within the camp universities, lectures within the following topics are offered:
regulation, drugs, languages, pure science, and engineering. The typical
variety of lectures every week is from 15 to twenty, and in drugs 30. The
recognition of diplomas granted by the camp college is now in negotiation
with the German Excessive College system. As well as, the agricultural course
which prepares college students for a profession as an agronomist is beneath

Additional programs of examine are English, French, Spanish, Russian, Marine
Development, Basic technical, and Electrical engineering. The camp
library incorporates hundreds of volumes. As well as, many scientific works
can be found.


The opposite facet of the leaflet is all textual content, titled SOLDIER’S DUTY, and
tells of the Russian advances within the East and tells the German soldier that
he has carried out his obligation. The textual content ends:

Your obligation as a soldier is completed, one other obligation stays to be carried out:


Your loved ones, your individuals and your Fatherland want wholesome individuals to rebuild,
not additional pointless sacrifices for a misplaced trigger.

As troopers you’re entitled to and you’ll obtain good therapy
in response to the Geneva Conference in case of imprisonment by the Allies.

Leaflet ZG.10

This leaflet targets the Polish troops within the German Military that may have
been compelled into service. 8.775,750 copies have been printed and dropped from 14
June 1944 to January 1945. The Textual content is:

Poles within the German Military

Brute drive has thrust you into the ranks of Poland’s lethal foes, who’ve
subjected our nation to ruthless oppression. Brute drive has inflicted upon
you the German uniform.

You’re compelled to struggle towards the liberating armies of the free nations
who’re storming the western wall of the so-called “European Fortress.” Aspect
by facet, along with the Individuals, British, Canadians and French, our
Polish forces are combating there.

Most of you’ve already been advised what Poland expects of you.

The polish Authorities has the next orders to you.

Don’t shoot at your brothers, the troopers of the Allied armies. For those who
shoot, miss.

On the first alternative, come over to the Allied armies, or disguise and await
their arrival.

Impart of the knowledge you possess to the Allied whenever you encounter

As quickly as you’re on the Allied facet, report your Polish nationality,
request separation from German prisoners, and ask for contact with the
Polish navy authorities.

You brothers combating for freedom with the Allied armies are awaiting you.

Lengthy Reside Poland

Leaflet ZG.12

I like this leaflet as a result of it tries to destroy German morale by
telling the troops that the Allies air forces now have full encircled
Germany and might bomb them from each the East and the West. 2,100,000
leaflets have been printed and dropped 21 June 1944 about two weeks after D-Day.
The textual content could be very lengthy so I’ll simply quote some chosen feedback:


This leaflet was dropped by an American air fleet on its solution to Russia. Quickly
the identical air fleet, working from Russian bases will assault once more. The air
encirclement has been accomplished.  No manufacturing unit, no railway, no ports, no
navy shops, no troop concentrations in Hitler’s fortress at the moment are secure
from our assault.

The completement of the air encirclement destroys the final illusions with
which the Nazis try to hide the inevitability of their defeat. It
destroys the phantasm that navy defeat may be prevented by separating the
Allies. It destroys the phantasm that the German conflict business may be saved
by shifting out of the vary of the bombers based mostly in England and Italy. 11,000
Allied airplanes management the skies over Normandy. 1000’s of Allied planes
management the skies of Italy, the Balkans and southern France.

On 9 September 1939 Reich Marshall Goering declared: “Our nice downside has
at all times been to should struggle on two fronts. Via Hitler’s sensible
pact, this hazard has been eliminated forever.” And on 9 November of the
identical 12 months Adolf Hitler declared in Munich: “German has by no means been afraid of
a conflict on one entrance, now we’ve just one entrance, and we will triumph on that





Leaflet ZG.17

The struggle on the peninsula resulting in Cherbourg was bitter. The Allies
superior, however very slowly. This leaflet tells the Germans that they’re
alone and may give up as many different German troopers have carried out. It provides
them an excuse to give up with honor. The leaflet is tactical for the
German forces instantly in entrance of the Allied advance so simply 362,000 of
these leaflets have been disseminated on 22 and 23 June 1944. The textual content on the
entrance is:



The again is a bit longer and tells the troops give up is a viable possibility
as a result of they’ve fulfilled their duties:


You’re combating alone.

The dock protection system of the peninsula has collapsed. 1000’s of your
comrades who’ve fought the hopeless wrestle won’t ever see the Fatherland
once more. Scores of hundreds who’ve ceased the wrestle are already in
security in our palms. They’re being handled as troopers who’ve fulfilled
their soldier’s pledge.

It’s already 5 minutes previous 12.


Word: That remark about “5 minutes previous 12” is a takeoff on a typical
propaganda slogan utilized by either side, “It’s 5 minutes to 12” that implied
the conflict was almost over so why die within the final minutes of the battle. This
slight change within the slogan tells the Germans that the conflict is already over.

German Leaflet 655 SK 1c

Dropped close to the top of the conflict beginning about March 1945

The textual content on the again says partially:

5 Minutes to Twelve

No one needs to get killed in these final 5 minutes. That’s Widespread sense.

Watch your step!

Leaflet 4-J-1

Right here, Basic MacArthur’s Psychological Warfare Department asks the Japanese
occupying the Philippine Islands the identical query. The reader sees all of the
islands which have fallen to the Allies and is advised that the subsequent to fall
will likely be Japan.
As a substitute of numbers, islands the place the Japanese have been defeated seem on
the clock face. Beginning at 1 o’clock: Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa
(Kiribati), Marshall Islands, Admiralty Islands, New Guinea, Saipan, Guam,
and Palau. The minute hand rests on the Philippines, indicating the present
battle underway there. The hour hand rests on Japan (on the 12 o’clock
place) indicating it’s the subsequent and closing goal. 50,000 of those
leaflets have been dropped on 21 November 1944. The American identify for this
leaflet was merely “Clock” and the textual content on the entrance is:

The Hour is Drawing Close to!

Leaflet ZG.20

Throughout the invasion, the
port metropolis of Cherbourg was a troublesome nut to crack. The seize of this French
metropolis throughout World Struggle II by American forces three weeks after the Normandy
landings of 6 June 1944 gave the Allies their first nice port in
northwestern Europe. Cherbourg had been held by the Germans since June 1940.
The Germans fought stubbornly, demolished the port, and blocked the harbor
channels, however lastly surrendered on 26 June. An enormous rehabilitation program
put the port again into working situation a number of weeks later. After the autumn
of Cherbourg, the Allies used the German give up to inspire the Germans
nonetheless combating to throw down their arms. This leaflet depicts Lieutenant
Basic von Schlieben, Commander of the Cherbourg garrison surrendering to
American troops. 3,600,000 of those leaflets have been disseminated from 6 July to 12 July 1944
over German troops. The textual content is:

Lieutenant-Basic von
Schlieben, the defender of Cherbourg, left his command put up at Fort du Roule
to give up to the Individuals. The scenario was hopeless. Even Schlieben’s
dying could not have modified something. Why did Lieutenant Basic von
Schlieben, together with 18,000 others in the identical place, disobey their
Fuhrer’s order, which they’d pledged with their signature.

“That whatever the scenario, they needed to defend their place with their
lives to the final man and the final cartridge.”

Lieutenant-Basic von
Schlieben and the 18,000 males at the moment are in England. They’re ready for the
finish of the conflict and for a Germany wherein such expressive obligations are

The again of the leaflet is
all textual content, 11 paragraphs. I’ll translate just a few strains:


We promise you neither
utopia nor a paradise, when you get captured. However you possibly can depend on the
following details with certainty:

See Also

Honest therapy, good meals,
first charge hospital care, mail amenities, payroll standing, and additional


If it is sensible, of
course you proceed to struggle. However in a hopeless scenario, an indication of
give up would possibly save your life. Take off your metal helmet, wave a
handkerchief, and lift your arms. A whole lot have acted that manner right here. It’s
as much as you.


Leaflet ZG.23

I might not depict this leaflet however apparently the U.S. forces thought it
was extraordinarily necessary. They produced it a minimum of 5 occasions in the course of the
battle for Germany. 3,783,211 of this variation of the leaflet have been
disseminated from 12 July to 2 August 1944 over German troops.
The textual content on the entrance is:


Which can save your life

Learn the next six factors rigorously and totally. They might imply the
distinction between life and dying for you.

1. Within the battle of fabric, valor alone can’t offset the inferiority in
tanks, planes, and artillery.

2. With the breaching of the Atlantic Wall and of the Jap Entrance the
resolution has fallen: Germany has misplaced the conflict.

3. You aren’t dealing with barbarians who enjoyment of killing, however troopers who
would spare your life if potential.

4. However we will solely spare those that don’t drive us, by mindless resistance,
to make use of our weapons towards them.

5. It’s as much as you to point out us
your intention by elevating your arms and waving a handkerchief in an
unmistakable method.

6. Prisoners-of-war are handled
decently, in a good method, as turn into troopers who’ve fought bravely.

You will need to resolve for your self. However, when you ought to end up in a
determined scenario, bear in mind what you’ve learn.

The textual content on the again is a proof of the Geneva Conventions guidelines for
Prisoner Remedy.

The second use of this leaflet was coded ZG.92K. 440,000 copies of this
variation of the leaflet have been disseminated from December 1944 to January
1945. The textual content on the again was a message titled “When is it your flip?”

The third use of this leaflet was coded ZG.96K. 1,000,000 copies of this
variation of the leaflet have been disseminated from January to March 1945. The
textual content on the again was a message titled “When is it your flip?”

The fourth use of this leaflet was coded ZG.108. 11,912,000 copies of this
variation of the leaflet have been disseminated from 7 February to 13 March 1945. The textual content on the again was a message titled
“When is it your flip?”

The fifth use of this leaflet was coded ZG.115. 3,928,444 copies of this
variation of the leaflet have been disseminated from 12 March to 2 April 1945. The textual content on the again was a message titled
“When is it your flip?”

I ought to point out that the “When is it your flip?” textual content on the again of this
leaflet was discovered on a number of different leaflets.

SHAEF Headquarters stated about this leaflet:

One of the vital profitable of the final tactical leaflets. It was designed
for distribution to areas of stiff enemy resistance and many times
proved its effectiveness in prisoner returns. Its lack of any political
attraction, and its short-term soldier-to-soldier language appears to have been
among the many elements of its success.

Leaflet ZG.24

I selected this leaflet not for the propaganda message on the entrance, though I
will translate a few of it, however as a substitute for the {photograph} on the again that
depicts Hitler with Rommel inspecting his Atlantic Wall and stating that
Churchill’s troops will likely be pushed again into the ocean inside 9 hours. In
this case I’ll depict the again of the leaflet as a substitute of the entrance.
3,336,350 copies of this leaflet have been dropped over German troops from 12
July to 2 August 1944. The ironic textual content of the image on the left is:

I can guarantee Mr. Churchill that regardless of the place he chooses the place to
begin the

Second Entrance, he will likely be fortunate if he stays ashore for 9 hours.

Adolf Hitler, on September 30, 1942.

The image on the suitable exhibits Allied autos driving from the seaside inland
into France. The textual content is:

This {photograph} was taken by an Allied conflict correspondent 9 hours after
the primary Normandy landings.

The entrance of the leaflet tells the Germans of the unimaginable capacity of the
United States to prove large quantities of weaponry each day. The numbers are
so wonderful that I’m positive the Germans puzzled in the event that they have been true. A few of
the textual content is:


Two years in the past, it was stated that the Individuals would produce 125,000 planes,
75,000 tanks, and 80,000 weapons a 12 months. To this the German leaders replied:
It is all a bluff. Propaganda! In the present day you recognize that it was the reality. You’re
studying it from private expertise.

One 12 months in the past, it was stated that the Allies have been producing 5 ships per day,
and that the submarine conflict had failed. To this the German leaders replied:
It’s all a bluff. Propaganda! In the present day you recognize that it was the reality.
Repeatedly and with out interference, Allied conflict materials is discharged on the
coast of Western Europe. In the present day extra U-boats are sunk than Allied freighters.

In the present day, the Allied troopers says to the German soldier: Stop combating!
Germany has misplaced the conflict! However you recognize it’s the reality. For you’re a
soldier and you’ve got discovered from bitter expertise to face the details and
draw your individual conclusions. And you recognize the Allied troopers deal with
prisoners-of-war decently and pretty.


Leaflet ZG.26

I feel this would be the final of the VG leaflets I’ll add. The article is
about D-Day and now we’re a great month into the battle, and it turns into extra
of simply the standard slogging it out via the mud and the forests. We’re
getting effectively previous the precise landings. There are about 139 ZG leaflets in
all, being disseminated all the best way to Might 1945. 1,200,000 of those leaflets
have been dropped from 10 to 27 July 1944. This leaflet is all textual content and as soon as
makes an argument for give up, mentioning that so many heroic Germans
have already surrendered and can stay to return dwelling. The textual content on the entrance


This was the order to your comrades.

Why did 49,000 of your comrades on the Cotentin Peninsula should give up?
They have been good troopers who had been skilled for years for his or her activity. And among the many prisoners are Generals, bearers of the Knight’s Cross,
and hundreds of veterans of battles within the east, the west and the south.

They’d been ordered: Maintain out – reinforcements, tanks and air cowl are
coming! Their reinforcements didn’t come. The air drive was to not be seen,
their losses mounted, the positions could not be held. For the coastal
divisions had been written off from the start, their activity, for which
they’d been meant, proved to be inconceivable. Valor alone is inadequate
towards armor piecing bombs, naval artillery, rocket weapons, steady air
assault and an enemy who’s superior in numbers.

Are you subsequent now, or your comrades at one other a part of the shattered Atlantic
Wall? Are the identical orders, the identical guarantees being given to you? Will you be
among the many many hundreds of lifeless who vainly attempt to maintain out, or will you
have the great fortune of saving yourselves by changing into prisoners? In the present day the
watchword is not “maintain out.”

The watchword is “Make an finish to it!”

The again of the leaflet has the identical picture and textual content as leaflet ZG.20 above,
with Lieutenant-Basic von Schlieben, the defender of Cherbourg

WG1Leaflet.jpg (249514 bytes)

Leaflet WG.1

The British and Individuals additionally produced a sequence of about 50+ leaflets that have been coded
WG. They appear to be aimed extra at civilians than the navy forces. I don’t wish to
point out them in depth, however I’ll present the primary one which warns the people who the
Germans are in retreat from the D-Day forces and will likely be destroyed by fixed assaults.
The leaflet is signed by the Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces and dated
26 August 1944, about 10 weeks after the invasion. A number of the textual content is:


To the German civilian inhabitants within the areas west of the Rhine, within the French
provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, and to the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg:

The elimination of the German seventh Military has determined the battle of France. The
survivors of the Normandy battle and the handful of German divisions north of the Seine
can at finest struggle a sequence of delaying actions on their retreat into Germany. The German
areas west of the Rhine, within the French provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, and to the Grand
Duchy of Luxemburg have, subsequently turn into the rear areas of navy operations. Very quickly
they could turn into a theater of conflict…

…The rear communications of the remnants of the German Military retreating into
Germany will likely be subjected to devastating air assaults. These air assaults would be the identical
scope and depth because the bombing previous and accompanying the invasion of

5,760,000 of those leaflets have been printed and dropped from 3 to 11 September 1944 over
16 targets.

WG19.jpg (40317 bytes)


I believed I might add this leaflet from the WG sequence as a result of it options Allied
Navy Commander Basic Dwight D. Eisenhower who would later turn into the President of
the US for 2 phrases, and explains to the German individuals precisely what’s going to
occur because the Allies take over a defeated Germany. I feel the message is correct and
seeks to reassure the Germans that the change will likely be easy and environment friendly and they’ll
not be tortured or murdered. About 15,200,000 of those leaflets have been printed with
dissemination from 11 June 1944 to 18 February 1945. A number of the textual content is:


Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Drive, and Navy Governor

American officers of the navy authorities lay right down to German civilians the legal guidelines
for working an evacuation camp.


On German territory, a navy authorities was proclaimed by Basic Dwight D.
Eisenhower in his capability of Navy Governor. Navy authorities proceeds swiftly however
justly within the occupied territory. Its major operate is neither the punishment nor the
schooling of Germany, however the securing of Allied communications, the earliest potential
institution of peace, and to that objective the removing of the Nationwide Socialist
management and the apprehending and punishment of conflict criminals….

NachrichtenDDay.jpg (172766 bytes)

Nachrichten für die Truppe, Nr. 51, 6 June 1944

I stated earlier that the Allies slowed their leaflet marketing campaign to nearly a halt as
D-Day neared. The Allied propaganda newspaper Nachrichten für die Truppe (Information for
the Troops) is an effective instance. The newspaper was a joint challenge of the British Political
Warfare Govt and the US Workplace of Strategic Companies. The newspaper was
dropped on the Germans each day from 25 April 1944 till the top of the conflict. Nonetheless, we see
that no newspaper was disseminated from 30 Might to 2 June. Then there was a single drop,
after which no extra till 6 June. 992,000 copies of the 6 June newspaper have been printed and the
headline story was the Allied invasion. A number of the textual content is:


Tanks have penetrated deep inland: bitter combating towards

In line with newest reviews, the Atlantic Wall has been breached in a number of
locations after the amphibious touchdown by Anglo-American armored items on the French channel
coast two hours after daybreak this morning. Bitter combating is being reported from the Seine
estuary and from Normandy. Giant paratrooper items and airborne troops geared up with their
personal artillery and lightweight armored autos had been dropped upfront final evening the place they
efficiently secured quite a few Luftwaffe airfields in shock assaults. They’ve joined
forces in a number of locations with the armored items now driving inland from the coast.

The German defenders within the bunkers of the Atlantic Wall at the moment are being attacked
from the ocean, the air and the land.

The naval artillery of the English and American battleships and cruisers now has
the entire space coated. The harbor installations on the coast at the moment are additionally beneath
bombardment. The primary port to return beneath assault was Le Havre. The fortifications and
defensive combating positions from Normandy via to Calais at the moment are being attacked from
excessive and low-level by huge bomber formations protected on all sides by fighters. The few
Luftwaffe fighters and different armed plane are powerless within the face of this overwhelming
air superiority. To the rear, paratroops and airborne troops have made contact with teams
of the French resistance.

The overwhelming air superiority is making it inconceivable for the German command
to get an entire image of the scenario because of the lack of any aerial reconnaissance.
Communication with the assorted coastal sectors can also be problematic. Alert state 3 was
known as for the entire Atlantic Wall and the navy command shortly earlier than midnight
yesterday as the primary airborne landings have been being reported.

The precise invasion nevertheless started simply after daybreak. Lengthy strains of assault boats and
touchdown craft, escorted by numerous numbers of destroyers, gunboats and escort ships of
every kind approached the coast beneath cowl of smoke and a naval bombardment from cruisers
and battleships. Quick patrol boats from Cherbourg, Le Havre and Ijmuiden have been heroically
sacrificed after being despatched up towards the superior allied drive.

What’s in readiness? The 5000 kilometers of Atlantic Wall from the North Cape to
Bayonne is being held by 60 German divisions. That’s three-quarters of one million males
unfold everywhere in the occupied West to defend assaults from all instructions. On common there
are 18 plane for every division within the West (in the course of the marketing campaign in France every division
had 80 plane). The Anglo-Individuals not too long ago had 160 plane per division for Rome.
Anglo-American air superiority within the west is reckoned to be 12:1. The primary accountability
for naval protection on the excessive seas falls on the U-boats. The North Sea, the Channel and
the Atlantic are defended by 60 torpedo boats, the identical variety of minesweepers and some
ahead flotillas. No giant German warship is located additional west than Kiel.

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Sternenbanner (Stars and Stripes) was a 4-page Allied propaganda newspaper
dropped on the Germans to maintain them up to date on the true standing of the conflict. We depict challenge
13, coded USG 44, dated 8 June 1944. The newspaper was dropped from 17 June to 21 June
1944. The primary web page of the newspaper depicts Allied touchdown craft on the seashores of
Normandy. The headline and a number of the paragraph headings are:

The opening of the Fourth Entrance

The Allied touchdown! Heroes convey the touchdown craft as much as hundred meters from the
seashores of Normandy beneath the safety of heavy naval weapons.

It’s fascinating to notice that in the US this was at all times known as “The
Second Entrance,” but we discover on two of those leaflets the time period “Fourth Entrance”
used to demoralize the Germans navy with the idea that they’re being attacked on
all sides.

The British Night Commonplace of 5 April 1944 says concerning the Sternenbanner:

A newspaper revealed in London is commonly delivered to Berlin and all of the
different bombed cities all through Germany and occupied Europe by British and United States
bombers. It’s the 4-page Sternenbanner (Stars and Stripes). The bombers drop it on
Germany after they’ve deposited their bombs. The paper is revealed in German, Dutch,
French and Flemish, and is ready by a workforce of skilled journalists and printed on a
particular light-weight paper. Britain foots the invoice for producing the paper, however it’s
produced beneath the auspices of the US Workplace of Struggle Data.

LandserPostBalch2.jpg (94767 bytes)

Landser-post for the Germans in Southern France

The American Armed Forces and the Workplace of Struggle Data and the Workplace of Strategic
Companies have been all printing newspapers and dropping them over Germany and the occupied
nations. This newspaper is coded AF 125/34. my Information to Collection codes used on
Air-Dropped Propaganda Leaflets throughout WWII
, I discover that they state that
“AF” was for “German troops within the south of France from by Nice Britain,
the usand France beginning in 1944.” So, this is able to be the Allies and the Free
French Authorities-in-exile becoming a member of to boost the morale of the occupied French individuals. I
selected this challenge as a result of it mentions the Allied landings in France within the middle panel of
the primary web page:

Blitzkrieg within the West

Encirclement threatens:

When, on June 6, Basic Eisenhower’s troops landed in Normandy, and broke
via the Atlantic Wall in a breach 100 kilometers vast, the German Excessive Command needed to
take into account the next necessary query: Is that this the primary of many deliberate touchdown
operations in western Europe, or is that this assault meant to guide as much as the decisive battle
within the West?

The destiny of the German reserves hangs upon the reply to this query. On this
unsure place, Rommel was compelled to carry again the larger a part of his strategic
reserves, in order to have them prepared to satisfy new touchdown operations which needed to be

Occasions have proven that Rommel was the sufferer of a mistake, and that the Normandy
touchdown represented the graduation of the decisive battle for France. After placing into
use once more the Port of Cherbourg, the Individuals within the Western Sector of the Cherbourg
peninsula attacked in drive, and after a profitable break via close to Avranches began a
blitzkrieg which for sheer pace places something but seen into the shade. Swift American
armored items are making a lightning advance towards the southeast and southwest, and have
reached the mouth of the Loire and minimize off the peninsula of Brittany. An important
conflict ports on the Atlantic; Brest, Lorient, St. Nazaire and Nantes have already been taken
or are instantly threatened.

Different American tank items are advancing within the path of Paris. They’ve
taken the cities of Mayenne and Laval and at the moment are lower than 200 km from Paris. They’ve
been ordered to advance on Paris as rapidly as potential, circumventing the German
fortified positions. The FFI are working with them within the closest cooperation and are
coping with the surrounded German positions. German resistance is totally smashed.
There may be no extra speak of organized resistance on this space.

German items stationed in Southern France are threatened with encirclement by
this advance. Occupation of the French capital would minimize off their most necessary line of
retreat. Simply as on the East Entrance, the good mistake of Hitler’s coverage is making
itself felt right here, the place by ignoring the recommendation of his navy consultants, he’s sending the
as soon as so nice and highly effective German Military from defeat to defeat.

One would possibly nearly suppose from studying this critique that the Allies wished the Germans to
depart Paris an open metropolis and retreat. It might have meant much less Allied dying and the
salvation of town beneath German rule. After all, it might have meant the escape of most
of the German Military, however I don’t suppose the Allies have been apprehensive about this on the time. The
touchdown and speedy advance was a very powerful mission.

FlyingDutchmanDDay2.jpg (182110 bytes)

De Vliegende Hollande – (The Flying Dutchman)

The above newspaper-leaflet was printed by the Allies and dropped over Holland to maintain
them suggested on the present conflict scenario. On 22 Might 1942, the primary challenge of 30,000
copies was dropped over Holland in what the Allies name the “Weekly Journal
Distributed by the Allied Air Forces.” On this 8 June 1944 version, two days after
the invasion, the Dutch are advised of the “Touchdown of the Allies in Normandy.”

Erdmann says that the Allies dropped about 9 million leaflets supporting D-Day.

Carl Berger mentions the large numbers of leaflets produced after D-Day and the
introduction of leaflet artillery in An Introduction to Wartime Leaflets,
Particular Operations Analysis Workplace, working beneath contract with the
Division of the Military.
A few of his feedback are:

Early in 1944, after the workplace which turned the Psychological Warfare
Division (PWD) was created at SHAEF in England, plans have been initiated for the
leaflet part of OVERLORD, the invasion of Western Europe. For the steering
of Allied propagandists, a basic memorandum was revealed on 11 March
1944–SHAEF Operation Memorandum Quantity 8. A number of days after this, a
planning paper was ready describing the target of the leaflet plan:
“to arrange the populations of the occupied international locations in North-West Europe
for an eventual invasion.

This early planning paper mentioned a number of of the issues concerned in
organising a leaflet program. For instance, care needed to be taken to not
encourage untimely motion on the a part of the occupied peoples. They have been
merely given directions on how you can behave within the occasion of invasion
and on methods to help the defeat of the enemy on the applicable second
after D-Day.

In March 1944 an try was made to estimate the airlift required to
implement the propaganda plan for the invasion. It was estimated that 312
sorties could be required to drop 131,600,000 leaflets over a three-month
interval; of those, 120,000,000 have been to be dropped over France and the remaining
over Belgium, Holland, Norway, and Denmark.

On April 22 a revised leaflet manufacturing and dissemination program was
ready calling for distribution of 320,000,000 leaflets every month till
D-Day, about 85 per cent to be addressed to civilian populations, and 15 per
cent on to German troops.

As D-Day approached, the Psychological Warfare Division took over extra and
extra of the leaflet program. On 2 June 1944, in preparation for the precise
landings, two printing presses in England have been put beneath safety management to
print the invasion leaflets themselves. These D-Day leaflets included an
invasion deal with from Basic Eisenhower to the peoples of the occupied
international locations, telling them what to anticipate and do, and supporting leaflets
signed by the exiled governments in London. As well as, particular leaflets
have been ready for the French and Belgian transport employees, for German
troops within the precise touchdown zone, and for the German reserves who have been
shifting up. A final-minute, particular warning leaflet additionally was produced for the
French inhabitants within the zone of operations and dropped on D-Day, one hour
earlier than the intensive Allied bombings started. Throughout the operations that
adopted an estimated 34,000,000 leaflets have been disseminated in direct
assist of the Normandy landings. In your complete invasion month of June 1944,
a complete of over 87,000,000 SHAEF leaflets in French, German, Polish,
Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, and Czech have been dropped over Europe.

The T-1 “Monroe Bomb” being loaded.



The chief
benefit of this low cost and regionally constructed leaflet bomb was that it
might be simply
hung within the bomb racks of the B-17 and B-24 heavy
bombers with out modification of the shackles.

From D-Day onward the Particular Leaflet Squadron and another bombers of the
Eighth Air Drive, flew steady leaflet missions to all sectors of the Western European
entrance. The B-17s and B-24s dropped leaflets on enemy front-line troops, on civilians and
troops instantly behind the strains, and on civilian targets deep in Germany. One other
43,000,000 have been dropped on tactical targets by plane flying daylight shut assist
missions. As well as, leaflet missions have been carried on in daylight at medium altitudes by
B-26s of the Ninth Bomber Command. Every B-26 carried twenty T-3s or six T-1 leaflet bombs,
or roughly 480,000 leaflets.

The main effort was made by the Particular Leaflet Squadron, whose normal plane
have been the heavy bombers, B-17’s and B-24s. Between D-Day and 1 February 1945 it new 1,133
sorties, principally at evening, and distributed 701,040,000 leaflets.

From the Allied landings on D-Day till V-E Day on 7 Might 1945, a complete of
3,240,000,000 leaflets have been distributed from English bases: 405,000,000 by the Royal Air
Drive; 1,577,000,000 by the Particular Leaflet Squadron; 1,176,000,000 by the Eighth Air
Drive on daylight bombing missions, and 82,000,000 by medium bombers of the Allied
Expeditionary Forces earlier than they moved to the continent.

From D-Day via April 1945, a complete of over 3,500,000,000 leaflet items, masking
a-range from single-unit leaflets to 48-page booklets, have been set, printed and
dispatched–the largest share of them being rushed via to satisfy supply dates.

The teachings of the Mediterranean expertise have been utilized in planning for leaflet
operations in assist of the D-Day landings. As a consequence, an artillery liaison
officer was hooked up to the primary propaganda unit which landed after D-Day and, by the top
of June 1944, some 900 rounds of propaganda shells had been fired on the First U.S. Military
entrance alone. When the usefulness of the leaflet shell had been demonstrated, the concept was
rapidly accepted, and leaflet dissemination by Allied artillerymen elevated on all
sectors of the Western entrance till the top of the conflict in Europe.

German leaflets In opposition to the Allies

1invasionDDayWWII.jpg (128375 bytes)


This uncoded German propaganda leaflet welcomes the Allies to Europe

After all the Germans struck again on the invading forces and with a vengeance. I
may have added a large number of leaflets right here however I add only a few that present the kind
of propaganda utilized by the Germans.

WelcomeToContinentWWII.jpg (709815 bytes)  WhatExactlyYouWantWWII.jpg (666983 bytes)

Welcome to the Continent!

The primary leaflet is uncoded, all-text and says partially:

Welcome to the Continent!

Hallo Boys!

Right here you’re ultimately, previous chaps. Despite the fact that you’re undesirable and altogether
uninvited visitors, you aren’t sudden…It ist
(sic) this Mr. Joe from Moscow
that you need to thank in your current place.

The again of the leaflet is all-text and says partially:

What precisely would you like in Europe?

However that is now the second time you’re about to combine yourselves up in European
affairs on the instigation of Jewish hate instincts and lust for energy, though it’s
none of your online business…The American continent has by no means been threatened by Germany.
The Bolshies are the sworn enemy of all tradition; they’re the destroyers of faith and
household life. That’s a reality each American is aware of…Consider them if you end up
dealing with dying. Die for Stalin and Israel?

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You Have Been Trapped!

The second German leaflet warns the Allies that they’re combating for a trigger that
will in the end destroy their very own international locations. Discover that the leaflet is coded E114 / 3.44.
The “E” is believed to face for “Englander.” The three.44 signifies that
the German ready this leaflet as early as March. Apparently, it was saved awaiting the
invasion and disseminated in June 1944. There are a complete sequence of such leaflets, and we are going to point out extra beneath. Some
of the textual content on the entrance of this leaflet is:


You’ve landed on the Continent to face the armed would possibly of Germany – however
not for the advantage of Britain!…The Bolsheviks alone will revenue out of your sacrifices.
You’ve been trapped into risking your life for however one objective – The Bolshevization
of Europe…


The again of the leaflet is much more fascinating from the purpose of the
message, which mentions the invasion. A number of the textual content is:


Have you ever any concept of the aim of the tried invasion of Western
Europe? One factor is definite – the Allied casualties are and can proceed
to be monumental, though the quantity of territory captured will likely be small…If
this plan succeeded, Bolshevism would conquer Europe – and 


Different leaflets on this “E” sequence are:

E108: Why die for Stalin? Why die for the Jews?

E111: Bolshevism – What’s it? / The leopard can’t change its spots.

E113: Why die for Stalin?

E115: Stalin or your spouse?

E116: Smuts stated.

E117: Who positive aspects? / You don’t / Europe doesn’t / However the Bolshevists do!

E118: Why die for the Jews?

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While you left your Spouse

This leaded is coded SW5 and we all know that the SW codes was utilized by the German Skorpion
propaganda unit in Normandy towards each Allied troops and French civilians. This leaflet
appears aimed on the British as a result of it depicts a British Corporal saying goodbye to his
spouse. The final theme of the propaganda on the back and front is that the Allies are not any
longer dealing with third-rate troopers. They’re now on the Continent and up towards extremely
skilled and well-armed German troopers who will struggle to the dying to guard their wives
and households. The leaflet ends with:

Did you write dwelling already?Do it without delay! A number of hours from now, it
could also be too late!

E108GermanDDay.jpg (316674 bytes)

Why die for Stalin? Why die for the Jews?

With the one exception of E108, the entire leaflets the Germans ready upfront
of the invasion are textual content solely. I’ve added this leaflet as a result of it’s the just one that
has a picture on the entrance. The picture depicts John Avery sitting in entrance of a typewriter.
Your first impression is that this should be a well known and trusted author or broadcaster.
In truth, he was a British Fascist who proposed to the Wehrmacht the formation of a
British volunteer drive (the British Free Corps) and made recruitment efforts and
propaganda broadcasts for Nazi Germany.

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British Free Corps patch and sleeve insignia

Adolf Hitler was impressed by Amery and allowed him to stay in Germany as a visitor of
the Reich. Throughout WWII the Germans approved quite a few international “Legions” made
up of Croatian, Belgian, Estonian, Latvian anti-Communists amongst others. Someplace between
300,000 and 500,000 males joined these anti-communist legions. The British weren’t fast to
be a part of the Nazis and analysis has discovered lower than 60 males who admit to being a member at one
time or one other. At no time did it attain greater than 27 males in energy, a bit smaller than
a German Military platoon.

Amery made a sequence of pro-German propaganda radio broadcasts, making an attempt to attraction to
Britons to affix the conflict on communism. After the conflict he was placed on trial and on the primary
day, 28 November 1945, Amery pleaded responsible to eight expenses of treason. He was
instantly sentenced to dying. Your entire proceedings lasted simply eight minutes.

The textual content on this leaflet as soon as once more blames the Communists and the Jews for WWII,
conveniently ignoring the truth that Hitler began the conflict by invading Poland, declared
conflict of the US for no cause, and attacked their ally, the us, with out

CaughtLikeFoxesWWII.jpg (682670 bytes)  DailyTelegraphLeafFWWII.jpg (780671 bytes)


The third German leaflet is all-text with a divide and conquer message by the
Germans attempting to persuade the Allied that they’re combating for the Soviet Union. The
leaflet asks why the Germans have held again their secret weapons. After all, the American
troopers didn’t know that the Germans have been fooled by Allied deception, that the Germans
believed that Calais was the precise invasion goal, and that Hitler wouldn’t launch his
panzers wanting to save lots of them for the true assault on the Pas de Calais, the closest space of
France to Britain. A number of the textual content is:


Why has Jerry waited ten days after the landings to make use of his so-called secret
weapon behind your again? Doesn’t that strike you as queer? It appears to be like very very like
after ready so that you can cross the Channel; he had set a TRAP for you…In the meantime the
robotic planes, flying low, scatter over London and Southern England explosives, the ability
and incendiary effectivity of that are with out precedent….

The again of the leaflet quotes tales from six newspapers. For example:

Each day Telegraph – An unimaginable stream of German pilotless bombers is
dropping a rain of excessive explosives over southern England. There may be widespread destruction
in lots of locations….

2ndInvasionDDay.jpg (76371 bytes)

The Second Invasion…

This German leaflet makes use of an fascinating argument. It implies that when the British
first went to the Continent to assist France struggle the Germans that was an invasion. Of
course, it was not. It then says that this second invasion, in actuality the primary actual
invasion, can also be doomed for failure and nice lack of life. This leaflet is coded
Kr-013-d-44. It’s one in every of a sequence that makes use of numerous arguments, principally the financial
destruction of the Empire, to persuade the British that the conflict has been misplaced already or
will cause them to spoil. It additionally reminds the British that Rommel who so usually beat them in
North Africa is in control of the protection of France. It casually mentions German bombers
and the V weapons with out really naming them, and even brags that like Napoleon, Hitler
was a corporal. It’s a bit worn after about 75 years, however the propaganda argument is
nonetheless fascinating.

DdayDeathDay1324.jpg (119366 bytes)

D-Day means Dying-Day

I added this German leaflet on the final second as a result of it doesn’t fairly make
sense. Initially, it was dropped in Italy not in Western Europe, and secondly, D-day
was 6 June 1944 and this leaflet is dated March 1945. Why wait eight months to drop a
D-day leaflet? The again of the leaflet depicts a calendar of 1944 and 1945 with a purple
query mark and the textual content:

D-Day in Italy too?

I assume that the Germans are saying to the Allies that hundreds died in the course of the
Invasion of Europe and as soon as once more hundreds will die in Italy. The leaflet was designed
and disseminated by the SS group “Kurt Eggers,” part Sudstern (Southeast),
for British and American troops in Italy in March 1945. After the try on Hitler’s
life by the Military Generals, the fuhrer gave the propaganda operation to the SS and his
trusted Heinrich Himmler.

German proclamation to the Occupied Channel Islands

GermanProclamationtoChannelIslands.jpg (208901 bytes)


This fascinating German proclamation to the occupied Channel Island of Jersey is dated
6 June 1944 and despatched by Colonel Heine. The Commander of “Fortress Jersey”
worries that his topics will get overly excited. He tells that that if that occurs he
will take hostages and if essential, execute them.

Clearing the Skies of German Plane

WhereistheLuftwaffe.jpg (27513 bytes)

The place is the Luftwaffe?

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