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Enigma Historical past

Enigma Historical past

2023-10-31 07:35:48


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The rotor-based cipher machines

Invention of the Rotor Machine (1915)

The historical past of the Enigma
begins round 1915, with the invention of the
rotor-based cipher machine. As traditional in historical past, the rotor machine was
invented roughly concurrently in numerous components of the world.
In 1917 there have been innovations from Edward Hebern within the US,
Arvid Damm in Sweden, Hugo Koch in The Netherlands
and Arthur Scherbius in Germany [1][2].

There may be one improvement nevertheless, that pre-dates the others,
and that’s the invention
of Theo A van Hengel (1875-1939) and RPC Spengler (1875-1955), two
Dutch naval officers who produced working
rotor-based cipher machines
for the Dutch Conflict Ministry (Ministerie van Oorlog) in 1915.
This novum has been described intimately by Karl de Leeuw
in Cryptologia in January 2003 [2].

The precise Enigma cipher machine 1 although, was invented and constructed in the direction of the
finish of WWI, in 1917, by Arthur Scherbius and
patented on 23 February 1918.
This so-called Probemaschine, 2 was a prototype that
ultimately developed into the well-known sequence of
glow lamp cipher machines.
Scherbius later acquired patent NL10700
of the Dutch inventor Hugo Koch for the same 3 machine.

 First Enigma prototypes

  1. The title ‘Enigma’ was not but used at that time.
  2. Actually translated: take a look at machine or prototype machine.
  3. Aside from electrical energy, this patent describes the usage of air, oil,
    mechanics and lightweight as the knowledge transport medium.
    It was necessary for the event of the
    Štolba cipher machine.

In 1919, Scherbius began the event of a
fairly giant typewriter-style cipher machine,
which grew to become often known as
Die Handelsmaschine.
It was marketed from 1923 by
Scherbius & Ritter of Berlin-Wannsee (Germany),
and constructed by the corporate Gewerkschaft Securitas,
additionally of Berlin.

Like an everyday typewriter, the machine prints its output instantly
onto a sheet of paper. It was first described in a technical article by
Scherbius himself in 1923 [5].
So far as we all know, not one of the early Handelsmaschinen
have survived.

 More about Die Handelsmaschine 

A 12 months later, in 1924, developement of one other
printing Enigma machine was began, probaby on the request of the
German Reichswehr. Often known as Die schreibende Enigma,
it was by no means extremely popular because it confronted many mechanical issues.

 Die schreibende Enigma


Click to see more

There have been lots of issues with the printing Enigma machines.
The primary ones had reliability points with the print wheel
and the later mannequin with the kind bars. In consequence, the
schreibende Enigma wouldn’t be
an appropriate and dependable resolution for the German Military (Reichswehr).

Because of this, Scherbius took his early
glow-lamp-based based Probemaschine and improved it.
The primary new mannequin was Enigma A,
and was launched in 1924. It additionally grew to become often known as
Glühlampenmaschine (glow lamp machine).

The machine was obtainable for about 1/eighth of the value of the printing Enigma
and costed RM 1000 1 . It was housed in a wood transit case
and resembles later Enigma fashions, apart from the truth that the keys
and the lamps are organized in sequential order
(ABCDE…) fairly than the frequent typewriter order (QWERTZ…).


Click to see more

The usual Enigma C
has 26 keys (A-Z) for the enter and 26 lamps
(A-Z) for the output. The textual content is scrambled by way of three cipher wheels
that protrude the highest lid. Every cipher wheel has 26 contacts at both aspect.
A number of variants of the Enigma C have been produced, such because the so-called
Funkschlüssel C (for the German Navy) and a Swedisch variant,
each with 28 keys.

 More about Enigma C

  1. The forex in Germany in 1924 was the Reichsmark (RM).

Not like the printing Enigma, the glowlamp machines had a reflector (UKW)
that made the machine reciprocal (symmetric). In consequence, the settings
of the machine for encoding and decoding have been an identical, which enormously
improved its usability. The UKW had two or 4 mounted positions.
The concept for the reflector got here from Scherbius’ colleague Willy Korn,
who would later lead the corporate.

In 1926, the design of the glow lamp Enigma was drastically improved.
A brand new chassis was developed and the usual (German) keyboard structure
(QWERTZ…) was launched. Moreover the reflector (UKW) could possibly be set
to 26 totally different positions. It was mounted to the left of the three cipher
wheels, which is why this machine is typically regarded as a 4-wheel

The machine was internally often known as mannequin A26 and have become often known as
the Enigma D. Just like the Enigma C it was housed in a wood
transit case with a hinged lid, however had a number of enhancements.


A lamp lights up when a key is pressed

The wheels could possibly be accessed extra simply (i.e. the highest lid could possibly be
opened), there was an non-compulsory daylight filter for the lamp panel, and
it had an influence selector that was mounted to the appropriate of the cipher wheels.
The Enigma D grew to become the premise for a lot of the later Enigma designs.
Enigma D developed right into a line of economic machines often known as Enigma K,
with a number of variants.

 More about Enigma D

 More about Enigma K

In 1927, a sequence of recent developments have been began, all based mostly on the
chassis of the Enigma D.
Initially there was the Commercial Enigma,
that later grew to become often known as the Enigma K.
There have been a number of variants of this machine, such because the
Swiss K that was constructed for the Swiss Military.

All business Enigma machines had a easy rotor turnover mechanism
that’s akin to the odometer of a automotive. The rightmost rotor makes
a single step on every key press. After the rightmost rotor has accomplished
a full revolution, the center rotor makes a single step and so forth.

On the similar time (1927) the event of a extra superior vary of
machines was began. This vary grew to become often known as
Zählwerk Enigma
(counter Enigma) or Zählwerksmaschine
(counter machine), most likely as a result of
it has a counter that reveals the size of a message (key presses).


The first Zählwerk Enigma (A28) introduced in 1928

Moreover, the Zählwerk Enigma
has a much more superior rotor turnover
mechanism that’s pushed by cogwheels fairly than by pawls and levers.
This permits the mechanism to be wound again as nicely,
which is helpful for correcting errors. The Zählwerk Enigma additionally
introduces the idea of a number of turnover notches, which causes
extra frequent (irregular) rotor stepping.

The three cipher rotors have 11, 15 and 17 turnover notches respectively,
every of that are relative primes of 26, which will increase the interval of the
machine (i.e. the variety of steps earlier than the sequence is repeated).
Moreover, the reflector (UKW) is now a part of the stepping mechanism
and is pushed by the opposite rotors.

The primary Zählwerk Enigma was the model A28.
It was launched in 1928 and was constructed on the chassis of the Enigma D.
A couple of years later, a design variant of the A28 was developed.
It was barely smaller and had smaller cipher rotors.


The Enigma G (model G31) that was introduced in 1931

Though the quantity and place of the turnover notches is an identical
(11, 15 and 17), the rotor diameter is smaller and the cogwheel
pushed mechanism is barely simplified. Launched in
1931 and designated mannequin G31, this machine is
typically known as the Abwehr Enigma.

 More about Zählwerk Enigma A28

 More about Enigma G31

Most likely from the start of Scherbius’ developments in 1917, the German
Military (Reichswehr, from 1935 often known as Wehrmacht), had opted for a machine
that could possibly be used within the discipline and that was safe sufficient to maintain
messages secret for longer intervals of time. Scherbius knew that the very best
attainable safety can be obtained by rising the variety of rotors,
however got here to the conclusion that this was not a viable resolution as a result of
mechanical and sensible contraints.

In 1926, improvement was began for a machine for the Rechswehr identified
as Enigma I. Primarily based on the chassis of Enigma D, it had
3 rotors and a set UKW. Moreover, it had a singular function,
often known as the Schaltbrett (swap board),
that considerably elevated the energy of the cipher.

The primary model of the Enigma I was prepared in 1927 and featured
a single-ended Schaltbrett in a 2 x 13 round association.
After a number of redesigns of the Schaltbrett – by now
often known as Steckerbrett (plug board) – they settled in 1928 for
a a lot simplified double-ended plugboard.


Enigma I with top lid and flap open

It had been designed by the Reichwehr themselves, and is by far the
weakest variant of all examined plugboards. The ultimate model of
Enigma I, with the double-ended plugboard, was put into service
on 1 June 1930. The plugboard was used solely on army
machines, and was not offered to business prospects.
In 1932 the German Military claimed the unique rights to the machine,
after which all business and worldwide gross sales needed to be accepted
by the German Military.

In the meantime, in 1929, producer ChiMaAG had efficiently produced
a brand new and improved model of the ill-fated schreibende Enigma.
It was often known as Enigma H or Model H29 and was designated
Enigma II by the Reichswehr. It was not appropriate with
the glow lamp Enigma I.

The Enigma H29 was additionally offered to the Hungarian Military, however was by no means in
widespread demand as a result of its excessive worth. Aside from the Hungary Military, the Germans
additionally saved promoting Enigma machines to the Swiss and to the Dutch Navy.
It’s identified that the Dutch purchased the Enigma G
as late as 1938.


View of the controls of the Enigma H29 with serial number H-221

Within the mid-Thirties the German Military began getting ready for battle and
started ordering Enigma I in giant portions for the
Reichswehr (Military) and the Luftwaffe (Air Drive).
Enigma G was utilized by the German intelligence service,
the Abwehr.
For the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) a mannequin comparable
to and appropriate with the Enigma I was developed.
It grow to be often known as the Enigma M1 (1934),
later adopted by the Enigma M2 (1938),
Enigma M3 (1940) and eventually Enigma M4 (1942).

 More about Enigma I

The primary Enigma machines have been developed by Arthur Scherbius
between 1917 and 1920,
however have been constructed after the corporate had been dissolved into
Gewerkschaft Securitas and some years later into
Chiffriermaschinen AG.
After Scherbius’ premature loss of life in 1929, the corporate modified
arms, and in 1935, after the German Military had acquired the manufacturing
rights to the Enigma machine, the corporate was dissolved into
the newly established Heimsoeth und Rinke.

Within the historical past of Scherbius and Enigma, the next occasions are
of significance [11]:

  • 1911

    Dipl.-Ing. E. Richard Ritter & Co (family home equipment)

  • 1915

    Scherbius member of the telegraph troops

  • 1917

    Conflict Ministry order for improvement of a cipher machine

  • 1918

    Arthur Scherbius, 1st patent (prototype)

  • 1920

    Scherbius & Ritter

  • 1921

    Gewerkschaft Securitas

  • 1922

    Securitas GmbH (workshop, Berlin, Germany)

  • 1922

    N.V. Ingenieursbureau Securitas (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

  • 1923

    Chiffriermaschinen Aktiengesellschaft

  • 1929

    Scherbius dies in accident

  • 1935

    Heimsoeth und Rinke

From 21 November 1921 to 1925, Scherbius was not within the administration
of the above listed corporations and didn’t personal the vast majority of shares,
apart from his half in Scherbius & Ritter [11].

 Enigma-related patents

Different Enigma producers

As many Enigma machines have been wanted for the German battle effort,
different corporations have been contracted to construct the machines beneath
licence. This additionally decreased the danger of provide issues ought to
any of the manufactures be bombed by the Allies.
With Heimsoeth & Rinke in Berlin being the engineering firm,
the machines have been manufactured by Konski & Krüger in Berlin.
Later, the army machines have been additionally manufactured by
Olympia in Erfurt,
Ertel-Werk in München, and
Atlas-Werke in Bremen, all beneath licence of Heimsoeth und Rinke.

 List of manufacturers

The Polish Breakthrough (1933)

Round 1930, the Polish Cipher Bureau, Biuro Szyfrów, was the primary
to make an try to interrupt the Enigma cipher. As one of many closest
neightbours of Germany, they’re very a lot conscious of the clear and current
hazard of one other battle. They begin researching the business Enigma.

From the College of Poznan, three younger good mathematicians
have been recruited: Marian Rejwski, Jerzy Rózycki and Henryk Zygalski.
They began engaged on the Enigma cipher with nothing extra {that a}
handfull of intercepted messages and an outline of a business Enigma.

Rejewski was set to work on the issue in late 1932 and after a number of
weeks he achieved his first breakthrough, when he deduced the key inner
wiring of the Enigma. Collectively along with his colleagues he began growing
numerous aids for the common decryption of the German site visitors.

Zygalski developed the so-called Zygalski sheets that have been used to
exploit the double-enciphered message indicator 1 ,
a weak point within the German procedures. Later a machine is developed to
exploit this weak point mechanically: the
Bomba kryptologiczna
(the cryptologic bomb).


The Polish Bomba kryptologiczna. Click for further information.

With solely three rotors obtainable for the Enigma I, there are 6 attainable
rotor orders. On the Bomba, six units of Enigma rotors are pushed
concurrently by a cog wheel on the middle. Round 100 intercepted messages
have been wanted to get better the rotor order and preliminary settings.

 More about the Bomba

  1. The double-enciphered message indicators — that had enabled the Poles
    to interrupt a big a part of the Enigma site visitors — dates again to the late
    Nineteen Twenties. It was a part of a proposal on find out how to use the business Enigma.
    In early 1940, newly employed mathematicians at OKW/ln7 found the
    weak point that it launched. The process would ultimately be
    abandonned by the Germans on 1 Could 1940, however by that point WWII had already
    began and the British had beome concerned in codebreaking (see beneath) [10].

In 1933, the Polish Cipher Bureau even obtained entry to the Enigma working
procedures that have been utilized by the German Military. Hans Thilo Schmidt, a German
playboy working on the German Cipher Workplace, wanted cash and offered
infomation to the French secret service. The French, who gave Schmidt the
codename Asché, handed it on to the Poles,
who might then reconstruct the machine.

From 1933 onwards, the Poles intercepted and decrypted a big
portion of the German radio site visitors. In 1938 they observed a rise
within the variety of messages, which confirmed that the
Germans have been most likely getting ready for battle.

Till that time, the Germans had been utilizing a typical Grundstellung
(primary setting) for all site visitors. On 15 September 1938 nevertheless,
this process was abandonned. Across the similar time, two new rotors
(IV, V) have been added to the present three, which multiplied the
most variety of attainable settings by an element of 10.


An Enigma replica built by the Poles. Photograph courtesy David Hamer.

Within the meantime, the Poles had constructed their very own equal of the
Wehrmacht Enigma with a plugboard added in the direction of the rear.
The wiring of the 2 extra rotors was quickly recovered by Rejewski
and suitably wired rotors have been added to the Polish Reproduction. With the
battle imminent, the Poles stared searching for methods to get their data
in a foreign country earlier than it was too late.

Dillwyn (Dilly) Knox
was one of many Room 40 codebreakers throughout
World War I.
Since 1925 he had been making an attempt to interrupt the Enigma machine and had his first
success on 4 April 1937 when he broke Franco’s
Enigma K in the course of the Spanish Civil Conflict.
When Germany began utilizing the Steckered Enigma
for communication between Germany and Spain in 1938,
he mounted an assault on the army Enigma, however didn’t succeed,
as he unable to work out the wiring of the entry disc (ETW).

In 1938, the British GC&CS began discussing the Enigma machine with the
French cipher bureau – Deuxième Bureau – from whom they acquired the main points
that the French had obtained from the German spy Asché.
The French additionally dislosed their contacts with the Poles.
In January 1939, on the first Polish-French-British assembly in Paris (France),
GC&CS was represented by Dilly Knox,
Hugh Foss and Alastair Denniston.
Dilly described the system of rodding that he had developed, however the Poles
had been instructed by their superiors to not disclose any important data
at that assembly.

Dilly had clearly impressed the Poles and on 25-26 July 1939,
with the battle imminent, a second assembly was organized, this time in Poland at
a facility of the Polish Cipher Bureau in a forest close to Pyry, south
of Warsaw (Poland). At this assembly, the Poles revealed their achievements.

Additionally at this assembly, the Poles gave a
replica machine
to each the French and the British.


The outstation of the Polish Cipher Bureay in Pyry

Rejewski had used a distinct strategy to Knox, as he used (mathematical)
permutation principle to resolve the issue, while Knox utilized linguistics.
Nonetheless, the 2 shortly established a great relationship throughout
the convention. Knox additionally realized that the Enigma entry disc was merely
wired in alphabetical order. One thing that neither he nor
Alan Turing had ever thought-about.

The assembly in Pyry was attended by Dilly Knox
as codebreaker, Alastair Denniston
as head of GC&CS (and codebreaker), and Humphrey Sandwith
as head of the Admiralty’s intercept and direction-finding service.
On behalf of the French Deuxième Bureau, Captain Gustave Bertrand was current.
The Polish contribution would quickly show to be of important significance
to the battle effort.

Instantly after the assembly, the Polish Cipher Bureau
destroyed all their secret paperwork and gear, while
the cryptanalysts escaped to France.
A couple of weeks later, on 14 August 1939, Bletchley Park
was established by the British.

Solely two weeks later, on 1 September, Germany invaded Poland and
two days after that, on 3 September, the UK and France
declared battle to Germany. World Conflict II had began, simply 5 weeks
after the Poles had shared their secrets and techniques. Within the early stage of
the battle, the Poles continued to work on Enigma from the French
Cipher Bureau.


The Mansion at Bletchley Park. Click for more information.

Bletchley Park
is an property within the small city of Bletchley
(Milton Keynes, UK), some 45 miles north of London, that grew to become
the house of the
Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS),
the British Cipher Bureau. The placement
was choosen as a result of it had direct railway connections to London,
Cambridge and Oxford, permitting scientists and armed forces personnel to journey

The primary folks to reach at Bletchley Park (BP)
have been skilled codebreakers, chess gamers, mathematicians and folks with
organising expertise. Amongst them:
Dillwyn (Dilly) Knox,
Gordon Welchman,
Alan Turing
and Stuart Milner-Barry.

Knox had already labored for the codebreaking unit Room 40 throughout World
Conflict I, and helped with the decryption of the well-known
Zimmermann Telegram which introduced the US into the battle.
Stuart Milner-Barry was a chess participant and chess author. Gordon Welchman
and Alan Turing each have been mathematicians from Cambridge (UK).


Click to see more

Enigma messages have been initially damaged by hand, utilizing easy pencil
and paper strategies, and with extra instruments just like the so-called
Jeffrey Sheets — the British equal of the
Polish Zygalski Sheets. However as the amount of the site visitors
elevated, Turing needed to search for automated options.

Primarily based on the Polish Bomba
and the knowledge that had been handed by
the Polish codebreakers shortly earlier than the beginning of WWII,
Turing developed the Bombe.
Though the Polish technique of exploiting
the German weak point of the double-encypered message indicator
might not be used, Turing developed a extra common technique
based mostly on Cribs
(items of guessed plain textual content).

 More about the Bombe

The British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, acknowledged
the worth, influence and significance of the intelligence delivered
by Bletchley Park (BP) and its codebreaking equipment.
He launched a brand new stage of secrecy that superceedes all others:
High Secret Extremely, generally abbreviated ULTRA, and demanded that the
supply of this ULTRA intelligence needed to be saved secret in any respect value.

Within the first phases of the battle (1940), the British codebreakers have been
capable of learn the vast majority of radio messages from the German Air Drive
(Luftwaffe) and a modest a part of the Military site visitors (Wehrmacht). The
Naval messages then again, imposed an actual drawback as their working
procedures have been way more difficult.

Moreover, the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) used three extra rotors
(VI, VII and VII)
of which the wiring was initially unknown. These further rotors have been used
solely by the Navy and weren’t shared with the opposite forces.


Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) in the Cabinet War Room

In 1941, Turing achieved a breakthrough when he was working in isolation
in The Cottage at BP.
He found the wiring of the additonal rotors
and the naval message indicator process. Aided by the catch of a big
quantity of codebooks from U-Boot U-110, captured on 9 Could 1941,
Turing managed to discover a manner into the Naval Enigma M3
and to decrypt a part of the naval site visitors.

Apparently, the Kriegsmarine used a posh process that concerned
a number of codebooks, brief message books and substitution tables.
Messages and standing stories have been shortened by translating them
into a brief letter mixture.
The British even develop a singular system for
direction finding, identified
(or Huf-Duf),
as a way to get hold of helpful cribs for the Bombe.

Then, on 2 February 1942, catastrophe struck when the German Navy,
fully out of the blue, launched a brand new Enigma machine. It prompted
an instantaneous black-out for the BP codebreakers.


The Cottage at Bletchley Park where Alan Turing worked in isolation on solving the Naval Enigma

The brand new machine had an additional cipher rotor, inserted
between the leftmost rotor and the reflector. On the similar time,
the indicator system was modified and new codebooks have been launched.
The brand new machine was often known as the Enigma M4
and was used solely
by the U-Boot part of the Kriegsmarine. The Bombes,
that have been made for the 3-rotor Enigma, weren’t appropriate for this.

 More about Enigma M4

The Battle of the Atlantic

Throughout WWII, there was en monumental scarcity of practically every thing within the
UK. Massive convoys of provide ships, the so-called Liberty Ships, travelled
from the US to the UK, bringing folks, meals, ammunition and something
else that was wanted, to wartime Britain and to the Soviet Union [6].

Althoug the Liberty Ships have been designed within the UK,
they have been tailored by the US and have been fast and low cost to construct.
The convoys have been typically protected by army vessels.
Nonetheless they have been a straightforward prey for the German U-boats that have been
organised within the so-called Wolfpacks.

The 4-rotor Enigma M4
had a severe influence on The Battle of the Atlantic.
Because it was not attainable to learn the messages to and from the U-boats,
it was inconceivable to find out the placement of the Wolfpacks,
ensuing monumental losses of ships, folks, provides and battle cargo.


The black-out that began on 2 February 1942, lasted for practically 9
months and value little doubt quite a few lives. Fortunately nevertheless, the tide
modified on 30 October 1942, when new codebooks have been captured from a sinking
U-boat. Within the meantime, Turing had labored out the brand new Naval procedures
and the wiring of the extra rotor. The codebooks accomplished the puzzle.

Because the Bombe
was solely appropriate for attacking 3-rotor Enigma machines,
a number of options have been developed. A 3-rotor Bombe, that contained the
equal of 36 Enigma machines, was modified right into a 24-Enigma
4-rotor Bombe. Though the ensuing machine was fairly gradual, it labored.

A greater resolution was so as to add exterior 4th-rotor attachments
to the present 3-rotor Bombes. Such add-ons have been developed and constructed by
the British Tabulating Firm (BTM) in addition to by the
General Post Office (GPO) at Dollis Hill.
Some options even concerned valve-based expertise.


Lamp panel and wheels of Enigma M4

Lastly, a number of variants of a real 4-rotor Bombe have been constructed.
A few of these featured an additional quick 4th rotor and an digital
valve-based sensing circuit that was developed by
Tommy Flowers
on the GPO in Dollis Hill.
By this time, the US had already entered the battle and after a protracted
dialogue it was determined to share the data in regards to the Bombe expertise
with the American Allies.

This resolution — that allowed the People to develop their very own
4-rotor Bombe — got here simply on the proper time. Because the UK suffered
shortages of practically all types of fabric, it grew to become increasingly more
tough to construct dependable machines.

The People then again, had adequate provides and
sources and have been capable of allocate funding and manufacturing capability
to it. The US Bombe
was developed by Joe Desch, an engineer on the
Nationwide Money Registers (NCR) in Dayton (Ohio).
Growth began on the finish of 1942 and by mid-1943 the primary
US Bombe was prepared.


Click to see more

It seemed to be a lot quicker the UK Bombes
and concerned valve-based digital circuits.
By the tip of 1943, a minimum of 120 machines have been put in and
for the rest of the battle, the US took care of breaking the majority of
the 4-rotor based mostly Enigma messages (i.e. the U-boat site visitors), leaving
a modest a part of it, plus the majority of the 3-rotor site visitors, to the
codebreakers within the UK.

See Also

 More about the US Bombe

The most typical model of the Enigma machine that was damaged by the
codebreakers at Bletchley Park (BP)
was the Enigma I,
the machine that was utilized by the German Military and Air Drive.
The Naval machines, the M3
and M4, have been additionally damaged frequently. Nonetheless,
there have been different Enigma fashions and variants that arequired
the BP codebreaker’s consideration.

Some much less necessary networks, typically used Industrial
Enigma machines. Such machines, usually the Enigma K,
have been additionally utilized by different nations,
reminiscent of Italy, Spain and Switzerland.

One of the vital tough machines to be damaged, seemed to be
the Enigma G. It was a variant of the business Enigma
that had a cog wheel pushed mechanism and a number of turnover notches on
every rotor, inflicting irregular rotor stepping.
Such machines have been utilized by the German Secret Service,
the Abwehr
(therefore the nickname Abwehr Enigma) and couldn’t be damaged by the Bombe.


The Commercial Enigma K, that was used by Spain, Switzerland and Italy. An improved version (Enigma T) was used by the Japanese Army.

The Abwehr networks yielded far much less intercepts than the common military
networks, making it very tough to search out any messages in depth.
Moreover, the Abwehr used totally different keys on every hyperlink, requiring
every radio hyperlink to be damaged individually.
The Enigma G was attacked by a group led by
Dillwyn (Dilly) Knox,
who had labored within the Room 40 codebreaking unit throughout World Conflict I.

Knox had helped to decrypt the Zimmermann Telegram which was accountable
for bringing the USA into WWI. After WWI he joined
GC&CS and as a cryptographer
he was among the many first group of individuals to reach at
Bletchley Park in
August 1939, the place he began working in
The Cottage.

After breaking the Italian Naval Enigma in 1941, one thing that was
decisive in profitable the Battle of Matapan (Greece), he and his group of
feminine codebreakers (often known as Dilly’s Ladies) began engaged on the Abwehr
Enigma, and by the tip of 1941 they’d their first success.


Close-up of Enigma G

After the primary breakthrough in October 1941, a particular unit was established
to work on the Abwehr decrypts. It grew to become often known as
Intelligence Services Knox (ISK)
and by the tip of the battle,
ISK had processed about 140,800 Abwehr messages [7].
Knox himself did not dwell to see the outcomes of his work.
Already identified with lymph most cancers firstly of the battle,
he died in February 1943.
One in all ‘his ladies’ — high codebreaker
Mavis Lever (later: Batey)
who had damaged the Italian Naval Enigma in 1941 —
wrote an affectionate biography about
Dilly Knox
in 2009 [8].

 More about Abwehr Enigma

Earlier than and through World Conflict II, Japan was arguably Germany’s most
necessary ally. Germany primarily fought their battle in Europe, North
Africa and Russia, while Japan took care of the southern hemisphere.
Throughout the battle, Japan had observers in all components of the European battle theatre.

For communication between the observers and their headquarters,
the Japanese used two guide cipher techniques, often known as Sumatra
and TOGO (later: Sumatra 2 and TOGO 2), however they most popular a mechanical
system just like the Enigma.

Though they most popular the Military Enigma I
(with Steckerbrett),
the Germans did not need to give away their most safe Enigma machine.
As a substitute it was agreed in 1942 to construct a particular model of the
commercial Enigma K
with a otherwise wired entry disc (ETW)
and 5 turnover notches on every of the eight rotors.


Click to see more

The Japanese ordered 800 of those machines and the primary items
have been delivered to them in August 1943.
Attributable to materials shortages nevertheless, the complete order was by no means delivered.
Moreover, the Japanese had their doubts in regards to the safety of the
business machine and insisted on having the army variant as an alternative.
In the long run it was agreed that the rest of the order would
include army Enigma I
machines that have been backwards appropriate with the
Enigma T.

 More about Enigma T

On reflection it could appear unusual that the Germans saved utilizing
Enigma for therefore lengthy and that its safety was by no means questioned.
In actuality nevertheless, questions in regards to the cryptographic energy of Enigma had
been raised a number of instances, for instance by U-boat commander
Admiral Karl Dönitz.

On every event, the Military Intelligence Service, (Abwehr)
was requested to research any incidents. However the Abwehr,
who had been answerable for selecting the Enigma within the first
place, all the time concluded that it was imposible to interrupt the machine.
In any case, the British used it as well…

Nonetheless, Donitz saved having doubts and took his personal measures.
Three extra cipher rotors (VI, VII and VIII) have been launched
in 1939 for unique use by ‘his’ Navy and in 1942, out of the
blue, he launched the M4 Enigma.
However these weren’t the one safety measures.


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In 1943, a brand new reflector Umkehrwalze C or UKW-C
(with 4th rotor ‘Gamma’)
was launched as an alternative choice to UKW-B/Beta, nevertheless it was solely
obtainable to a restricted variety of customers.
Nonetheless it was used till the tip of the battle,
typically even blended with UKW-B and 4th rotor ‘Beta’.

In January 1944, a rewirable reflector,
or Dora, was launched. It could possibly be fitted in place
of the present UKW-B and there even was a particular Naval model of it.
Code­books have been up to date to incorporate the UKW-D wiring, which was
modified each 10 days. Nonetheless UKW-D
noticed restricted use because it was tough in operation
and couldn’t be distributed successfully in 1944.

The German Air Drive, the Luftwaffe, took their very own
measures and developed a tool to change the wiring
of the Steckerbrett (plugboard) for every message. It was identified
because the Enigma Uhr.


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The Uhr
was a small wood machine that could possibly be connected to
the appropriate aspect of an Enigma machine and had 20 wires that
have been related to the Steckerbrett as an alternative of the
regular patch cables. A big wood knob on high of the machine
could possibly be set to any of 40 positions, marked 00 – 39.

The Uhr was even mixed with UKW-D
on the so-called Pink key,
making it an actual problem for the codebreakers at Bletchley Park.
Had the Uhr been used appropriately, it would even have defeated them,
however as a result of operator errors it was damaged inside a number of days
after its introduction.

By far essentially the most harmful Enigma enchancment nevertheless,
was the so-called Lückenfüllerwalze
(gap-filling rotor). It had been developed in
1943 by Regierungs-Oberinspektor Menzer,
however was postpone a number of instances because the Enigma was nonetheless
thought-about to be a safe machine on the time.


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In direction of the tip of the battle 12,000 of those rotors have been ordered.
The Lückenfüllerwalze
is a standard Enigma cipher rotor, with programmable turnover
notches, 26 in complete.
It might simply be configured within the discipline and causes irregular
rotor stepping, one thing that would have defeated the codebreakers.
However the battle ended earlier than it was prepared for launch.
After the battle, the American TICOM instantly confiscated the
Lückenfüllerwalze and saved it beneath wraps for a few years.

 More about UKW-D 
 Enigma Uhr 

As soon as the battle was over, the truth that the the Enigma had been damaged
was saved secret for a few years. Aside from a number of exceptions, folks went
on with their lives and a lot of the Bombes
have been dismantled. The captured Enigma machines ended up within the vaults of
GC&CS (later: GCHQ) and the SIS (now: NSA),
or have been utilized by different nations within the consider that
they may not be damaged.

In nations like Norway, Germany and Austria, the
Enigma-I was used
for a few years after the battle, till they have been changed by newer
and higher gear. Hearsay has it that Enigma was additionally utilized in
some African nations.

Surprisingly, there are not any stories about the usage of Enigma by the
Russians, though it’s sure that they captured a number of machines.
For a very long time, historians assumed that the Russians knew nothing
in regards to the Allied codebreaking obtain­ments throughout WWII,
nevertheless it has since grow to be clear that they have been nicely knowledgeable via espionage.


M-125 Fialka showing its 10 cipher wheels

In 1956, the Russians launched the primary model of a classy
rotor-based cipher machine: the M-125
codenamed FIALKA. The machine has 10 rotors
and options irregular stepping, while alternate rotors transfer in reverse
instructions. Extra importantly, it has fixes for just about all identified
design flaws of the Enigma, together with the truth that a letter can’t
be encoded as itself.

Moreover, the Steckerbrett is changed by a card reader and
the machine can function instantly on teleprinter alerts,
permitting the usage of letters and numbers.
It has a built-in tape puncher and reader,
and prints its output instantly onto a paper strip.
Out there in a number of variants, it was utilized by the USSR
and all Warsaw Pact countries.

Shortly after the tip of WWII, the People began the
improvement of a brand new rotor-based cipher machine that will substitute
SIGABA. The machine grew to become often known as
and in addition by its key-procedure
names ADONIS and POLLUX.


KL-7 outside the transport case

KL-7 was utilized by all US Forces
(Navy, Military and Air Drive), in addition to by authorities businesses
just like the FBI, CIA and the White Home itself.
It additionally grew to become the principle cipher machine of the newly established
NATO in post-war Europe.
From the Sixties onwards, rotor-based cipher machines have been
step by step succeeded by digital options, reminiscent of
KW-7, RACE (KL-51) and

Primarily based on a few years of analysis by Frode Weierud, we have been ready
to place collectively essentially the most correct household tree of Enigma machines to this point.
It reveals the connection between the assorted fashions and variants,
and gives lots of extra data.

Please be aware that the tree is predicated on ongoing analysis and is due to this fact
topic to modifications.

 More information


Click to see more

The historical past of the Enigma machine is extraordinarily complicated.
There have been many various fashions and variations,
and so they have been utilized by many various prospects.
Throughout the battle, a mix of army and business
Enigma machines have been utilized by totally different branches of the
battle aparatus.

Primarily based on the above analysis, we have created a timeline
of occasions, patents, enigma fashions, equipment and peripherals.

 More information


Click to see more

Different WWII German Cipher Machines

Moreover, it was determined that the Abwehr Enigma would get replaced
by the SG-41, also known as the Hitlermühle (Hitler Mill)
– an improved model of the Hagelin
developed by Fritz Menzer. It was avalable
in an alphabetical and a numerical variant, however got here too late to
have a big impact on the course of the battle.
Solely a handful of the above machines have survived.

The Enigma wasn’t the one rotor-based cipher machine
that was used throughout World Conflict II. The UK used the so-called
Typex cipher machine
for all high-grade site visitors. Typex — principally a duplicate
of the German Enigma — had 5 cipher rotors, three of which moved
throughout encipherment.
Actually, the British codebreaking centre Bletchley Park
had huts filled with Typex machines that have been transformed into Enigma analogues,
to decrypt German messages as soon as the important thing had been damaged.

So far as we all know, Typex
was by no means damaged by the Germans in the course of the battle,
even if the Germans had captured some machines.
Quite the opposite: the truth that the British used the same machine,
confirmed the German consider that the
Enigma was certainly unbreakable.

The People additionally used rotor machines for a few of their
radio site visitors. For low-grade tactical messages they used the
Hagelin M-209, which they knew could possibly be
damaged by the Germans.
For top-grade site visitors nevertheless, they used the
15-rotor SIGABA, proven
within the picture on the appropriate.


Right angle view of the SIGABA, showing the paper path.

A mixed improvement of US high cryptographers William Friedman,
Frank Rowlett (US Military) and Laurence Safford (US Navy), SIGABA is predicated
on the identical rotor precept as Enigma, however is improved in some ways.
As well as, it prints its output instantly onto a gummed paper strip.

So far as we all know, SIGABA was by no means damaged by the Germans in the course of the battle.
Within the latter a part of the battle, round November 1943, the necessity arose for the
People and the British to securely trade cipher messages.
As they could not agree on which machine was the higher one,
it was determined to outline a typical normal and modify each
machines to adjust to that normal. The frequent machine grew to become identified
as Combined Cipher Machine (CCM).

  1. Wikipedia, Rotor machine
    Retrieved January 2014.

  2. Karl de Leeuw, The Dutch invention of the Rotor Machine, 1915-1923
    Cryptologia, January 2003, Quantity XXVII, #1, pp. 73-94.

  3. Wikipedia, Enigma machine
    Retrieved January 2014.

  4. Dutch Patent NL10700
    7 October 1919. Transferred to Securitas on 5 Could 1922. 1

  5. Dr.-Ing. Arthur Scherbius. Enigma Chiffriermaschine
    Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift. 1923. Heft 47/48. p. 1035-1036.

  6. Wikipedia, Battle of the Atlantic
    Retrieved January 2014.

  7. Wikipedia, Dilly Knox
    Retrieved January 2014.

  8. Mavis Batey, Dilly, The Man Who Broke Enigmas
    2009. Laborious cowl, ISBN 978-1-906447-01-4.

  9. Kruh and Deavours, The Commercial Enigma: Beginnings of Machine Cryptography
    Cryptologia, Quantity XXVI, #1, January 2002.

  10. Frode Weierud, Private correspondence
    August 2017.

  11. Claus Taaks, Scherbius and Enigma Historical past
    Private correspondence, April 2023.

  1. The rights to patent NL10700 have been transferred to Naamloze Vennootschap
    in Amsterdam (Netherlands) on 5 Could 1922 after which to
    Chiffriermaschinen AG in Germany on 28 January 1927.

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© Crypto Museum. Created: Wednesday 14 March 2012. Final modified: Thursday, 20 April 2023 – 13:46 CET.

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