Efficient Spaced Repetition
You gained’t get smarter by drilling IQ checks or taking part in the violin. Twin nback
probably gained’t enhance your working reminiscence. However you’ll be able to keep in mind something
you select to with spaced repetition.
Spaced repetition is, by far, the simplest cognitive hack I’ve used. It
was that I’d learn a ebook and afterwards keep in mind nearly
nothing. Generally I’d take Kindle highlights, or notes, however by no means evaluate
them. And I hoped that although I couldn’t essentially identify what I recalled
(as a result of whose reminiscence has an index?) that in some way the vital data was
woven into my information, tacitly. That is largely a cope.
I like studying, and spaced repetition has helped me turn out to be extraordinarily good at
it. Nevertheless it took a very long time to turn out to be efficient at it. There’s lots of recommendation
on the Web on the way to do it successfully, most of which is phrased in phrases
of very common ideas, however only a few concrete examples. However what folks
battle with is: how do I flip this particular, concrete piece of data
right into a set of flashcards?
This publish describes the foundations I take advantage of to write down efficient flashcards, with as many
examples as I might moderately discover.
 Overview of Spaced Repetition
 Limiting Factors
 Words of Encouragement
 Rules
 Examples
 Example: Magma Formation
 Example: Plate Tectonics
 Example: Neural Cells
 Example: Neuron Types
 Example: Vector Spaces
 Example: Parity Group
 Example: Logical Consequence
 Example: Periodization
 Example: Rational Numbers
 Example: Regular Expressions
 Example: Voltage
 Example: Isomers
 Example: Months of the Year
 Example: Powers of Two
 Example: Rilke
 Scripts
 Software
 Prior Art
 Conclusion
The concept is mechanically quite simple: as you be taught issues, you write
flashcards, that are query/reply pairs. Then you definitely evaluate them: you have a look at
the query, recall the reply, and switch the cardboard over to see the reply. Then
you grade your self: did you recall accurately or incorrectly?
In case you hold recalling accurately, the evaluate interval grows longer; should you get it
mistaken, the interval will get shorter.
Some folks use paper playing cards, most individuals use software program corresponding to Anki,
as a result of the algorithm schedules opinions effectively, so that you don’t overreview
materials. Except you’ve got a paper fetish, simply use software program.
In case you’re so good, why aren’t you wealthy? Or: if spaced repetition is so
efficient, why doesn’t everybody do it? Why isn’t it as widespread as consuming
espresso?
There are two fundamental limiting elements to efficient spaced repetition.
Behavior Formation
For spaced repetition to be helpful, it must be a behavior. I drill flashcards
each day as a part of my morning routine. However behavior formation is troublesome,
doubly so for individuals who have ADHD or are low in conscientiousness.
The rationale it’s important to do it each day is that the spaced repetition algorithm
schedules the opinions for you, releasing you from having to do this manually. However
you don’t know what playing cards are due in a given day till you open the app. And if
you skip a day, these playing cards pile up and are due the subsequent day.
A standard failure mode (and I did this greater than as soon as, earlier than I acquired the hold of
it) is to make use of Anki for 2 weeks, then drop it, and choose it again up six months
later solely to seek out you’ve got 600 playing cards due for evaluate. This isn’t encouraging,
and it defeats the purpose of spaced repetition, which is to evaluate the playing cards on
the intervals the algorithm chooses.
I don’t have a lot recommendation on this space, besides that when you’ve got persistent
issues with conscientiousness, untreated ADHD and many others. it’s best to tackle that
first.
CardWriting Expertise
Writing efficient flashcards is a talent that took me some time to amass. Lots of
the playing cards I wrote within the first 4 or six months of utilizing spaced repetition
persistently turned out just about ineffective, and this may be irritating. The
fundamental purpose to write down this publish was to speak the teachings I learnt so that you
can bounce in to utilizing spaced repetition successfully from the beginning.
One purpose this may be irritating is you’ll typically keep in mind a flashcard for the
first few weeks of it (once you’re seeing it with excessive frequency), however after a
couple of months, you begin failing it. It didn’t take root in your long run
reminiscence, as a result of it was poorly written indirectly. And this lengthy suggestions cycle
means it takes time to amass these abilities by means of trial and error.
Studying is an automated, instinctual course of. It’s a elementary function of
intelligence. It’s a testomony to how dangerous education is that individuals assume they
must have a particular type of mind to be taught successfully, and that the thought of
studying triggers aversion in folks. Bear in mind the phrases of Feynman: “what one
idiot can do, one other can”.
Listed here are my guidelines for efficient spaced repetition.
The principles are sorted by applicability (however not essentially significance), with the
extra common ones first, and most particular ones final.
As a result of most of the examples contain a number of guidelines on the identical time, I made a decision
to record the examples individually from the record of guidelines.
Rule: Perceive First
Don’t attempt to memorize what you don’t perceive. The ideas ought to be clear in
your head earlier than you attempt to commit them to reminiscence. “Clear” could be a fuzzy
factor. What I are inclined to do is: dig, increase, and make clear the textual content till I’m
comfy I’ve an excellent grasp of this area of the idea graph, after which
write the flashcards.
Usually, when studying a ebook, you’ll be able to’t write the flashcards precisely as you learn
the textual content, as a result of additional data can make clear or tie collectively vital
ideas. It may be helpful to maintain a scratchpad the place you write tentative
flashcard textual content as you learn a chapter, and on the finish you set up and
reorganize your scratchpad till you’ll be able to commit it to flashcards.
Rule: Be Trustworthy
The software program doesn’t know whether or not you recalled one thing accurately or not. You
are solely accountable to your self. In case you recalled one thing mistaken, or not fairly
proper, err on the aspect of warning and mark it forgotten.
Rule: Maintain It Enjoyable
That is essential to sustaining the behavior. If reviewing flashcards appears like a
chore, you’ll turn out to be averse to doing it.
I used to continuously have this drawback. I solved it in a number of methods:
 Having a various information base you’re drilling helps, so you aren’t bored
by going by means of the identical subject for a very long time. Usually, spaced repetition
software program will shuffle the playing cards, in order that should you’re drilling all of the playing cards
throughout all decks, you may be stunned typically.  A standard supply of frustration is playing cards which might be too lengthy to recall rapidly,
and thus really feel like a chore. Break massive playing cards down into smaller playing cards. It feels
good to have the ability to fly by means of the playing cards rapidly.  Playing cards which might be troublesome to recall are very irritating. I solved this by
making use of the foundations described on this publish.
Rule: Repeat Your self
Reminiscence is frequency occasions quantity. Particular person playing cards ought to be extraordinarily transient,
however your deck as an entire will be as repetitive as you need.
Rule: Set up by Supply
Set up content material by supply, not subject.
The reason being you’ll typically herald data from a number of sources: a number of
textbooks, plus Wikipedia, plus lecture notes, and many others. Every considered one of these sources
possible has a distinct method of organizing information.
Don’t waste time looking for the proper ontology.
Make a deck for every supply. Within the case of textbooks, make a subdeck for every
chapter. Within the case of math textbooks, probably make a subsubdeck in every
chapter to place theorem playing cards.
This additionally makes it simpler to maintain observe of how far alongside you bought right into a textual content.
Rule: Write Atomic Flashcards
Playing cards ought to be brief. They need to consult with as little data as
potential. They need to be like chemical bonds, linking particular person atoms of
information.
That is crucial factor. By far the worst failure mode is to
put an excessive amount of in a flashcard.
There’s two causes for this rule:
 Bigger playing cards are more durable to recollect.
 It’s more durable to objectively grade your self: once you reveal the reply, you
might need acquired some issues proper and a few issues mistaken. In case you click on overlook,
you may be overreviewing the components you already know. In case you click on
remembered, you’ll underreview the components you forgot.
There’s one exception to this: you’ll be able to have massive playing cards should you even have smaller
playing cards that add as much as the identical data. You may consider the bigger card as
testing that you would be able to collate the data from the smaller playing cards.
Rule: Write TwoMethod Questions
When potential, ask questions in two instructions.
Each time you’ve got a time period with a definition, the apparent factor to do is to ask
for the definition from the time period, e.g.:
Q: What’s the order of a bunch?
A: The cardinality of its underlying set.
However you can too ask for the time period from the definition, e.g.:
Q: What’s the time period for the cardinality of a bunch?
A: The group’s order.
When you’ve got some notation, like $mathbb{R}$ for the actual numbers, or $dim V$
for the dimension of a vector house, the pure factor to ask is what the
notation means.
Q: What does $mathbb{R}$ stand for?
A: The set of actual numbers.
It’s also possible to ask the query backwards:
Q: What’s the notation for the set of actual numbers?
A: $mathbb{R}$
Rule: Ask Questions in A number of Methods
Ask questions in a number of methods. Ask for formal and casual definitions of
phrases. Ask for the formal and casual statements of a theorem. Ask questions
forwards and backwards. Add contextual questions: “what’s the intutition for
[concept]?”. Add questions that hyperlink completely different ideas throughout your information
graph.
The extra interlinked your information graph is, the higher.
Rule: Idea Graphs
It could possibly assist to visualise the ideas you’re buying as being like a graph,
the place every node represents a discrete idea having sure properties, and the
edges within the graphs are questions which get you from one idea to a different.
Rule: Studying Hierarchies
A number of information is hierarchical, of the shape “Foo will be both A, B, or C”,
or, dually, “A is a type of Foo”. By analogy to OOP: these ideas are joined
by superclass and subclass relations.
The concept is to ask questons within the prime down path (“What are the subclasses of
Foo?”) and the bottomup path (“What’s Bar a subclass of?”).
This ties into protecting flashcards atomic. Even when some data isn’t
hierarchical, intrinsically, breaking down massive flashcards into smaller
flashcards is basically constructing a hierarchy of flashcards.
Rule: Studying Sequences
Usually, to be taught a sequence $(A_1, dots, A_n)$, you need to generate the
following flashcards for every $i in [1,n]$:
Query  Reply 

What’s the $i$th factor?  $A_i$ 
What’s the place of $A_i$?  $i$ 
What factor comes after $A_i$?  $A_{i+1}$ 
What factor comes earlier than $A_i$?  $A_{i1}$ 
You may additionally need:
 A take a look at card: a flashcard asking you to recite the sequence from starting
to finish.  A cloze sequence: flashcard with a cloze deletion for every factor within the
sequence, to fill within the clean given the context.
The sequence script can generate these for you.
How thorough you need to be depends upon the character of the data. Most of
the time I take advantage of a cloze card and a take a look at card.
One other sort of card you would possibly use (I take advantage of this to memorize poems) is a card that
provides you some context (the earlier one or two gadgets within the sequence) and asks
you to fill within the clean. For instance, should you needed to be taught the sequence (A,
B, C, D), you might need these flashcards:
Query  Reply 

Starting, …  A 
Starting, A, …  B 
A, B, …  C 
B, C, …  D 
The poetry script can generate these for you.
Many of those examples are overkill: we gather much more flashcards than the
topic deserves. However that is for example the overall guidelines. With expertise,
you’ll be able to be taught what number of questions a specific subject requires, and completely different
volumes of your information graph shall be kind of interlinked.
Instance: Magma Formation
From my geology notes:
Magma is liquid rock beneath the Earth’s floor.
The three magmaforming processes are:
 Growing Temperature: rising temperature can soften rock.
 Lowering Stress: when the strain drops, atoms are extra free to
transfer, and rock turns into liquid.  Addition of Water: water lowers the melting level of rock, as a result of the
water molecules disrupt the crystal bonds.
Magma varieties in three locations:
 Sizzling spots: as sizzling rock rises, strain decreases and it turns into magma.
 Rift zones: as tectonic plates are pulled aside, sizzling rock rises (as a result of
it’s much less dense) to plug the hole and melts as a result of lowering strain.  Subduction zones: waterrich ocean lithosphere sinks into the mantle. The
water heats up and rises, including water to the overlying rock, which the
melts.
Let’s break this down hierarchically. We need to memorize three issues:
 What magma is.
 The way it varieties.
 The place it varieties.
First, the definition:
Query  Reply 

What’s magma?  Liquid rock beneath the Earth’s floor. 
What’s the time period for liquid rock beneath floor of the Earth?  Magma. 
Second, we need to know the way magma varieties. A standard mistake right here can be to place
the magmaforming processes and their explanations in the identical
flashcard. Slightly, to maintain every card as small as potential, we need to separate
the record of processes from their definitions.
So we first as for an inventory of mechanisms:
Query  Reply 

What are the magmaforming processes?  Growing temperature, lowering strain, addition of water. 
After which we ask for a proof of every. We don’t really want to ask why
including temperature melts rock:
Query  Reply 

Why does lowering strain soften rock?  As a result of the atoms are extra free to maneuver. 
Why does including water decrease the melting level of rock?  As a result of water molecules disrupt the bonds within the rock minerals. 
Third: the place magma is discovered. Once more, we separate the record from the small print:
Query  Reply 

The place does magma kind?  Over sizzling spots, in rift zones, and in subduction zones. 
Then we ask for particulars. For every place the place magma varieties, we ask each which
processes are concerned, and what the total causal clarification is. We additionally ask the
query backward: which locations contain a given course of.
Query  Reply 

What magmaforming course of occurs over a sizzling spot?  Stressrelease melting. 
What magmaforming course of occurs in a rift zone?  Stressrelease melting. 
What magmaforming course of occurs in a subduction zone?  Growing temperature and addition of water. 
The place does magma kind as a result of strain launch?  Sizzling spots and rift zones. 
The place does magma kind as a result of rising temperature and the addition of water?  Subduction zones. 
How does magma kind in a sizzling spot?  As sizzling mantle rock rises, the lower in strain causes it to soften. 
How does magma kind in a rift zone?  Because the tectonic plates transfer aside, sizzling rock rises to fill the hole, and the lower in strain causes it to soften. 
How does magma kind in a subduction zone?  Waterlogged crust dives into the mantle, the water turns to steam and rises, the addition of water to overlying rock causes it to soften. 
We are able to visualize the ensuing information graph like this:
Instance: Plate Tectonics
Right here’s the data:
The zone the place two or extra tectonic plates meet is known as a plate
boundary. There are three sorts:
 Convergent boundaries: plates come collectively.
 Divergent boundaries: plates transfer aside.
 Rework boundaries: plates slide previous one another.
Making use of the rule that playing cards ought to be twoway, we would like two flashcards for the
time period ‘plate boundary’.
Query  Reply 

What’s a plate boundary?  The place the place tectonic plates meet. 
What’s the time period for the place the place tectonic plates meet?  Plate boundary. 
For the several types of plate boundary, we solely ask the query within the
topdown path (we don’t must ask “what sort of factor is a rework
boundary?”, for the reason that identify type of provides it away):
Query  Reply 

What are the varieties of plate boundary?  Convergent, divergent, rework. 
For every type of plate boundary, we additionally ask the query in two methods:
Query  Reply 

Definition: convergent boundary.  The place tectonic plates come collectively. 
Definition: divergent boundary.  The place tectonic plates transfer aside. 
Definition: rework boundary.  The place tectonic plates slide previous one another. 
Time period: place the place tectonic plates come collectively.  Convergent boundary. 
Time period: place the place tectonic plates transfer aside.  Divergent boundary. 
Time period: place the place tectonic plates slide previous one another.  Rework boundary. 
Graphically, right here’s how the questions hyperlink the ideas within the information graph:
Instance: Neural Cells
Cells within the nervous system are divided into neurons and glia. Glial cells are
divided into macroglia and microglia. Macroglia are divided into astrocytes,
oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells.
Visually:
We first write the topdown questions:
Query  Reply 

What sorts of cell make up the nervous system?  Neurons and glia. 
What are the sorts of glial cell?  Microglia and macroglia. 
What are the sorts of macroglia?  Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells. 
And the bottomup questions. We don’t ask these when the solutions are apparent:
“what are microglia/macroglia a type of” has an apparent reply.
Query  Reply 

Astrocytes are a type of…  Macroglia. 
Oligodendrocytes are a type of…  Macroglia. 
Schwann cells are a type of…  Macroglia. 
Instance: Neuron Sorts
This can be a transient instance about protecting playing cards brief and utilizing hierarchies to interrupt
issues down.
From my neuroscience notes:
Neurons will be divided into three classes by their operate:
 Sensory: feed sensory data into the mind.
 Motor: ship motor instructions to the muscular tissues.
 Interneurons: join throughout the CNS. These are additional divided into:
 Native: kind circuits with close by neurons.
 Relay: have lengthy axons and talk throughout mind areas.
Let’s begin by doing this the mistaken method, by loading an excessive amount of data
into one card.
Query  Reply 

What are the practical classes of neuron? 
(???? too lengthy) 
What are the several types of interneuron? 
(???? too lengthy) 
Let’s first break this down by separating phrases from definitions:
Query  Reply 

What are the practical classes of neuron?  Sensory, motor, interneurons. 
What are sensory neurons?  Neurons which feed data into the mind. 
What are motor neurons?  Neurons which ship instructions to the muscular tissues. 
What are interneurons?  Neurons which join throughout the CNS. 
What are the varieties of interneuron?  Native, relay. 
What are native interneurons?  Interneurons that kind circuits with close by neurons. 
What are relay interneurons?  Interneurons have lengthy axons and talk throughout mind areas. 
Now we ask the questions within the backward path: from the definition to the time period:
Query  Reply 

What’s the time period for a neuron that feeds data into the mind?  Sensory neuron. 
What’s the time period for a neuron that sends instructions to the muscular tissues?  Motor neuron. 
What’s the time period for a neuron that connects throughout the CNS?  Interneuron. 
What’s the time period for an interneuron that varieties circuits with close by neurons?  Native interneuron. 
What’s the time period for an interneuron that communicates throughout mind areas?  Relay interneuron. 
Instance: Vector Areas
Right here’s what we need to be taught:
A vector house, informally, is a set whose components—referred to as vectors—will be
added or scaled.
Extra formally: a vector house over a discipline $mathbb{F}$ is a set $V$ plus two
operations:
 Vector addition: $V occasions V to V$
 Scalar multiplication: $V occasions mathbb{F} to V$
Satisfying the next axioms:
 Commutativity of Addition
 $u + v = v + u$
 Associativity of Addition
 $u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w$
 Identification of Addition
 $exists 0 in V : v + 0 = v$
 Inverse of Addition
 $forall v in V, exists v in V : v + (v) = 0$
 Identification of Scaling
 $1v = v$
 Distributivity
 $forall v in V, a,b in mathbb{F} : (a+b)v = av + bv$
Now we have to interrupt this down. Severely. We’ll do that stepbystep.
First, we now have to separate the casual (intuitive) and formal definitions:
Query  Reply 

Informally: what’s a vector house?  A set whose components will be added or scaled. 
Formally: what’s a vector house?  A vector house over a discipline $mathbb{F}$ is a set $V$ plus two operations: vector addition and scalar multiplication. 
We add one transient query about notation (you might select to skip this one, it’s
an instance):
Query  Reply 

What are the weather of a vector house referred to as?  Vectors. 
Now we ask concerning the signatures of the operations:
Query  Reply 

What’s the signature of vector addition?  $V occasions V to V$ 
What’s the signature of scalar multiplication?  $V occasions mathbb{F} to V$ 
Subsequent, we ask for the axioms:
Query  Reply 

What are the axioms that outline a vector house? 

Lastly, we ask what every axiom means:
Query  Reply 

Vector areas: state: commutativity of addition  $u + v = v + u$ 
Vector areas: state: associativity of addition  $u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w$ 
Vector areas: state: id of addition  $exists 0 in V: v + 0 = v$ 
Vector areas: state: inverse of addition  $forall v in V, exists v in V: v + (v) = 0$ 
Vector areas: state: id of scaling  $1v = v$ 
Vector areas: state: distributivity  $forall v in V, a,b in mathbb{F}: (a+b)v = av + bv$ 
Graphically, you’ll be able to attempt visualizing the flashcards and their relationships like this:
If you wish to be additional thorough, you can too write the backwards questions:
Query  Reply 

What’s the time period for a set whose components will be added or scaled?  A vector house. 
Title this axiom: $u + v = v + u$  Commutativity of Addition 
Title this axiom: $u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w$  Associativity of Addition 
Title this axiom: $exists 0 in V : v + 0 = v$  Identification of Addition 
Title this axiom: $forall v in V, exists v in V : v + (v) = 0$  Inverse of Addition 
Title this axiom: $1v = v$  Identification of Scaling 
Title this axiom: $forall v in V, a,b in mathbb{F} : (a+b)v = av + bv$  Distributivity 
Instance: Parity Group
The parity group is a bunch that represents the foundations for including even and odd
numbers. The underlying set is $set{textual content{even}, textual content{odd}}$, with
$textual content{even}$ and $textual content{odd}$ representing even and odd numbers
respectively. The composition desk is:
$+$  $textual content{even}$  $textual content{odd}$ 
$textual content{even}$  $textual content{even}$  $textual content{odd}$ 
$textual content{odd}$  $textual content{odd}$  $textual content{even}$ 
The id factor is $textual content{even}$. The group is Abelian.
We are able to flip this into the next flashcards:
Query  Reply 

What’s the parity group?  The group that represents the foundations for including even and odd numbers. 
What’s the order of the parity group?  $2$ 
What’s the underlying set of the parity group?  $set{textual content{even}, textual content{odd}}$ 
What’s the id factor of the parity group?  $textual content{even}$ 
What’s the operation of the parity group?  Addition of even and odd numbers. 
$textual content{even} + textual content{even} = $  $textual content{even}$ 
$textual content{even} + textual content{odd} = $  $textual content{odd}$ 
$textual content{odd} + textual content{even} = $  $textual content{odd}$ 
$textual content{odd} + textual content{odd} = $  $textual content{even}$ 
Is the parity group Abelian? Why or why not?  Sure, as a result of addition commutes. 
Instance: Logical Consequence
From my notes on logic:
The 2 notions of logical consequence are:
 Semantic Consequence: $Q$ is a semantic consequence of $P$ iff, in each
interpretation the place $P$ is true, $Q$ can also be true. That is denoted $P
fashions Q$.  Syntactic Consequence: $Q$ is a syntactic consequence of $P$ iff there
exists a proof from $P$ to $Q$. That is denoted $P vdash Q$.
Semantic consequence is about interpretations, whereas semantic consequence is
about proofs.
We start with probably the most fundamental query:
Query  Reply 

What are the 2 notions of logical consequence?  Semantic and syntactic. 
Then we ask questions particularly about semantic consequence:
Query  Reply 

Outline semantic consequence  $Q$ is a semantic consequence of $P$ iff in each interpretation the place $P$ is true, $Q$ can also be true. 
What’s the notation for “$Q$ is a semantic consequence of $P$”?  $P fashions Q$ 
What does $P fashions Q$ imply?  $Q$ is a semantic consequence of $P$ 
Semantic consequence connects sentences by…  Iterpretations. 
Which notion of logical consequence includes interprerations?  Semantic consequence. 
After which about syntactic consequence:
Query  Reply 

Outline syntactic consequence  $Q$ is a syntactic consequence of $P$ iff there’s a proof from $P$ to $Q$. 
What’s the notation for “$Q$ is a syntactic consequence of $P$”?  $P vdash Q$ 
What does $P vdash Q$ imply?  $Q$ is a syntactic consequence of $P$ 
Syntactic consequence connects sentences by…  Proofs. 
Which notion of logical consequennce includes proofs?  Syntactic consequence. 
Instance: Periodization
Timelines are an amazing instance of how breaking data down hierarchically
may also help you be taught lengthy sequences. Generally the breakdown is already accomplished for
us.
The geologic time scale (GTS) divides the geological file of the Earth
into 4 nested time models:
 The eon is the biggest unit. Eons final a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of years.
 Eons are additional divided into eras, which final tens to a whole bunch of
hundreds of thousands of years.  Eras are divided into durations, which final hundreds of thousands to tens of hundreds of thousands of
years.  Lastly, durations are divided into epochs, which final a whole bunch of
hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years.
The 4 eons, from oldest to most uptodate, are:
 Hadean (4.5Gya to 4Gya)
 Archean (4Gya to 2.5Gya)
 Proterozoic (2.5Gya to 538Mya)
 Phanerozoic (538Mya to current)
We need to be taught the next issues:
 What the geologic time scale is.
 The way it divides the Earth’s historical past.
 The 4 eons.
Let’s start with the only flashcards, the definition of the GTS:
Query  Reply 

What’s the geologic time scale?  The timeline of Earth’s historical past. 
What’s the time period for the timeline of Earth’s historical past?  The geologic time scale. 
The subdivisions kind a sequence, from oldest to most uptodate: eon, period, interval,
epoch. So let’s feed it into the sequence script. Right here’s the
enter:
Geologic Time Items
Eon
Period
Interval
Epoch
Working cat models.txt  ./sequence.py > models.csv
and importing models.csv
into Mochi, we get these flashcards:
Query  Reply 

Geologic Time Items: Recall all components of the sequence  Eon, Period, Interval, Epoch. 
Geologic Time Items: What factor has place 1?  Eon. 
Geologic Time Items: What factor has place 2?  Period. 
Geologic Time Items: What factor has place 3?  Interval. 
Geologic Time Items: What factor has place 4?  Epoch. 
Geologic Time Items: What’s the place of Eon?  1. 
Geologic Time Items: What’s the place of Period?  2. 
Geologic Time Items: What’s the place of Interval?  3. 
Geologic Time Items: What’s the place of Epoch?  4. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes after Eon?  Period. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes after Period?  Interval. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes after Interval?  Epoch. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes earlier than Period?  Eon. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes earlier than Interval?  Period. 
Geologic Time Items: What comes earlier than Epoch?  Interval. 
You most likely don’t want all of those. You may most likely get away with simply
these:
Query  Reply 

What are the models of the geologic time scale, from largest to smallest?  Eon, period interval, epoch. 
What’s the largest unit within the geologic time scale?  The eon. 
What’s the secondlargest unit within the geologic time scale?  The period. 
What’s the thirdlargest unit within the geologic time scale?  The interval. 
What’s the smallest unit within the geologic time scale?  The epoch. 
Now, since this can be a idea hierarchy, we additionally ask the “what’s” questions.
Query  Reply 

What’s an eon?  A division of the geologic time scale. 
What’s an period?  A division of the geologic time scale. 
What’s an interval?  A division of the geologic time scale. 
What’s an epoch?  A division of the geologic time scale. 
And, since models have a period, we ask what for the period. We do that
forwards and backwards:
Query  Reply 

What’s the period of an eon?  Lots of of hundreds of thousands of years. 
Which geologic unit lasts a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of years?  Eons. 
What’s the period of an period?  Tens to a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of years. 
Which geologic unit lasts tens to a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of years?  Eras. 
What’s the period of a interval?  Hundreds of thousands to tens of hundreds of thousands of years. 
Which geologic unit lasts hundreds of thousands to tens of hundreds of thousands of years?  Durations. 
What’s the period of an epoch?  Lots of of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years. 
Which geologic unit lasts a whole bunch of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years?  Epochs. 
Now, the 4 eons. These kind a sequence, we don’t do the entire sequence script
factor once more, since you’ve got most likely, once more, simply use these:
Query  Reply 

Checklist eons from oldest to latest  Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic. 
What’s the first eon?  Hadean 
What’s the second eon?  Archean 
What’s the third eon?  Proterozoic 
What’s the fourth eon?  Phanerozoic 
We additionally ask when every eon started and ended, forwards and backwards:
Query  Reply 

When did the Hadean start?  4.5 Gya 
When did the Hadean finish?  4 Gya 
Which eon started 4.5 Gya?  Hadean 
Which eon ended 4 Gya?  Hadean 
When did the Archean start?  4 Gya 
When did the Archean finish?  2.5 Gya 
Which eon started 4 Gya?  Archean 
Which eon ended 2.5 Gya?  Archean 
When did the Proterozoic start?  2.5 Gya 
When did the Proterozoic finish?  538 Mya 
Which eon started 2.5 Gya?  Proterozoic 
Which eon ended 538 Mya?  Proterozoic 
When did the Phanerozoic start?  538 Mya 
When did the Phanerozoic finish?  Current 
Which eon started 538 Mya?  Phanerozoic 
Which eon is ongoing?  Phanerozoic 
Instance: Rational Numbers
Let’s commit this to spaced repetition:
The set of rational numbers, denoted $mathbb{Q}$, is the set of fractions with
integer numerator and denominator, the place the denominator is nonzero.
Formally:
[mathbb{Q} = left{, frac{p}{q} ,, middle ,, p, q in Z land q neq 0 ,right}]The $mathbb{Q}$ stands for quotient.
Let’s visualize the idea graph as we construct up the flashcards. We begin with
the central node, the idea of the rational numbers:
Then we add a notation node, linked by two ahead and backwards questions:
Query  Reply 

What’s the notation for the set of rational numbers?  $mathbb{Q}$. 
What does $mathbb{Q}$ stand for?  The set of rational numbers. 
Formal in addition to casual definitions:
Query  Reply 

Informally, what’s the set of rational numbers?  The set of fractions with integer numerator and denominator, the place the denominator is nonzero. 
Formally, what’s the set of rational numbers?  $mathbb{Q} = left{, frac{p}{q} ,, center ,, p, q in Z land q neq 0 ,proper}$ 
What is the time period for the set of integer fractions?  The rational numbers. 
What’s the identify of this set? $left{, frac{p}{q} ,, center ,, p, q in Z land q neq 0 ,proper}$  The rational numbers. 
And a ultimate notice on notation: what the $mathbb{Q}$ stands for:
Query  Reply 

What are the rational numbers denoted by $mathbb{Q}$?  Q for quotient. 
Instance: Common Expressions
That is an instance about asking questions in two methods.
These playing cards go from an idea to a regex:
Query  Reply 

What regex matches the beginning of a line?  ^ 
What regex matches the tip of a line?  $ 
What regex matches a digit?  d 
Along with the above, add playing cards that go from the regex to the idea:
Query  Reply 

What does ^ match? 
The beginning of a line. 
What does $ match? 
The tip of a line. 
What does d match? 
A digit 09. 
Instance: Voltage
That is an instance of asking questions in several methods
The voltage between two factors $A$ and $B$ will be outlined as both:
Voltage will be outlined as:
 The distinction in electrical potential between the 2 factors.
 The quantity of labor accomplished by a $1C$ particle because it travels from $A$ to $B$.
The concept right here is:
 We first ask for the definition of voltage by way of each electrical
potential and work.  We additionally ask what’s the time period for every definition.
Which supplies us the next flashcards:
Query  Reply 

What’s voltage by way of electrical potential?  Distinction in electrical potential between two factors. 
What’s voltage by way of work?  Work accomplished by a 1C particle because it travels from A to B. 
What’s the time period for the distinction in electrical potential between two factors?  Voltage. 
What’s the time period for the work accomplished by a 1C particle because it travels between two factors?  Voltage. 
Instance: Isomers
Two chemical compounds are mentioned to be isomers of one another if they’ve the
identical chemical method (identical variety of atoms of every factor) however their
threedimensional construction differs.
Isomers will be divided into:
 Structural Isomers: the chemical method is identical however the atoms are
bonded in a different way.  Stereoisomers: the chemical method and the bonds are the identical however the
spatial association is completely different. These are divided into: Conformational Isomers: will be intercoverted by rotating a few sigma
bond.  Configurational Isomers: can’t be interconverted with out breaking a
bond. These are additional subdivided into: Enantiomers: nonsuperposable mirror pictures. Additionally referred to as optical
isomers due to the way in which they mirror planepolarized mild.  Diastereomers: not enantiomers. One vital subtype is:
 Cis/Trans Isomers: happen when two practical teams can discover
themselves on the identical or reverse sides of a inflexible construction. When
each practical teams are on the identical aspect of the inflexible construction,
that may be a cis isomer; when they’re on reverse sides, that may be a
trans isomer.
 Cis/Trans Isomers: happen when two practical teams can discover
 Enantiomers: nonsuperposable mirror pictures. Additionally referred to as optical
 Conformational Isomers: will be intercoverted by rotating a few sigma
That is an instance of a cis isomer:
That is an instance of a trans isomer:
That is pretty easy: we now have to be taught a hierarchy of
definitions. We’ll divide this into two duties:
 First, definitions. Ask questions from the time period to the definition and from
the definition to the time period.  Second, hierarchy: ask about subtypes and supertypes.
So let’s start with the definitions. First we ask the questions within the ahead
path:
Query  Reply 

What’s an isomer?  Two compounds are isomers after they have the identical chemical method however completely different 3D buildings. 
What are structural isomers?  Compounds with the identical method however the atoms have a distinct bond graph.. 
What are stereoisomers?  Compounds with the identical method and bond graph however completely different spatial association. 
What are conformational isomers?  Isomers that may be interconverted by rotating a few sigma bond. 
What are configurational isomers?  Isomers that can’t be interconverted with out breaking a bond. 
What are enantiomers?  Nonsuperposable mirror pictures. 
What are diastereomers?  Stereoisomers that aren’t enantiomers. 
What are cis/trans isomers?  Isomers the place two practical teams are on the identical or reverse sides of a inflexible construction. 
And now the definitions, within the backward path:
Query  Reply 

What’s the time period for compounds with the identical chemical method however completely different 3D buildings?  Isomer 
What’s the time period for isomers with the identical method however a distinct bond graph?  Structural Isomer 
What’s the time period for isomers which have the identical bond graph completely different spatial association?  Stereoisomer 
What’s the time period for isomers that may be interconverted by rotating a few sigma bond?  Conformational Isomer 
What’s the time period for isomers that can’t be interconverted with out breaking a bond?  Configurational Isomer 
What’s the time period for nonsuperposable mirror pictures?  Enantiomer 
What’s the time period for stereoisomers that aren’t enantiomers?  Diastereomer 
What’s the time period for isomers the place two practical teams are on the identical or reverse sides of a inflexible construction?  Cis/Trans Isomer 
We left some data out, to maintain the playing cards atomic, now we now have to ask
inquiries to recall that data:
Query  Reply 

What’s one other time period for enantiomer?  Optical isomer. 
Why are enantiomers additionally referred to as optical isomers?  Due to the way in which they mirror planepolarized mild. 
What’s an optical isomer?  One other time period for enantiomer. 
What’s a cis isomer?  One with each practical teams on the identical aspect of a inflexible construction. 
What’s the time period for an isomer with each practical teams on the identical aspect a inflexible construction.  A cis isomer. 
What’s a trans isomer?  One with each practical teams on the identical aspect of a inflexible construction. 
What’s the time period for an isomer with each practical teams on the identical aspect a inflexible construction.  A trans isomer. 
Now we transfer on to the hierarchy, which connects these ideas. We first ask the
questions within the downward path, from dad or mum to little one:
Query  Reply 

What are the subtypes of isomers?  Structural isomers, stereoisomers. 
What are the subtypes of stereoisomers?  Conformational isomers, configurational isomers. 
What are the subtypes of configurational isomers?  Enantiomers, diastereomers. 
What are the subtypes of diastereomers?  Cis/trans isomers. 
And now within the upward path:
Query  Reply 

Structural isomers are a type of …  Isomer 
Stereoisomers are a type of …  Isomer 
Conformational isomers are a type of …  Stereoisomer 
Configurational isomers are a type of …  Stereoisomer 
Enantiomers are a type of …  Configurational isomer 
Diastereomers are a type of …  Configurational isomer 
Cis/trans isomers are a type of …  Diastereomer 
And, lastly, the examples:
Query  Reply 

What sort of isomer is that this?  A cis isomer. 
What sort of isomer is that this?  A trans isomer. 
Instance: Months of the Yr
Suppose you need to memorize:
 January
 February
 March
 April
 Could
 June
 July
 August
 September
 October
 November
 December
The indextoelement flashcards:
Query  Reply 

What’s the 1st month of the yr?  January 
What’s the 2nd month of the yr?  February 
What’s the third month of the yr?  March 
What’s the 4th month of the yr?  April 
What’s the fifth month of the yr?  Could 
What’s the sixth month of the yr?  June 
What’s the seventh month of the yr?  July 
What’s the eighth month of the yr?  August 
What’s the ninth month of the yr?  September 
What’s the tenth month of the yr?  October 
What’s the eleventh month of the yr?  November 
What’s the twelfth month of the yr?  December 
The elementtoindex flashcards:
Query  Reply 

January is the … month of the yr.  1 
February is the … month of the yr.  2 
March is the … month of the yr.  3 
April is the … month of the yr.  4 
Could is the … month of the yr.  5 
June is the … month of the yr.  6 
July is the … month of the yr.  7 
August is the … month of the yr.  8 
September is the … month of the yr.  9 
October is the … month of the yr.  10 
November is the … month of the yr.  11 
December is the … month of the yr.  12 
The successor flashcards:
Query  Reply 

What comes after January?  February 
What comes after February?  March 
What comes after March?  April 
What comes after April?  Could 
What comes after Could?  June 
What comes after June?  July 
What comes after July?  August 
What comes after August?  September 
What comes after September?  October 
What comes after October?  November 
What comes after November?  December 
And the predecessor flashcards:
Query  Reply 

What comes earlier than February?  January 
What comes earlier than March?  February 
What comes earlier than April?  March 
What comes earlier than Could?  April 
What comes earlier than June?  Could 
What comes earlier than July?  June 
What comes earlier than August?  July 
What comes earlier than September?  August 
What comes earlier than October?  September 
What comes earlier than November?  October 
What comes earlier than December?  November 
2## Instance: Powers of Two {#powers}
Let’s memorize the primary sixteen powers of two:
[begin{align*}2^{2} &= 4
2^{3} &= 8
2^{4} &= 16
2^{5} &= 32
2^{6} &= 64
2^{7} &= 128
2^{8} &= 256
2^{9} &= 512
2^{10} &= 1024
2^{11} &= 2048
2^{12} &= 4096
2^{13} &= 8192
2^{14} &= 16384
2^{15} &= 32768
2^{16} &= 65536
end{align*}]
The ahead playing cards ask for the ability:
Query  Reply 

$2^2$  $4$ 
$2^3$  $8$ 
$2^4$  $16$ 
$2^5$  $32$ 
$2^6$  $64$ 
$2^7$  $128$ 
$2^8$  $256$ 
$2^9$  $512$ 
$2^{10}$  $1024$ 
$2^{11}$  $2048$ 
$2^{12}$  $4096$ 
$2^{13}$  $8192$ 
$2^{14}$  $16384$ 
$2^{15}$  $32768$ 
$2^{16}$  $65536$ 
Whereas the backwards playing cards ask for the exponent from the ability:
Query  Reply 

$log_2 4$  $2$ 
$log_2 8$  $3$ 
$log_2 16$  $4$ 
$log_2 32$  $5$ 
$log_2 64$  $6$ 
$log_2 128$  $7$ 
$log_2 256$  $8$ 
$log_2 512$  $9$ 
$log_2 1024$  $10$ 
$log_2 2048$  $11$ 
$log_2 4096$  $12$ 
$log_2 8192$  $13$ 
$log_2 16384$  $14$ 
$log_2 32768$  $15$ 
$log_2 65536$  $16$ 
Lastly, I’ve a take a look at card that asks me to recall your complete sequence so as.
Instance: Rilke
Let’s memorize this poem:
Archaic Torso of Apollo
Rainer Maria Rilke
We can’t know his legendary head
with eyes like ripening fruit. And but his torso
remains to be suffused with brilliance from inside,
like a lamp, during which his gaze, now turned to low,
gleams in all its energy. In any other case
the curved breast couldn’t dazzle you so, nor might
a smile run by means of the placid hips and thighs
to that darkish middle the place procreation flared.
In any other case this stone would appear defaced
beneath the translucent cascade of the shoulders
and wouldn’t glisten like a wild beast’s fur:
wouldn’t, from all of the borders of itself,
burst like a star: for right here there isn’t any place
that doesn’t see you. You will need to change your life.
You may run this by means of the sequence script, however that appears a
bit chilly and mechanical. We’ll use the poetry script as a substitute,
which exhibits us two strains of context and asks us to finish the subsequent line. The
generated flashcards are:
Query  Reply 

Starting … 
We can’t know his legendary head 
Starting We can’t know his legendary head … 
with eyes like ripening fruit. And but his torso 
We can’t know his legendary head with eyes like ripening fruit. And but his torso … 
remains to be suffused with brilliance from inside, 
with eyes like ripening fruit. And but his torso remains to be suffused with brilliance from inside, … 
like a lamp, during which his gaze, now turned to low, 
remains to be suffused with brilliance from inside, like a lamp, during which his gaze, now turned to low, … 
gleams in all its energy. In any other case 
And so forth. You get the sample.
A number of these guidelines can be unimaginable to use if we needed to write all of the
flashcards by hand: it will merely be too tiresome. Happily we now have
automation.
I put up the scripts I take advantage of in this repository. These are largely based mostly on
Gwern’s scripts.
Sequence Script
The sequence.py
script generates flashcards for studying a sequence, in accordance
to the ideas in Rule: Learning Sequences.
Given a file greek.txt
as enter:
Greek Alphabet
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
We are able to run cat greek.txt  ./sequence.py > playing cards.csv
, and this may generate the next:
Query  Reply 

Greek Alphabet: Recall all components of the sequence  Alpha, Beta, Gamma. 
Greek Alphabet: What factor has place 1?  Alpha. 
Greek Alphabet: What factor has place 2?  Beta. 
Greek Alphabet: What factor has place 3?  Gamma. 
Greek Alphabet: What’s the place of Alpha?  1. 
Greek Alphabet: What’s the place of Beta?  2. 
Greek Alphabet: What’s the place of Gamma?  3. 
Greek Alphabet: What comes after Alpha?  Beta. 
Greek Alphabet: What comes after Beta?  Gamma. 
Greek Alphabet: What comes earlier than Beta?  Alpha. 
Greek Alphabet: What comes earlier than Gamma?  Beta. 
Plus the cloze card:
Cloze 

Greek Alphabet: Components of the sequence: [[Alpha]], [[Beta]], [[Gamma]]. 
Poetry Script
The poetry.py
script generates flashcards the place you’re given two strains of a
poem and must recall the subsequent line. For an instance of utilizing this, see
here.
Most individuals use Anki. It’s open supply, has plenty of plugins, and has a
free card sync service. That is the default selection.
I take advantage of Mochi. It has a a lot nicer UI than Anki, which helps in
sustaining the behavior as a result of it’s extra nice to make use of. It additionally helps cloze
deletion for images out of the field, versus counting on a
plugin.
The one Anki function I care about that Mochi lacks is notice sorts. Anki’s notice
sorts allow you to generate a number of playing cards from the identical structured data. For
instance, you might have a “Chemical Aspect” notice sort with fields like “Title”,
“Image”, “Atomic Quantity”, and card templates like:
Query  Reply 

What’s the image of {identify}?  {image} 
What’s the atomic variety of {identify}?  {z} 
What factor has the image {image}?  {identify} 
What factor has atomic quantity {z}?  {identify} 
So from one notice (“Hafnium”, “Hf”, “72”) you routinely derive 4
flashcards. And should you edit the notice information, all of the playing cards get up to date. Mochi
lacks this function, in observe it’s not horrible, and you will get a lot of the
method there with cloze deletions.
Essentially the most cited useful resource on writing flashcards is a basic 1999 article by
Piotr Woźniak, creator of SuperMemo. The article is Effective
learning: twenty rules of formulating knowledge and I endorse most of
it. Let me reiterate the vital components:
 Perceive earlier than memorizing: the ideas must be clear in your head
earlier than you attempt to commit them to reminiscence. “Readability” is a fuzzy factor, however what
I do is dig, increase, make clear till I really feel comfy formulating information.  Playing cards ought to be atomic, and will consult with the smallest potential
conceptual models.  Keep away from attempting to memorize lengthy sequences.
 Keep away from attempting to memorize massive unordered units of issues.
 Maintain the wording easy.
 Redundancy is nice. Do repeat your self!
I hope that you will see that these guidelines and examples helpful. Now go choose up a
textbook and be taught one thing helpful.