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Hierapolis sawmill – Wikipedia

Hierapolis sawmill – Wikipedia

2023-06-05 13:34:08

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Hierapolis sawmill was a Roman water-powered stone sawmill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). Relationship to the second half of the third century AD,[2] the sawmill is taken into account the earliest identified machine to mix a crank with a connecting rod to kind a crank slider mechanism.[1]

The watermill is evidenced by a raised relief on the sarcophagus of a sure Marcus Aurelius Ammianos, a neighborhood miller. On the pediment a waterwheel fed by a mill race is proven powering through a gear train two frame saws slicing rectangular blocks by the best way of connecting rods and, by mechanical necessity, cranks (see diagram). The accompanying inscription is in Greek and attributes the mechanism to Ammianos’ “expertise with wheels”.[3]

Different sawmills[edit]

Additional Roman crank and connecting rod mechanisms, with out gear practice, are archaeologically attested for the sixth century AD water-powered stone sawmills at Gerasa, Jordan,[4] and Ephesus, Turkey.[5] A fourth sawmill presumably existed at Augusta Raurica, Switzerland, the place a steel crankshaft from the 2nd century AD has been excavated.[6]

Literary references to water-powered marble saws in Trier, Germany, may be present in Ausonius‘ late 4th century AD poem Mosella. About the identical time, additionally they appear to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in lots of components of the Roman Empire.[7]

See Also

The three finds push again the date of the invention of the crank and connecting rod mechanism by a full millennium;[8] for the primary time, all important parts of the a lot later steam engine had been assembled by one technological tradition:

With the crank and connecting rod system, all components for developing a steam engine (invented in 1712) — Hero‘s aeolipile (producing steam energy), the cylinder and piston (in steel power pumps), non-return valves (in water pumps), gearing (in water mills and clocks) — had been identified in Roman occasions.[9]

See additionally[edit]



Roman sawmill at Hierapolis
  • Ritti, Tullia; Grewe, Klaus; Kessener, Paul (2007), “A Aid of a Water-powered Stone Noticed Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications”, Journal of Roman Archaeology, vol. 20, pp. 138–163, doi:10.1017/S1047759400005341
  • Grewe, Klaus (2009), “Die Reliefdarstellung einer antiken Steinsägemaschine aus Hierapolis in Phrygien und ihre Bedeutung für die Technikgeschichte. Internationale Konferenz 13.−16. Juni 2007 in Istanbul”, in Bachmann, Martin (ed.), Bautechnik im antiken und vorantiken Kleinasien (PDF), Byzas (in German), vol. 9, Istanbul: Ege Yayınları/Zero Prod. Ltd., pp. 429–454, ISBN 978-975-8072-23-1, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-11
  • Grewe, Klaus (2010), “La máquina romana de serrar piedras. La representación en bajorrelieve de una sierra de piedras de la antigüedad, en Hierápolis de Frigia y su relevancia para la historia técnica (translation by Miguel Ordóñez)”, Las técnicas y las construcciones de la Ingeniería Romana (PDF), V Congreso de las Obras Públicas Romanas (in Spanish), pp. 381–401
Roman sawmill at Gerasa
  • Seigne, J. (2002a), “Une scierie mécanique au VIe siècle”, Archéologia (in French), vol. 385, pp. 36–37
  • Seigne, J. (2002b), “Sixth-Century Waterpowered Sawmill”, Journal of the Worldwide Society of Molinology, vol. 64, pp. 14–16
  • Seigne, J. (2002c), “A Sixth Century Water-powered Sawmill at Jerash”, Annual of the Division of Antiquities of Jordan, vol. 26, pp. 205–213
Roman sawmill at Ephesos
  • Mangartz, Fritz (2010), Die byzantinische Steinsäge von Ephesos. Baubefund, Rekonstruktion, Architekturteile, Monographs of the RGZM (in German), vol. 86, Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, ISBN 978-3-88467-149-8
Attainable Roman sawmill at Augusta Raurica
  • Schiöler, Thorkild (2009), “Die Kurbelwelle von Augst und die römische Steinsägemühle”, Helvetia Archaeologica (in German), vol. 40, no. 159/160, pp. 113–124

Additional studying[edit]

  • Seigne, J. (2006), “Water-powered Stone Saws in Late Antiquity. The Precondition for Industrialisation?”, in Wiplinger, G. (ed.), Cura Aquarum in Ephesos. Proceedings of the twelfth Int. Congress on the Historical past of Water Administration and Hydraulic Engineering within the Mediterranean Area, Ephesus/Selçuk, Turkey, October 2-10, 2004, Vol. 1, Babesch suppl. 12, Leiden: Peeters, pp. 383–390, ISBN 978-90-429-1829-0
  • Wikander, Örjan (2000), “Industrial Functions of Water-Energy”, in Wikander, Örjan (ed.), Handbook of Historic Water Expertise, Expertise and Change in Historical past, vol. 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 401–412, ISBN 90-04-11123-9
  • Wikander, Örjan (2008), “Sources of Power and Exploitation of Energy”, in Oleson, John Peter (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Expertise within the Classical World, New York: Oxford College Press, pp. 136–157, ISBN 978-0-19-518731-1
  • Wilson, Andrew (2002), “Machines, Energy and the Historic Financial system”, The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 92, pp. 1–32, doi:10.2307/3184857, JSTOR 3184857

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