Now Reading
Eleanor cross – Wikipedia

Eleanor cross – Wikipedia

2023-12-10 23:47:17

Any one in every of a sequence of monuments to Eleanor of Castile in England

Geddington, Northamptonshire, the best-preserved of the unique crosses, and the one triangular one
Map

Websites of the Eleanor crosses

The Eleanor crosses have been a sequence of twelve tall and lavishly adorned stone monuments topped with crosses erected in a line down a part of the east of England. King Edward I had them constructed between 1291 and about 1295 in reminiscence of his beloved spouse Eleanor of Castile. The King and Queen had been married for 36 years and he or she stayed by the King’s facet by way of his many travels. Whereas on a royal progress, she died within the East Midlands in November 1290, maybe on account of fever. The crosses, erected in her reminiscence, marked the nightly resting-places alongside the route taken when her physique was transported to Westminster Abbey close to London.

The crosses stood at Lincoln, Grantham and Stamford, all in Lincolnshire; Geddington and Hardingstone in Northamptonshire; Stony Stratford in Buckinghamshire; Woburn and Dunstable in Bedfordshire; St Albans and Waltham (now Waltham Cross) in Hertfordshire; Cheapside in London; and Charing (now Charing Cross) in Westminster.

Three of the medieval monuments – these at Geddington, Hardingstone and Waltham Cross – survive kind of intact; however the different 9, aside from a number of fragments, are misplaced. The biggest and most ornate of the twelve was the Charing Cross. A number of memorials and elaborated reproductions of the crosses have been erected, together with the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross at Charing Cross Station (constructed 1865).

Background[edit]

Procession and burials[edit]

Eleanor of Castile, Queen Consort of England 1272–90

Eleanor of Castile died on 28 November 1290 at Harby, Nottinghamshire. Edward and Eleanor beloved one another and very similar to his father, Edward was very dedicated to his spouse and remained devoted to her all through their married lives. He was deeply affected by her demise and displayed his grief by erecting twelve so-called Eleanor crosses, one at every place the place her funeral cortège stopped for the evening.[1]

Following her demise the physique of Queen Eleanor was carried to Lincoln, about 7 miles (11 km) away, the place she was embalmed – in all probability both on the Gilbertine priory of St Catherine within the south of the town, or on the priory of the Dominicans.[2] Her viscera, much less her coronary heart, have been buried within the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral on 3 December.[3] Eleanor’s different stays have been carried to London, a journey of about 180 miles (290 km), that lasted 12 days. Her physique was buried in Westminster Abbey, on the toes of her father-in-law King Henry III on 17 December; whereas her coronary heart was buried within the church of the London Dominicans’ priory at Blackfriars (a home that she and Edward had closely patronised) on 19 December, together with these of her younger son Alphonso, Earl of Chester, who had died in 1284, and of John de Vesci, who had died in 1289.[4]

Commemoration[edit]

Tomb monuments[edit]

Each the burial of Eleanor’s physique at Westminster and her visceral burial at Lincoln have been subsequently marked by ornate effigial monuments, each with comparable life-sized gilt bronze effigies solid by the goldsmith William Torell.[5][6] Her coronary heart burial on the Blackfriars was marked by one other elaborate monument, however in all probability not with a life-sized effigy.[7][8][9] The Blackfriars monument was misplaced following the priory’s dissolution in 1538.[7][9] The Lincoln monument was destroyed within the seventeenth century, however was changed in 1891 with a reconstruction, not on the location of the unique.[10][11][12] The Westminster Abbey monument survives.

Crosses[edit]

Illumination from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (c. 1412–1416) depicting a cross probably representing one of many montjoies of Louis IX[13]

The twelve crosses have been erected to mark the locations the place Eleanor’s funeral procession had stopped in a single day. Their development is documented within the executors’ account rolls, which survive from 1291 to March 1294, however not thereafter.[14] By the top of that interval, the crosses at Lincoln, Hardingstone, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St Albans and Waltham have been full or almost so, and people at Cheapside and Charing in progress; however these at Grantham, Stamford and Geddington apparently not but begun. It’s assumed that these final three have been erected in 1294 or 1295, and that they have been actually completed earlier than the monetary disaster of 1297 which introduced a halt to royal constructing works.[15] Quite a few artists labored on the crosses, because the account rolls present, with a distinction usually drawn between the principle buildings, made domestically below the route of grasp masons appointed by the King, and the statues of Eleanor, fabricated from Caen stone, and different sculptural particulars, introduced from London. Grasp masons included Richard of Crundale, Roger of Crundale (in all probability Richard’s brother), Michael of Canterbury, Richard of Stow, John of Battle and Nicholas Dymenge.[15] Sculptors included Alexander of Abingdon and William of Eire, each of whom had labored at Westminster Abbey, who have been paid £3 6s. 8d. apiece for the statues; and Ralph of Chichester.[16][17][18][19]

Objective and parallels[edit]

Eleanor’s crosses seem to have been supposed partially as expressions of royal energy; and partially as cenotaphs to encourage prayers for her soul from travellers.[20][21][22] On the pedestal of every was inscribed the phrase Orate professional anima (“Pray for [her] soul”).[23]

It was not unknown for memorial crosses to be constructed within the center ages, though they have been usually remoted cases and comparatively easy in design. A cross within the Strand, close to London, was mentioned to have been erected by William II in reminiscence of his mom, Queen Matilda (d. 1083). Henry III erected one at Merton, Surrey, for his cousin the Earl of Surrey (d. 1240). One other was erected at Reading for Edward I’s sister Beatrice (d. 1275). One more, virtually up to date with the Eleanor crosses, was erected close to Windsor for Edward’s mom, Eleanor of Provence (d.1291).[24][25][26]

The closest precedent for the Eleanor crosses, and virtually actually their mannequin, was the sequence of 9 crosses often called montjoies erected alongside the funeral route of King Louis IX of France in 1271. These have been elaborate buildings incorporating sculptural representations of the King, and have been erected partially to advertise his canonisation (a marketing campaign that in 1297 succeeded). Eleanor’s crosses by no means aspired to this final goal, however in design have been even bigger and extra ornate than the montjoies, being of a minimum of three quite than two tiers.[13][27][28][24][29]

Areas[edit]

Lincoln[edit]

The surviving fragment of the Lincoln cross

(53°12′51″N 00°32′47″W / 53.21417°N 0.54639°W / 53.21417; -0.54639)
Eleanor rested on the primary evening of the journey at The Priory of Saint Katherine without Lincoln and her viscera have been buried in Lincoln Cathedral on 3 December 1290. The Lincoln cross was constructed between 1291 and 1293 by Richard of Stow at a complete recorded value of over £120, with sculptures by William of Eire.[30][31] John Leland, within the early 1540s, famous that “a litle with out Barre [gate] is a very reasonable crosse and huge”.[32] It stood at Swine Inexperienced, St Catherine’s, an space simply exterior the town on the southern finish of the High Street, however had disappeared by the early 18th century. The one surviving piece is the decrease half of one of many statues, rediscovered within the Nineteenth century and now within the grounds of Lincoln Castle.[33]

Grantham[edit]

2015 plaque in Grantham

(52°54′37″N 00°38′25″W / 52.91028°N 0.64028°W / 52.91028; -0.64028)
Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 4 December 1290 in Grantham, Lincolnshire.[34][35] The grasp mason for the cross right here isn’t recognized: it was in all probability constructed in 1294 or 1295. It stood on the higher finish of the Excessive Road. It was pulled down through the Civil War, however in February 1647 Grantham Company ordered that any stones that may very well be traced must be recovered for public use. No half is understood to outlive, however it’s conceivable that the substantial steps of the standing Market Cross comprise stones that initially belonged to the Eleanor Cross. A letter from the 18th-century antiquary William Stukeley (now untraceable) is alleged to have said that he had one of many lions from Eleanor’s coats of arms in his backyard.[36]

A contemporary reduction stone plaque to Eleanor was put in on the Grantham Guildhall in 2015.[37]

Stamford[edit]

(52°39′22″N 00°29′37″W / 52.65611°N 0.49361°W / 52.65611; -0.49361)
Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 5 December 1290, and probably additionally that of 6 December, in Stamford, Lincolnshire.[34][35] The grasp mason for the cross right here isn’t recognized: it was in all probability constructed in 1294 or 1295. There’s conflicting proof about its exact location, however it’s now usually agreed that it stood simply exterior the city on the Great North Road (fashionable Casterton Street, the B1081), in what’s at the moment the Foxdale space.[38][39]

The cross was in decay by the early seventeenth century, and in 1621 the city council ordered some restoration work, though it’s unclear whether or not this was carried out.[40] Richard Symonds reported in 1645: “Within the hill earlier than ye come into the towne, stands a lofty massive crosse constructed by Edward III [sic], in reminiscence of Elianor his queene, whose corps rested there coming from the North.”[41] In 1646 Richard Butcher, the City Clerk, described it as “so defaced, that solely the Ruins appeare to my eye”.[42][38][39] It had in all probability been destroyed by 1659, and definitely by the early 18th century.[38][43]

In 1745, William Stukeley tried to excavate the stays of the cross, and succeeded to find its hexagonal base[44] and recovering a number of fragments of the superstructure. His sketch of the highest portion, which appears to have stylistically resembled the Geddington Cross, is present in his diaries within the Bodleian Library, Oxford.[38][45][39] A single small fragment from amongst Stukeley’s finds, a carved Purbeck marble rose, was rediscovered in about 1976, and recognized as a part of the cross in 1993.[38][39] Following the closure of Stamford Museum in 2011, this fragment is now displayed within the Uncover Stamford space on the city’s library.

A contemporary monument was erected in Stamford in 2009 in commemoration of Eleanor: see Replicas and imitations beneath.

Geddington[edit]

The Geddington cross

(52°26′15″N 00°41′07″W / 52.43750°N 0.68528°W / 52.43750; -0.68528)
Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of both 6 or 7 December 1290, or probably each, in Geddington, Northamptonshire.[34][35] The grasp mason for the cross right here isn’t recognized: it was in all probability constructed in 1294 or 1295. It was recorded by William Camden in 1607;[46] and nonetheless stands within the centre of the village, the best-preserved of the three survivors.[47] It’s distinctive among the many three in having a triangular plan, and a taller and extra slender profile with a decrease tier solely lined with rosette diapering, as an alternative of the arch-and-gable motif with tracery which seems on each the others; and canopied statues surmounted by a slender hexagonal pinnacle.[48] It’s potential that the opposite northern crosses (Lincoln, Grantham and Stamford) have been in the same comparatively easy fashion; and that this displays both the necessity to in the reduction of expenditure within the latter levels of the venture for monetary causes,[49] or a choice taken on the starting stage to make the crosses progressively bigger and extra ornate because the sequence proceeded south.[50]

An engraving of the Geddington cross (drawn by Jacob Schnebbelie and engraved by James Basire) was printed by the Society of Antiquaries in its Vetusta Monumenta sequence in 1791.[51][52] It was “discreetly” restored in 1892.[48]

Hardingstone, Northampton[edit]

The Hardingstone cross

(52°13′02″N 00°53′50″W / 52.21722°N 0.89722°W / 52.21722; -0.89722)
Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 8 December 1290, and maybe additionally that of seven December, at Hardingstone, on the outskirts of Northampton.[34][35] The cross right here was constructed between 1291 and 1292 by John of Battle, at a complete recorded value of over £100.[30] William of Eire and Ralph of Chichester carved the statues.[53][54] A causeway main from the city to the cross was constructed by Robert son of Henry.[55] The cross continues to be standing, near Delapré Abbey, on the facet of the A508 main out of Northampton, and simply north of the junction with the A45. The King stayed close by at Northampton Castle.

The monument is octagonal in form and set on steps; the current steps are replacements. It’s inbuilt three tiers, and initially had a crowning terminal, presumably a cross.[56] The terminal seems to have passed by 1460: there may be point out of a “headless cross” on the web site from which Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, watched Margaret of Anjou‘s flight following the Battle of Northampton.[57] The monument was restored in 1713, to mark the Peace of Utrecht and the top of the War of the Spanish Succession, and this work included the becoming of a brand new terminal within the type of a Maltese cross.[58][59] Additional repairs have been undertaken in 1762.[60] At a later restoration in 1840, below the route of Edward Blore, the Maltese cross was changed by the picturesque damaged shaft which is seen at the moment.[61] Later, much less intrusive restorations have been undertaken in 1877 and 1986.[54][62] Additional restoration work was accomplished in 2019.[63]

The underside tier of the monument options open books. These in all probability included painted inscriptions of Eleanor’s biography and of prayers for her soul to be mentioned by viewers, now misplaced.

John Leland, within the early 1540s, recorded it as “a proper goodly crosse, caullid, as I remembre, the Quenes Crosse”, though he appears to have related it with the 1460 Battle of Northampton.[64] It is usually referred to by Daniel Defoe in his Tour thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, in reporting the Nice Fireplace of Northampton in 1675: “… a townsman being at Queen’s Cross upon a hill on the south facet of the city, about two miles (3.2 km) off, noticed the hearth at one finish of the city then newly begun, and that earlier than he may get to the city it was burning on the remotest finish, reverse the place he first noticed it.”

Celia Fiennes in 1697 describes it as “a Cross, a mile off the city name’d Excessive-Cross – it stands simply in the midst of England – its all stone 12 stepps which runs spherical it, above that’s the stone carv’d finely and there are 4 massive Nitches concerning the center, in every is the statue of some queen at size which encompasses it with different carvings as garnish, and so it rises much less and fewer to the highest like a tower or Piramidy.”[65][66]

An engraving of the Hardingstone cross (drawn by Jacob Schnebbelie and engraved by James Basire) was printed by the Society of Antiquaries in its Vetusta Monumenta sequence in 1791.[67][52]

Stony Stratford[edit]

Plaque in Stony Stratford

(plaque at 52°03′32″N 00°51′24″W / 52.05889°N 0.85667°W / 52.05889; -0.85667)

Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 9 December 1290 at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire.[34][35] The cross right here was constructed between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a complete recorded value of over £100.[30] The provider of the statues is unsure, however some smaller carvings have been supplied by Ralph of Chichester.[55] The cross stood on the decrease finish of the city, in the direction of the River Ouse, on Watling Street (now the Excessive Road), though its precise location is debated. It’s mentioned to have been of a tall elegant design (maybe much like that at Geddington). It was described by William Camden in 1607 as minus elegantem (“not one of the fairest”), suggesting that it was by this date in a state of decay.[68] It’s mentioned to have been demolished in about 1643. In 1735, William Hartley, a person of almost 80, may bear in mind solely the bottom nonetheless standing.[69][70] Any hint has now vanished.

The cross is commemorated by a brass plaque on the wall of 157 Excessive Road.[71]

Woburn[edit]

(roughly at 51°59′20″N 00°37′10″W / 51.98889°N 0.61944°W / 51.98889; -0.61944)

Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 10 December 1290 at Woburn, Bedfordshire.[34][35] Work on the cross right here began in 1292, later than among the others, and was accomplished within the spring of 1293. It was constructed by John of Battle, at a complete recorded value of over £100.[30] As at Stony Stratford, the provider of the statues is unsure, however among the carvings have been supplied by Ralph of Chichester.[55][69][72] No a part of the cross survives. Its exact location, and its destiny, are unknown.

Dunstable[edit]

(51°53′10″N 00°31′16″W / 51.88611°N 0.52111°W / 51.88611; -0.52111)

Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 11 December 1290 at Dunstable, Bedfordshire.[34][35] It rested first available in the market place, earlier than being carried into Dunstable Priory church, the place the canons prayed in an in a single day vigil.[73] The cross was constructed between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a complete recorded value of over £100.[30] A number of the sculpture was equipped by Ralph of Chichester.[74][69] It’s thought to have been positioned in the midst of the city, in all probability available in the market place, and was reported by William Camden as nonetheless standing in 1586.[75] It’s mentioned to have been demolished in 1643 by troops below the Earl of Essex.[76] No half survives, though among the foundations are reported to have been found throughout roadworks at the start of the twentieth century.[77][78]

The Eleanor’s Cross Buying Precinct in Excessive Road North comprises a contemporary statue of Eleanor, erected in 1985.[79]

St Albans[edit]

Plaque on the Clock Tower, St Albans

(51°45′04″N 00°20′26″W / 51.75111°N 0.34056°W / 51.75111; -0.34056)

Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 12 December 1290 at St Albans, Hertfordshire.[34][35] The cross right here was constructed between 1291 and 1293 by John of Battle at a complete recorded value of over £100,[30] with among the sculpture equipped by Ralph of Chichester.[80][74][81] It was erected on the south finish of the Market Place, and for a few years stood in entrance of the fifteenth-century Clock Tower within the Excessive Road, reverse the Waxhouse Gateway entrance to the Abbey.

In 1596, it was described as “verie stately”.[81] Nevertheless, having fallen into decay, and having in all probability been additional broken through the Civil Warfare, it was finally demolished in 1701–02, to get replaced by a market cross. This was demolished in flip in 1810, though the city pump it contained survived a little bit longer. A drinking fountain was erected on the location by philanthropist Isabella Worley in 1874: this was relocated to Victoria Sq. close by within the late twentieth century.[80][82][83]

A late Nineteenth-century ceramic plaque on the Clock Tower commemorates the Eleanor cross.

Waltham (now Waltham Cross)[edit]

The Waltham cross

(51°41′09″N 00°01′59″W / 51.68583°N 0.03306°W / 51.68583; -0.03306)
Eleanor’s bier spent the evening of 13 December 1290 within the parish of Cheshunt, Hertfordshire.[34][35] The cross right here was inbuilt about 1291 by Roger of Crundale and Nicholas Dymenge at a complete recorded value of over £110.[30] It in all probability turned often called Waltham Cross as a result of it stood on the technique to Waltham Abbey, throughout the River Lea in Essex, which was clearly seen from its web site. The sculpture was by Alexander of Abingdon, with some gadgets equipped by Robert of Corfe.[84][74][85] The cross was positioned exterior the village of Waltham, however because the village grew right into a city within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, it started to undergo injury from passing site visitors. In 1721, on the instigation of William Stukeley and on the expense of the Society of Antiquaries, two oak bollards have been erected “to safe Waltham Cross from damage by carriages”.[86][87] The bollards have been subsequently eliminated by the turnpike commissioners, and in 1757 Stukeley organized for a protecting brick plinth to be erected as an alternative, on the expense of Lord Monson.[88][89] The cross continues to be standing, however has been restored on a number of events, in 1832–34, 1885–92, 1950–53, and 1989–90.[90][91][92]

The Society of Antiquaries printed an engraving of the cross by George Vertue from a drawing by Stukeley in its Vetusta Monumenta sequence in 1721; and one other, engraved by James Basire from a drawing by Jacob Schnebbelie, in the identical sequence in 1791.[93][94][88]

The unique statues of Eleanor, which have been extraordinarily weathered, have been changed by replicas on the Nineteen Fifties restoration.[95] The originals have been stored for some years at Cheshunt Public Library; however they have been eliminated, probably within the Nineteen Eighties, and at the moment are held by the Victoria & Albert Museum.[88] {A photograph} previously on the Lowewood Museum web site[96] reveals one of many unique statues in entrance of a staircase on the library.

Westcheap (now Cheapside)[edit]

The coronation procession of Edward VI passing the Cheapside cross in 1547: a Nineteenth-century wooden engraving primarily based on a misplaced mural at Cowdray House, Sussex

(51°30′51″N 00°05′41″W / 51.51417°N 0.09472°W / 51.51417; -0.09472)

Eleanor’s bier reached the City of London on 14 December 1290, and a web site for the cross was chosen in Westcheap (now Cheapside).[34][35] Her coronary heart was buried within the Blackfriars priory on 19 December.[4] The Cheapside cross was constructed from 1291 onwards by Michael of Canterbury at a complete recorded value of £226 13s. 4d.[30][97]

Beneath a licence granted by Henry VI in 1441, the cross was extensively restored or rebuilt in 1484–86.[98] It was subsequently regilded a number of instances within the Sixteenth century on the event of coronations and royal visits to the Metropolis.[99][100] John Stow included an in depth account of the cross and its historical past in his Survay of London of 1598, updating it in 1603.[100]

Though a lot of pictures of the cross and its eventual destruction are recognized, these all postdate its varied refurbishments, and so present no sure information to its unique look.[97] Nevertheless, the chronicler Walter of Guisborough refers to this and Charing Cross as being usual of “marble”; and it’s seemingly that it was much like the Hardingstone and Waltham Crosses, however much more ornate and boasting some Purbeck marble facings.[97][101]

The cross got here to be thought to be one thing of a public hazard, each as a site visitors obstruction and due to considerations about fragments of stone falling off; whereas within the post-Reformation interval a few of its Catholic imagery aroused resentment, and components have been defaced in 1581, 1599 and 1600–01.[99][100][102] Issues got here to a head through the years main as much as the Civil Warfare. To puritanical reformers, it was recognized with Dagon, the traditional god of the Philistines, and was seen because the embodiment of royal and Catholic custom. Not less than one riot was fought in its shadow, as opponents of the cross descended upon it to drag it down, and supporters rallied to cease them. After Charles I had fled London to lift a military, the destruction of the cross was virtually the primary order of enterprise for the Parliamentary Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry, led by Sir Robert Harley, and it was demolished on 2 Might 1643.[103][104] The downfall of the Cheapside Cross is a crucial episode of iconoclasm in English historical past.

Two Purbeck marble fragments of the unique cross, displaying shields bearing the royal arms of England and of Castile and León, have been recovered in 1838 throughout reconstruction of the sewer in Cheapside. They’re now held by the Museum of London.[105]

Charing (now Charing Cross)[edit]

The cross at Charing Cross, Westminster

(51°30′26″N 00°07′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750)
Eleanor’s bier spent the ultimate evening of its journey, 16 December 1290, within the Royal Mews at Charing, Westminster, a number of hundred yards north of Westminster Abbey.[34][35] The world subsequently turned often called Charing Cross. The cross right here was the most costly of the twelve, constructed of Purbeck marble from 1291 onwards by Richard of Crundale, the senior royal mason, with the sculptures equipped by Alexander of Abingdon, and a few gadgets by Ralph de Chichester. Richard died within the autumn of 1293, and the work was accomplished by Roger of Crundale, in all probability his brother. The whole recorded value was over £700.[30][106][107][108]

See Also

The cross stood exterior the Royal Mews, on the high of what’s now Whitehall, and on the south facet of what’s now Trafalgar Square. John Norden in about 1590 described it because the “most stately” of the sequence, however by this date so “defaced by antiquity” as to have turn out to be “an previous weather-beaten monument”.[109] It was additionally famous by William Camden in 1607.[110]

It was ordered to be taken down by Parliament in 1643, and was finally demolished in 1647.[111][112] Following the demolition, a recent ballad ran:[113]

Undone! undone! the legal professionals cry,
They ramble up and down;
We all know not the way in which to Westminster
Now Charing-Cross is down.

After the Restoration of Charles II, an equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur was erected on the location of the cross in 1675, and this nonetheless stands. The situation continues to be often called Charing Cross, and for the reason that early Nineteenth century this level has been thought to be the official centre of London, in laws and when measuring distances from London.[114]

A brand new Eleanor cross was erected in 1865 exterior Charing Cross railway station, a number of hundred yards from the unique web site: see Replicas and imitations beneath.

A 100-metre-long (330-foot) mural by David Gentleman on the platform partitions of Charing Cross underground station, commissioned by London Transport in 1978, depicts, within the type of wood engravings, the story of the constructing of the medieval cross by stonemasons and sculptors.[115]

Folk etymology holds that the identify Charing derives from French chère reine (pricey queen);[116] however the identify “Charing” for the world in reality pre-dates Eleanor’s demise and possibly comes from the Anglo-Saxon phrase ċerring, which means a bend, because it stands on the surface of a pointy bend within the River Thames (examine Charing in Kent).[117][118][119]

Replicas and imitations[edit]

In the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a number of reproduction Eleanor crosses, or monuments extra loosely impressed by them, have been erected.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris, Marc (2009). A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain. Windmill Books. pp. 230–231. ISBN 978-0-09-948175-1.
  2. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 32–34.
  3. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 344.
  4. ^ a b Cockerill 2014, p. 344.
  5. ^ Colvin 1963, pp. 481–82.
  6. ^ Alexander and Binski 1987, pp. 364–66.
  7. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 482–83.
  8. ^ Hunter 1842, pp. 186–87.
  9. ^ a b Galloway 1914, pp. 79–80.
  10. ^ Kendrick, A. F. (1917). The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: a history and description of its fabric and a list of the bishops. London: G. Bell and Sons. pp. 130–31.
  11. ^ Parsons 1995, p. 208.
  12. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 68–69 (offers the misguided date of 1901).
  13. ^ a b Evans, Joan (1949). “A prototype of the Eleanor crosses”. Burlington Magazine. 91: 96–97.
  14. ^ Botfield and Turner 1841.
  15. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 483–4.
  16. ^ Hastings 1955, pp. 20–21.
  17. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 65.
  18. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 357.
  19. ^ Liversidge 1989.
  20. ^ Chronicle of St Albans.
  21. ^ Colvin 1963, p. 485.
  22. ^ Cockerill 2014, pp. 351–52.
  23. ^ Hunter 1842, p. 180.
  24. ^ a b Colvin 1963, pp. 484–85.
  25. ^ Parsons 1991, pp. 18, 60.
  26. ^ Parsons 1995, p. 209.
  27. ^ Branner, Robert (1967). “The Montjoies of Saint Louis”. In Fraser, Douglas; Hibbard, Howard; Lewine, Milton J. (eds.). Essays within the Historical past of Structure introduced to Rudolf Wittkower. London: Phaidon. pp. 13–16.
  28. ^ Zukowsky, John (1974). “Montjoies and Eleanor Crosses reconsidered”. Gesta. 13 (1): 39–44. doi:10.2307/766698. JSTOR 766698. S2CID 193389410.
  29. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 351.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i Colvin 1963, p. 483.
  31. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 68.
  32. ^ Toulmin Smith, Lucy, ed. (1907). The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535–1543. Vol. 1. London: George Bell and Sons. p. 30.
  33. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 65–67.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Powrie 1990, p. 194.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cockerill 2014, p. 345.
  36. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 80–81.
  37. ^ “Plaque harking back to Queen Eleanor memorial cross to be unveiled at Grantham’s Guildhall”. Grantham Journal. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  38. ^ a b c d e Smith, John F. H. (1994). “A fraction of the Stamford Eleanor Cross”. Antiquaries Journal. 74: 301–311. doi:10.1017/S0003581500024471. S2CID 162279263.
  39. ^ a b c d “Stamford Eleanor Cross”. Lincs To The Previous. Lincolnshire Archives. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  40. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 83.
  41. ^ Symonds, Richard (1859). Long, Charles Edward (ed.). Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army during the Great Civil War. Camden Society. Westminster: Camden Society. p. 230.
  42. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 69.
  43. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 82–84.
  44. ^ Stukeley notes the bottom elsewhere as each hexagonal and octagonal (see Smith 1994, p. 311, n. 10); however his floor plan at Bodleian Library, MS Eng. misc. e. 126, fol. 18, confirms that what he discovered was hexagonal.
  45. ^ Cockerill 2014, pp. 355, 367, plate 46.
  46. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 377.
  47. ^ Powrie 1990, 105–6.
  48. ^ a b Historic England. “Queen Eleanor’s Cross (Grade I) (1286992)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  49. ^ Liversidge 1989, p. 100.
  50. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 357.
  51. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. Vol. 3. 1791. p. 14.
  52. ^ a b Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 362.
  53. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 72–73.
  54. ^ a b Powrie 1990, pp. 124–26.
  55. ^ a b c Hunter 1842, p. 183.
  56. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus; Cherry, Bridget (2002). Northamptonshire. Buildings of England (2nd ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 353–54. ISBN 0-300-09632-1.
  57. ^ Page, William, ed. (1930). “The Borough of Northampton”. A History of the County of Northampton. Vol. 3. London. p. 3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location lacking writer (link)
  58. ^ Lovell 1892, pp. 27–28.
  59. ^ Warrington 2018, pp. 110–12.
  60. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 72.
  61. ^ Salzman, L. F., ed. (1937). “Hardingstone”. A History of the County of Northampton. Vol. 4. London. p. 253.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location lacking writer (link)
  62. ^ Historic England. “The Eleanor Cross (Grade I) (1039797)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  63. ^ “Eleanor Cross: Conservation of Northampton monument complete”. BBC Information. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  64. ^ Toulmin Smith, Lucy, ed. (1907). The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535–1543. Vol. 1. London: George Bell and Sons. p. 8.
  65. ^ Morris, Christopher, ed. (1949). The Journeys of Celia Fiennes (2nd ed.). London: Cresset Press. pp. 118–19.
  66. ^ Fiennes, Celia. “1697 Tour: Coventry to London”. A Imaginative and prescient of Britain by way of Time. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  67. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. Vol. 3. 1791. p. 12.
  68. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 280.
  69. ^ a b c Galloway 1914, p. 73.
  70. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 129–30.
  71. ^ “Stony Stratford: Queen Eleanor’s Cross”. Milton Keynes Heritage Affiliation. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  72. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 130.
  73. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 347.
  74. ^ a b c Hunter 1842, p. 184.
  75. ^ Camden, William (1607) [1586]. Britannia. London. p. 286.
  76. ^ Lovell 1892, p. 32.
  77. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 73–74.
  78. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 135–36.
  79. ^ Dunstable cross Archived 15 July 2006 on the Wayback Machine on the Bedfordshire web site.]
  80. ^ a b Powrie 1990, p. 141.
  81. ^ a b Galloway 1914, p. 74.
  82. ^ Kitton, F. G. (1901). “The Clock Tower, St Albans: its origin and history” (PDF). St Albans and Hertfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society Transactions. n.s. 1: 298–319 (308).
  83. ^ Page, William, ed. (1908). “The Metropolis of St Albans: Introduction”. A History of the County of Hertford. Vol. 2. London. p. 470.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location lacking writer (link)
  84. ^ Image of the cross at Waltham.
  85. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 148–49.
  86. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 149–50.
  87. ^ Boulting, Nikolaus (1976). “The legislation’s delays: conservationist laws within the British Isles”. In Fawcett, Jane (ed.). The Way forward for the Previous: attitudes to conservation, 1174–1974. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8230-7184-5.
  88. ^ a b c Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 363.
  89. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 75.
  90. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 151–52.
  91. ^ Historic England. “Eleanor Cross (Grade I) (1173222)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  92. ^ Historic England. “Eleanor Cross, Waltham Cross (1017471)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  93. ^ “Plate 1.7: Engraving of Waltham Cross”. Vetusta Monumenta: Historical Monuments: A Digital Version. 1721. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  94. ^ Vetusta Monumenta. Vol. 3. 1791. p. 16.
  95. ^ [1] Archived 2 October 2011 on the Wayback Machine
  96. ^ [2] Archived 2 October 2011 on the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ a b c Powrie 1990, p. 165.
  98. ^ Powrie 1990, p. 166.
  99. ^ a b Powrie 1990, pp. 165–66.
  100. ^ a b c Stow, John (1908) [1603]. Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge (ed.). A Survey of London. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 265–67.
  101. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 356.
  102. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 76–77.
  103. ^ Cockerill 2014, p. 368.
  104. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 77.
  105. ^ Alexander and Binski 1987, p. 364.
  106. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 177–78.
  107. ^ Hunter 1842, pp. 184–85.
  108. ^ Galloway 1914, pp. 77–78.
  109. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 78.
  110. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. London. p. 311.
  111. ^ Powrie 1990, pp. 177–79.
  112. ^ Galloway 1914, p. 79.
  113. ^ Mackay, Charles, ed. (1863). “The legal professionals’ lamentation for the lack of Charing-Cross”. The Cavalier Songs and Ballads of England from 1642 to 1684. London: Griffin Bohn & Co. p. 55.
  114. ^ “Where is the centre of London?”. BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  115. ^ Gentleman 1979.
  116. ^ “The Eleanor Crosses”. Eleanor of Castille. Museum of London. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  117. ^ Gover, J. E. B.; Mawer, Allen; Stenton, F. M. (1942). The Place-Names of Middlesex aside from the Metropolis of London. English Place-Name Society. Vol. 18. Cambridge: Cambridge College Press. p. 167. The previous types present that the normal affiliation of the identify with Fr chére reine, close to Queen Eleanor, has no justification.
  118. ^ “Charing Cross – Britannica Online Encyclopedia”. library.eb.co.uk. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  119. ^ Bebbington, Helen (1972). London Street Names. London: Batsford. p. 81. ISBN 9780713401400.
  120. ^ Ilam photograph
  121. ^ “Charing Cross”. Community Rail. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  122. ^ “Renovated Eleanor’s Cross in Charing Cross unveiled”. Information London. BBC. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  123. ^ Scott, George Gilbert (1873). The Nationwide Memorial to His Royal Highness the Prince Consort. London: John Murray. pp. 16, 35–36.
  124. ^ Historic England. “Loudoun Monument (Grade II*) (1073662)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  125. ^ “Eleanor Cross, 2009, Stamford, U.K.” www.wolfgangbuttress.com. Retrieved 14 June 2009.

Additional studying[edit]

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]


Source Link

What's Your Reaction?
Excited
0
Happy
0
In Love
0
Not Sure
0
Silly
0
View Comments (0)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

2022 Blinking Robots.
WordPress by Doejo

Scroll To Top