Now Reading
Destreza – Wikipedia

Destreza – Wikipedia

2023-04-02 21:17:34

Spanish custom of fencing

La Verdadera Destreza is the standard time period for the Spanish custom of fencing of the early modern period. The phrase destreza actually interprets to ‘dexterity‘ or ‘ability, potential’, and thus la verdadera destreza to ‘the true ability’ or ‘the true artwork’.


Whereas destreza is primarily a system of swordsmanship, it’s supposed to be a common methodology of preventing, relevant to all weapons in precept, however in observe devoted to the rapier particularly, or the rapier mixed with a defensive weapon resembling a cloak, a buckler or a parrying dagger, apart from different weapons such because the late-renaissance two-handed montante; the flail; and polearms such because the pike and halberd.

Its precepts are primarily based on purpose, geometry, and tied to mental, philosophical, and ethical beliefs, incorporating numerous points of a well-rounded Renaissance humanist education, with a particular give attention to the writings of classical authors resembling Aristotle, Euclid, and Plato.

The custom is documented in scores of fencing manuals, however facilities on the works of two main authors, Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza (Hieronimo de Carança, died c. 1608) and his pupil Luis Pacheco de Narváez (1570–1640).

Historical past[edit]

Jerónimo Carranza’s seminal treatise De la Filosofía de las Armas y de su Destreza y la Aggression y Defensa Cristiana was revealed in 1582 below the sponsorship of Don Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia , however based on its colophon was compiled as early as 1569. Pacheco in a letter to the Duke of Cea in Madrid on 4 Might 1618 acknowledged that Carranza’s system was primarily based on the work of Italian fencing theorist Camillo Agrippa.

Carranza’s work represents a break from an older custom of fencing, the so-called esgrima vulgar or esgrima común (‘vulgar or frequent fencing’). That older custom, with roots in medieval instances, was represented by the works of authors resembling Jaime Pons [es; ca] (1474), Pedro de la Torre (1474) and Francisco Román (1532). Writers on destreza took nice care to tell apart their “true artwork” from the “vulgar” or “frequent” fencing. The older faculty continued to exist alongside la verdadera destreza, however was more and more influenced by its varieties and ideas.

After Carranza laid the groundwork for the varsity along with his seminal work, Pacheco de Narváez continued with a collection of different books which expanded upon Carranza’s ideas. Whereas Pacheco initially clung carefully to Carranza’s precepts, he step by step diverged from them in important respects. This divergence ultimately brought about a break up between followers of Carranza (Carrancistas) and people of Pacheco (Pachequistas), primarily ensuing within the existence of three completely different faculties of fence in Iberia.

These new fencing strategies rapidly unfold to the New World. Initially, this was the esgrima común, however ultimately included destreza as effectively. Carranza himself was governor of Honduras for a time. Destreza authors and masters will be documented in Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and the Philippines. A point of affect on the Philippine martial arts is very probably, though that is an space that requires additional analysis.

El Buscón (1626) by Francisco de Quevedo ridicules a pupil of Pacheco’s Libro de las grandezas de la espada. The chapter ends with a mulatto fencing grasp who feedback that “the e-book […] was good however made extra fools than expert [fencers], since most didn’t perceive it”.[1] Quevedo additionally composed injurious poems towards Pacheco.

Within the 18th century, destreza started a decline in reputation in favour of the dominant French school. This resulted in technical modifications which turn into more and more obvious by the start of the 18th century. By the nineteenth century, fencing texts within the Iberian Peninsula start to combine destreza ideas with concepts and method drawn from French and Italian methodology. Whereas destreza underwent a form of revival within the late nineteenth century,[clarification needed] it seems to have largely disappeared by the start of the twentieth century.

Technical traits[edit]

Technical hallmarks of the system are the next:

  • Visualization of an imaginary circle between the opponents to conceptualize distance and motion
  • Use of off-line footwork to acquire a positive angle of assault
  • Avoidance of motion instantly towards the opponent
  • Extension of the sword arm in a straight line from the shoulder to acquire most attain
  • Profiling of the physique to extend attain and cut back goal space
  • Use of an preliminary distance that’s as shut as doable, whereas remaining out of attain (medio de proporción)
  • A conservative method, utilizing the atajo (bind) to regulate the opposing weapon
  • Desire for downwards movement (movimiento pure) in all fencing actions
  • Use of each minimize (tajo, revés) and thrust (estocada)
  • Use of a selected sort of closing motion (movimiento de conclusión) to disarm the opponent

Maybe a very powerful distinction between destreza and different up to date faculties of fencing is its method to footwork. Over centuries, fencing all through Europe typically moved in direction of linear footwork, just like fashionable fencing. In distinction, destreza doctrine taught that shifting instantly towards the opponent was harmful, and specialised in off-line footwork to both the suitable or left facet to realize a extra favorable angle of assault.

See Also

One other distinction is their method to the relative worth of minimize versus thrust. The final lengthening of rapiers in Europe confirmed a transparent desire for the thrust, relegating the minimize to a distant second place. Destreza, alternatively, refused to make such a distinction, sustaining that the minimize may very well be as helpful because the thrust relying on the state of affairs, adapting their weapons accordingly. Though fencers from the Iberian Peninsula developed a fame for utilizing very lengthy weapons, the weapons utilized in destreza had been typically shorter than the rapiers used elsewhere.

Step by step, bladework in Europe was influenced by the works of Camillo Agrippa and successors, specializing in using 4 main hand and blade positions (prima, seconda, terza, quarta), with an emphasis on the latter two. Destreza, alternatively, targeted nearly completely on a hand place just like terza (thumb at 12 o’clock).

All through Europe, masters typically taught a a lot wider number of guards than destreza masters, who targeted on the so-called “proper angle”, a place with the arm prolonged instantly from the shoulder, forming a straight line from the purpose of the sword to the left shoulder.

Typically, destreza makes use of a finer commencement on the levels of power on the blade. The place different traditions typically acknowledged two levels of power (forte and debole), ultimately increasing this to 3 or 4 elements, Destreza authors wrote about 9, 10, and even 12 “levels” or segments on the sword.

Destreza masters paid shut consideration to the strategies of their up to date counterparts, each inside the Iberian Peninsula and out of doors. Pacheco particularly argues towards the works of many Italian authors in his textual content Nueva Sciencia (The New Science). Likewise, Thibault‘s work features a part geared toward countering the strategies of Salvator Fabris. Francisco Lórenz de Rada‘s work additionally incorporates substantial protection of how a diestro ought to oppose an Italian opponent when utilizing sword and dagger.

Major sources[edit]

Early fashionable[edit]

  • Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza, Philosophia de las armas y de su destreza (1582)
  • Luis Pacheco de Narváez, Libro de las grandezas de la espada (1600)
  • Diogo Gomes de Figueiredo, Oplosophia (1628)
  • Gerard Thibault, Académie de l’Espée (1630); trans. John Michael Greer Academy of the Sword, The Chivalry Bookshelf (2006)
  • Luis Méndez de Carmona Tamariz (ca. 1639)
  • Diogo Gomes de Figueiredo, Memorial Da Prattica do Montante (1651).
  • Miguel Pérez de Mendoza y Quijada (1672, 1675)
  • Francisco Antonio de Ettenhard (Tenarde) y Abarca
  • Alvaro Guerra de la Vega (1681)
  • Thomaz Luiz, Tratado das Liçoens de Espada Preta (1685)
  • Francisco Lórenz de Rada (1695)
  • Nicolás Tamariz, Cartilla y Luz en la Verdadera Destreza (1696)
  • Manuel Cruzado y Peralta (1702)
  • Francisco Lórenz de Rada (1705)

nineteenth century[edit]

  • Manuel Antonio de Brea, Destreza del Espadin (1805)
  • Simon de Frias, Tratado Elemental de la Destreza del Sable (1809)
  • Jaime Merelo y Casademunt, Esgrima del Sable Español (1862)

Common tradition[edit]

  • El Buscón (1626) by Francisco de Quevedo ridicules[2] a pupil of Pacheco’s Las grandezas de la espada. The chapter ends with a mulatto fencing grasp who feedback that “the e-book […] was good however made extra fools than expert [fencers], since most didn’t perceive it”. Quevedo additionally composed injurious poems towards Pacheco.
  • The movie The Mask of Zorro (1998) featured Don Diego, the unique Zorro, educating Alejandro Murrieta, the brand new Zorro within the destreza fashion.
  • The tv collection Queen of Swords options using the rapier within the mysterious circle destreza fashion favoured by the primary swordmaster of the collection Anthony De Longis who studied the Spanish sword preventing method and wished a singular fashion for the heroine.[3] He had beforehand used it within the episode “Duende” of the Highlander TV collection the place he co-choreographed his struggle scenes with collection swordmaster, F. Braun McAsh.
  • The movie Alatriste, primarily based on the novels by Arturo Pérez-Reverte, options numerous characters fencing within the destreza fashion, together with the protagonist Diego Alatriste portrayed by Viggo Mortensen.
  • The 2007 Russian historic fantasy movie 1612 additionally exhibits this fashion of fencing as an vital ingredient of the film’s plot.

See additionally[edit]


  • José María Hermoso Rivero, “Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza (¿1539-1608?), creador de la Verdadera Destreza y gobernador de Honduras”, Boletín del Centro de Estudios de la Costa Noroeste de Cádiz (CECONOCA) Cartare nº 5. (2015), 65-98.
  • Sébastien Romagnan, Destreza, manuel d’escrime (2013), English translation Destreza, historic fencing (2015)
  • Anthony De Longis

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

Source Link

What's Your Reaction?
In Love
Not Sure
View Comments (0)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

2022 Blinking Robots.
WordPress by Doejo

Scroll To Top