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Drawing and illustrating within the pre-digital time

Drawing and illustrating within the pre-digital time

2024-02-25 15:17:53

A number of the instruments described listed here are nonetheless in use – not less than in training
in school. Nonetheless, many of the gadgets have disappeared from knowledgeable
atmosphere. Even the drafting board has disappeared. However all of us are nonetheless
dreaming of screens of that measurement!

Most french phrases courtesy by Daniel
Blériot
. [2001-12-15]

See additionally links and my private collection.

[To top/bottom of page] My non-public assortment

Click on on picture for bigger image
Private collection of drawing tools

[To top/bottom of page] Drawing pen

Early drawing pens had been made like forceps, with a screw to regulate
the space of the 2 legs which held the indian ink. I bear in mind the time
when the 2 legs even needed to be smoothed with a honing stone to undo the
waering from the very harsh paper. For my map drawing I additionally had a double
pen (for streets) and a free wheeling pen for altitude curves (isohypses).

forceps shaped drawing pens

The pen at this drawing fountain pen might simply be exchanged for writing
with varieties for slim and vast traces.

  drawing fountain pen

This was my set of pens for numerous years…

my personal set of drawing pens

[To top/bottom of page] Drawing
board

The most typical drafting board for engineers and in addition for illustrators used
a parallelograms to maintain the rulers parallel to itself. The element image
reveals the ‘head’ of the machine: The rulers might be exchanged in accordance
to the specified scale; they may be rotated in 15 diploma steps
or fastened at an arbitrary angle.

drawing board with parallelogram protractor at drawing board

For vast drawing boards (particularly used within the ship industy) the parallelogram
mechanism was changed by a horizontal rail on prime with a ‘t-square’ on curler
barings holding the drawing head.

[To top/bottom of page] Set sq.
and T-square

Amateurs and college students most time are confined to easy types of a drawing
board with a t-square to attract horizontal traces (the board was not sq.
sufficient to permit for verticals additionally). Angles in steps of 15 levels require
2 set squares with 90-45-45 levels and 90-60-30 levels. Arbitrary angles are supported by adjustable set squares.

drawing board with squares and t-square Adjustable square

For the desktop A2 and A3 sized drawing tablets turned obtainable with a
mixture of t-square and protractor. I nonetheless have an A3 sized in use.

drawign tablet with protractor

[To top/bottom of page] Ruler

For engaged on the desk a ruler remains to be a helpful instrument. Most time it’s mixed
with a 1:1 scale with tic marks at each mm. For typographic function additionally
rulers with pica, factors and many others. are nonetheless in use.

Sketch of parallel ruler in useHandy
instruments on the desk are parallel transferring rulers. One sort has (rubber coated)
rollers to information the motion. One other sort connects two parallel half-rulers
with two legs forming a parallelogram with the ruler.The kind with the rollers
typically is mixed with a mechanism to slide the ruler step be step for hatsching.

A extra elaborate instance is pictured hereafter. It is a multipurpose instrument
particularly for college kids. Even math formulation and trigonometric tables are
obtainable. With the assorted holes on the lengthy edge a compass may be simulated.

[To top/bottom of page] Scale

Since varied drawing scales had been wanted, the instrument mixed 6 scales, for
instance, 1:200, 1:50 and many others. (metric engineer’s scale) or 1:48, 1:128 and many others. (imperial). Additionally very unusual scales for rural maps might be
discovered: 1:1440 and 1:2880 (architect’s scale).

scale with various markings

[To top/bottom of page] Template

Not solely kids like templates. Making illustrations on paper fairly often
is quicker than any laptop based mostly methodology… A normal catalogue for templates
as of 1997 lists hexagons, ellipses, electrical and chemical indicators and many others. For particular function lettering stencils are nonetheless used.

templates for ellipses and other shapes writing template in use

For drawings resembling the next I created templates of my very own utilizing a
0.5mm plastic foil:

a row of similar cams drawn with hand-made template

[To top/bottom of page] French
curves

A typical set of curves is the Burmester set displayed right here. The primary merchandise
could be very helpful for ellipses, the second fairly often fitts massive elements of hyperbolas
and the third (largest) merchandise is used most for parabolas.

french curves - Burmester set Use of french curves

Throughout my time as a mechanical engineer I additionally used a really particular courving
instrument: some kind of plastic snake with lead backbone, about 40 cm lengthy.
This might be bent to the specified form.

Flat spline

In ship constructing the place drawings steadily had been to the size (or not less than
as massive as rooms), one other type of curving instruments had been in use. It is a lengthy straight slat of wooden or
different bendable materials. It was pinned down alongside few factors shaping the
curve.
Straklaatte flexible rule Lesbian rule

Versatile curve

To regulate to arbitrary curved shapes a versatile rule (plastic with lead backbone) is used. This has no internal rigidity, so management factors didn’t work correctly. Typically it was referred to as lesbian rule.

[To top/bottom of page] Compasses

Numerous varieties of compasses and drawing pens had been mixed in a field of drawing
devices. The compass on this set might draw circles as much as 25 cm
in diameter by the use of an elongation rod. To attract very small circles a drop
compass and a bowcompass is included, generally additionally a divider compass with
two pins.

My father's set of drawing instruments in case (about 1935) Compass set new
The left image is the set from my father (about 1930), the fitting is from {the catalogue} of
Linex, DK (2015).

Beam compass

For bigger circles the needle and pencil are organized on sliders on a rod or beam,
which could even be eleongated. I keep in mind that as soon as we would have liked a radius
of 4m. Kneeling on the ground we simply used an abnormal wood rod of that
size. There are nevertheless additionally particular devices to draw large circles.

rod compasses for large circles

[To top/bottom of page] Proportional
compasses

Proportional compasses are used to divide distances or to ‘convert’ them
in keeping with a scale. A specialised machine for the relation of the golden
rectangle could also be nonetheless in use by sculpturers and different artists. The rightmost
picture depicts an instrument to divide a distance into as much as 10 equal elements.

[To top/bottom of page] Drawing
massive circles

However how to attract circles, if the middle cannot be reached? I’ve solely a
scetch of such an instrument. There have been different varieties obtainable with better
accuracy, however extra elaborate.

sketch of device to draw circles without reaching the centre Seyferts tool to draw cirle arcs

b = r – sqrt(r2 – a2) For a given radius angle alpha
is fixed. As a result of a is an instrument fixed, there have been tables to get
b from the specified radius. A easy type of this instrument consists solely of two streight strips of wooden fastened collectively within the place 1 and sliding at pins A and B on the board.
Drawing an arc with simple tools

H. Seyfert patented 1880 an instrument which makes use of a steel-blade (c-c). It’s supported at each ends (m). The arc is created by pushing the metal blade on the place ok, whereas pulling the helps at m. The bending of the steel-blade is perfomed by transferring the pin e down. The varied levers swing across the index pins x. That is finished by turning a disk which has a spiral notch engagend with the pin e. This disk is marked with the radius of the created arc. The commencement begins with 5000 mm and goes (for one flip) to 300 mm. With a second flip a radius of 150 mm may be reached.

[To top/bottom of page] Ellipse
compasses

Earlier than you simply might drag your mouse to get an ellipsis of any measurement each templates and
particular mechanical gadgets had been used. The 2 gadgets depicted use completely different
strategies of drawing an ellipse.

ellipse compass made of translucent plactic principle of ellipse compass with crossed grooves and level with two nuts gliding in the slots

The tactic utilizing a thread is not less than nonetheless utilized by gardeners. Utilizing a pointy
pencil, skinny pins and a skinny thread you will get fairly an excellent precision by
this methodology first described not less than by Descartes (1596 – 1650):

Primarily based on the specified lengthy and quick axes you possibly can
assemble the positions of the focal factors the place the pins are inserted
f
= sqrt (a2 – b2)

The size of the thread is
2(a+ f)

[To top/bottom of page] Pantograph

For enlarging and lowering drawings this instrument was not less than in use by amateurs.
Heavy obligation fashions are nonetheless in use for engraving and contour milling.

pantograph looking like parallelographs

One other type of this instrument was referred to as Storchenschnabel in German.

pantograph in the shape of a storks fill

See Also

[To top/bottom of page] Perspective
illustrations

To attract appropriately with perspective utilizing vanishing factors vast drawing boards
with particular rods had been used. Let’s have a look at, possibly I discover a {photograph} from such
a tool.

Expert customers might mix images with drawn illustrations – a activity
almost all people can carry out now with graphic software program.

[To top/bottom of page] Digicam
lucida

principle of camera lucida

You would possibly know the digicam obscura, which works just for very luminous
conditions. Digicam lucida (gentle chamber) was developed by W. H. Wollaston
in 1807 to attract landscapes and many others. with ease. See additionally about.com.

The principle part is a 4-sided glass prism. From the oject G the
gentle is seen by the attention A in Z, the place the pencil can be utilized to attract
the item.

When the instrument is constructed with mirrors relatively than a prism it’s
referred to as mirror lucida.

The next is a ‘folded away’ instrument from the 18th century
within the catalogue of gemmary.com.

18th century mirror lucida in case

Trendy
variations of a digicam lucida may be bought (for instance) from:
camera-obsura-lucida.shop.com (with
movies explaning the use) or
cameralucida.org.uk, and right here a model for lower than USD 80.-

Some microscope producers additionally present “digicam lucida mirrors”
or “digicam lucida prisms” for drawing (relatively than photographing) the
seen picture. For instance,
Cosmo
Laboratory Equipment
, Kay
Kay Global Suppliers
or Kshitij
Innovation
.

[To top/bottom of page] Protractor

Numerous kinds are nonetheless in use in school. Probably the most used one offers 180°.
I nonetheless have one with 400g for the total circle (and I even have
trigonometric tables for these ‘neugrad’ or ‘new gradation’ which permits
easier mathematical dealing with of arcs). Nonetheless obtainable are protractors with 400g (gon) to the total circle. The divison of a proper angle into 100 gon, … allowed easier calculations in trigonometric tables (decimal system).

For army use ‘artillery’ variations with 6400 items for the total circle
had been obtainable (not less than in Switzerland).

Full and halve circle protractors made of translucent platic

[To top/bottom of page] Slide
rule

This isn’t a drawing instrument per se, however was utilized by educated individuals for calculations.
The analogue calculator is predicated on the logarithms, found (or developed)
by Leibnitz, Newton and Napir 1). This precept
reduces multiplication and division to addition and substraction. Potenzation
and roots are diminished to multiplication and division. But additionally particular scales
for trigonometric calculations and many others. had been in use. The standard slide rule of
an engineer had 25 scales and was 25cm lengthy. this allowed an accuracy of
3 – 4 digits.

slide rule with basic scales

The
sliding window reveals the sq. of 4 (scale D) to be 16 (scale A). The tong
reveals the multiplication of 1.26 by 3.17 (C) = 4 (D).

circular slide rule (calculation disc)

‘Winding up’ the scales on circles permits a excessive precision even
with a small machine.

Specialised variations of calculation disks are
nonetheless in use, for instance, to calculate settings of machines.

[To top/bottom of page] Sources

Bachmann-Forberg: Technisches Zeichnen; B.G. Teubner; Leipzig
19954 Indicating German

A. Gruber: Zeichen- Mal- und Messgeräte, Otto Maier; Ravensburg
ca 1940 Indicating German

Denis Diderot: Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire des sciences, des
arts et des métiers
; Paris, 1762 – 1777 (I have solely
a facsimile of the picture tables).

Katalog 894 (August 1994) Racher & Co AG, Zürich.

Meyer zur Capellen, Walter, Mathematische Instrumente. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig Okay.-G, 1947.

[To top/bottom of page] Hyperlinks

Lueger
Indicating German Lueger: Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904)
Wikipedia
Category:Technical drawing
Indicating German Kategorie:Zeichenwerkzeug
Digicam Lucida, Obscura and many others.
Origin
of Shadows
by Ross Woodrow, College of Newcastle, Australia.
Compass, Protractor
Wolfram Research
Indicating German Spezialisierung
und Generalisierung in der Entwicklung
der Zirkel
(wenn nicht mehr dort: hier).
Drawing instruments
Ecobra GmbH, Nürnberg, Deutschland
Tecnomarket (Italy): Disegno tecnico
Slide guidelines
Seite der deutschsprachigen Rechenschieber-Sammler

[To top/bottom of page] Notes

1) In fact, the Swiss declare Jost Bürgi to be the
discoverer / developer of logarithms…

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