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Intuitive Information to Convolution – BetterExplained

Intuitive Information to Convolution – BetterExplained

2023-12-03 01:37:41

Like making engineering college students squirm? Have them clarify convolution and (when you’re barbarous) the convolution theorem. They will mutter one thing about sliding home windows as they attempt to escape by one.

Convolution is often launched with its formal definition:

displaystyle{ (f * g )(t) = int_{-infty}^infty f(tau) g(t - tau) dtau }

Yikes. Let’s begin with out calculus: Convolution is fancy multiplication.

Half 1: Hospital Analogy

Think about you handle a hospital treating sufferers with a single illness. You could have:

  • A remedy plan: [3] Each affected person will get 3 models of the treatment on their first day.
  • A listing of sufferers: [1 2 3 4 5] Your affected person rely for the week (1 individual Monday, 2 individuals on Tuesday, and so forth.).

Query: How a lot medication do you utilize every day? Nicely, that is only a fast multiplication:

Plan  *  Sufferers       = Day by day Utilization
[3]   *  [1 2 3 4 5]    = [3 6 9 12 15]

Multiplying the plan by the affected person record provides the utilization for the upcoming days: [3 6 9 12 15]. On a regular basis multiplication (3 x 4) means utilizing the plan with a single day of sufferers: [3] * [4] = [12].

Instinct For Convolution

As an instance the illness mutates and requires a multi-day remedy. You create a brand new plan: Plan: [3 2 1]

Meaning 3 models of the treatment on the primary day, 2 on the second, and 1 on the third. Okay. Given the identical affected person schedule [1 2 3 4 5], what’s our drugs utilization every day?

Uh… shoot. It is not a fast multiplication:

  • On Monday, 1 affected person is available in. It is her first day, so she will get 3 models.
  • On Tuesday, the Monday gal will get 2 models (her second day), however two new sufferers arrive, who get 3 every (2 * 3 = 6). The overall is 2 + (2 * 3) = 8 models.
  • On Wednesday, it is trickier: The Monday gal finishes (1 unit, her final day), the Tuesday individuals get 2 models (2 * 2), and there are 3 new Wednesday individuals… argh.

The sufferers are overlapping and it is onerous to trace. How can we manage this calculation?

An concept: think about flipping the affected person record, so the primary affected person is on the proper:

           Begin of line
 5 4 3 2 1

Subsequent, think about now we have 3 separate rooms the place we apply the correct dose:

 Rooms     3 2 1              

In your first day, you stroll into the primary room and get 3 models of drugs. The following day, you stroll into room #2 and get 2 models. On the final day, you stroll into room #3 and get 1 unit. There isn’t any rooms afterwards, and your remedy is completed.

To calculate the entire medication utilization, line up the sufferers and stroll them by the rooms:

 Rooms                  3 2 1                                      
 Sufferers       5 4 3 2 1

 Utilization                  3

On Monday (our first day), now we have a single affected person within the first room. She will get 3 models, for a complete utilization of three. Is smart, proper?

On Tuesday, everybody takes a step ahead:

 Rooms                  3 2 1              
 Sufferers ->      5 4 3 2 1

 Utilization                  6 2      = 8

The primary affected person is now within the second room, and there is 2 new sufferers within the first room. We multiply every room’s dose by the affected person rely, then mix.

Each day we simply stroll the record ahead:

 Rooms                  3 2 1              
 Sufferers ->        5 4 3 2 1

 Utilization                  9 4 1    = 14

 Rooms                  3 2 1              
 Sufferers ->          5 4 3 2 1

 Utilization                 12 6 2    = 20

 Rooms                  3 2 1              
 Sufferers ->            5 4 3 2 1

 Utilization                 15 8 3    = 26

Whoa! It is intricate, however we figured it out, proper? We will discover the utilization for any day by reversing the record, sliding it to the specified day, and mixing the doses.

The overall day-by-day utilization appears like this (do not forget Sat and Solar, since some sufferers started on Friday):

Plan      *  Affected person Listing   = Complete Day by day Utilization

[3 2 1]   *  [1 2 3 4 5]    = [3 8 14 20 26 14 5]
              M T W T F        M T W  T  F  S  S

This calculation is the convolution of the plan and affected person record. It is a fancy multiplication between a listing of enter numbers and a “program”.

Interactive Demo

This is a live demo. Attempt altering F (the plan) or G (the affected person record). The convolution $c(t)$ matches our guide calculation above.

(We outline capabilities $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ to pad every record with zero, and regulate for the record index beginning at 1.)

You are able to do a fast convolution with Wolfram Alpha:

ListConvolve[{3, 2, 1}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, {1, -1}, 0]
{3, 8, 14, 20, 26, 14, 5}

(The additional {1, -1}, 0 aligns the lists and pads with zero.)

Software: COVID Ventilator Utilization

I began this text 5 years in the past (instinct takes some time…), however sadly the analogy is related as we speak.

Let’s use convolution to estimate ventilator utilization for incoming sufferers.

  • Set $f(x)$ because the % of sufferers needing ventilators. For instance, [.05 .03 .01] means 5% of sufferers want ventilators the primary week, 3% the second week, and 1% the third week.
  • Set $g(x)$ because the weekly incoming sufferers, in hundreds.
  • The convolution $c(t) = f * g$, exhibits what number of ventilators are wanted every week (in hundreds). $c(5)$ is what number of ventilators are wanted 5 weeks from now.

Let’s attempt it out:

  • F = [.05, .03, .01] is the ventilator use share by week
  • G = [10, 20, 30, 20, 10, 10, 10], is the incoming hospitalized sufferers. It begins at 10k per week, rises to 30k, then decays to 10k.

With these numbers, we count on a max ventilator use of two.2k in 2 weeks:


The convolution drops to 0 after 9 weeks as a result of the affected person record has run out. On this instance, we’re within the peak worth the convolution hits, not the long-term complete.

Different plans to convolve could also be drug doses, vaccine appointments (one as we speak, one other a month from now), reinfections, and different complicated interactions.

The hospital analogy is the psychological mannequin I want I had when studying. Now that we have tried it with precise numbers, let’s add the Math Juice and convert the analogy to calculus.

Half 2: The Calculus Definition

So, what occurred in our instance? We had a listing of sufferers and a plan. If the plan had been easy (single day [3]), common multiplication would have labored. As a result of the plan was complicated, we needed to “convolve” it.

Time for some Enjoyable Info™:

  • Convolution is written $f * g$, with an asterisk. Sure, an asterisk often signifies multiplciation, however in superior calculus class, it signifies a convolution. Common multiplication is simply implied ($fg$).

  • The results of a convolution is a brand new operate that provides the entire utilization for any day (“What was the entire utilization on day $t=3$?”). We will graph the convolution over time to see the day-by-day totals.

Now the massive aha: Convolution reverses one of many lists! This is why.

Let’s name our remedy plan $f(x)$. In our instance, we used [3 2 1].

The record of sufferers (inputs) is $g(x)$. Nonetheless, we have to reverse this record as we slide it, so the earliest affected person (Monday) enters the hospital first (first in, first out). This implies we have to use $g(-x)$, the horizontal reflection of $g(x)$. [1 2 3 4 5] turns into [5 4 3 2 1].

Now that now we have the reversed record, choose a day to compute ($t = 0, 1, 2…$). To slip our affected person record by this a lot, we use: $g(-x + t)$. That’s, we reverse the record ($-x$) and leap to the right day ($+t$).

Now we have our state of affairs:

  • $f(x)$ is the plan to make use of
  • $g(-x + t)$ is the record of inputs (flipped and slid to the proper day).

To get the entire utilization on day $t$, we multiply every affected person with the plan, and sum the outcomes (an integral). To account for any potential size, we go from -infinity to +infinity.

Now we will describe convolution formally utilizing calculus:


(Like colorized math? There’s extra.)

Phew! That is fairly few symbols. Some notes:

  • We use a dummy variable $tau$ (tau) for the intermediate computation. Think about $tau$ as knocking on every room ($tau={0, 1, 2, 3…}$), discovering the dosage [$f(tau)$], the variety of sufferers [$g(t – tau)$], multiplying them, and totaling issues within the integral. Yowza. The so-called “dummy” variable $tau$ is like i in a for loop: it is short-term, however does the work. (By analogy, $t$ is a world variable has a hard and fast worth through the loop: it is the day we’re calculating the utilization for, reminiscent of t = Day 5).
  • Within the official definition, you will see $g(t – tau)$ as an alternative of $g(- tau+ t)$. The second model exhibits the flip ($-tau$) and slide ($+t$). Writing $g(t – tau)$ makes it seem to be we’re within the distinction between the variables, which confused me.
  • The remedy plan (program to run) known as the kernel: you convolve a kernel with an enter.

Not too dangerous, proper? The equation is a proper description of the analogy.

Half 3: Mathematical Properties of Convolution

We won’t uncover a brand new math operation with out taking it for a spin. Let’s have a look at the way it behaves.

Convolution is commutative: f * g = g * f

In our computation, we flipped the affected person record and stored the plan the identical. May now we have flipped the plan as an alternative?

You guess. Think about the sufferers are motionless, and keep of their rooms: [1 2 3 4 5]. To ship the medication, now we have 3 medical carts that go to every room and ship the dose. Every day, they slide ahead one place.

  Carts ->
  1 2 3

      1 2 3 4 5

As earlier than, although our plan is written [3 2 1] (3 models on the primary day), we flip the order of the carts to[1 2 3]. That approach, a affected person will get 3 models on their first day, as we count on. Checking with Wolfram Alpha, the calculation is identical.

ListConvolve[{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, {3, 2, 1}, {1, -1}, 0]
{3, 8, 14, 20, 26, 14, 5}

Cool! It appears like convolution is commutative:

displaystyle{f * g = g * f}

and we will determine to flip both $f$ or $g$ when calculating the integral. Stunning, proper?

The integral of the convolution

When all therapies are completed, what was the complete medication utilization? That is the integral of the convolution. (A couple of minutes in the past, that phrase would have you ever leaping out of a window.)

However it’s a easy calculation. Our plan provides every affected person sum([3 2 1]) = 6 models of drugs. And now we have sum([1 2 3 4 5]) = 15 sufferers. The overall utilization is simply 6 x 15 = 90 models.

Wow, that was simple: the utilization for the whole convolution is simply the product of the subtotals!

displaystyle{int (f * g) = int f cdot int g }

I hope this clicks intuitively. Notice that this trick works for convolution, however not integrals normally. For instance:

displaystyle{ int (x cdot x) ne int x cdot int x }

If we separate $x cdot x$ into two integrals we get:

  • $ int (x cdot x) = int x^2 = frac{1}{3} x^3 $
  • $int x cdot int x = frac{1}{2}x^2 cdot frac{1}{2}x^2 = frac{1}{4}x^4$

and people aren’t the identical. (Calculus could be a lot simpler if we may break up integrals like this.) It is unusual, however $int (f * g)$ might be simpler to resolve than $int (fg)$.

Impulse Response

What occurs if we despatched a single affected person by the hospital? The convolution would simply be that day’s plan.

Plan    * Sufferers = Convolution
[3 2 1] * [1]      = [3 2 1]

In different phrases, convolving with [1] provides us the unique plan.

In calculus phrases, a spike of [1] (and 0 in any other case) is the Dirac Delta Function. When it comes to convolutions, this operate acts like the number one and returns the unique operate:

displaystyle{f(t) * delta(t) = f(t)}

We will delay the delta operate by T, which delays the ensuing convolution operate too. Think about our single affected person exhibits up every week late ($delta(t – T)$), so our drugs utilization will get delayed for every week too:

displaystyle{f(t) * delta(t - T) = f(t - T)}

Half 4: Convolution Theorem & The Fourier Remodel

The Fourier Transform (written with a elaborate $mathscr{F}$) converts a operate $f(t)$ into a listing of cyclical elements $F(s)$:

displaystyle{f(t) xrightarrow{mathscr{F}} F(s)}

As an operator, this may be written $mathscr{F}lbrace f rbrace = F$.

In our analogy, we convolved the plan and affected person record with a elaborate multiplication. Because the Fourier Remodel provides us lists of elements, may we get the identical end result by mixing the ingredient lists?

Yep, we will: Fancy multiplication within the common world is common multiplication within the fancy world.

In math phrases, “Convolution within the time area is multiplication within the frequency (Fourier) area.”

Mathematically, that is written:

displaystyle{f * g xrightarrow{mathscr{F}} FG}


displaystyle{mathscr{F}lbrace f * g rbrace = FG}

the place $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are capabilities to convolve, with transforms $F(s)$ and $G(s)$.

We will prove this theorem with superior calculus, that makes use of theorems I do not fairly perceive, however let’s suppose by the that means.

As a result of $F(s)$ is the Fourier Remodel of $f(t)$, we will ask for a selected frequency ($s = 2text{Hz}$) and get the mixed interplay of each information level with that frequency. Let’s suppose:

displaystyle{F(2) = 3 + i}

Meaning after each information level has been multiplied in opposition to the 2Hz cycle, the result’s $3 + i$. However we may have stored every interplay separate:

displaystyle{F(2) = 3 + i = c_0 + c_1 + c_2 + c_3 ... + c_t}

The place $c_t$ is the contribution to the 2Hz frequency from datapoint $t$. Equally, we will increase $G(s)$ into a listing of interactions with the 2Hz ingredient. Let’s suppose $G(2) = 7 – i$:

displaystyle{G(2) = 7 - i = d_0 + d_1 + d_2 + d_3 ... + d_t}

The Convolution Theorem is absolutely saying:

displaystyle{f * g xrightarrow{mathscr{F}} FG = (c_0 + c_1 + c_2 + ...)(d_0 + d_1 + d_2 + ...)}

Our convolution within the common area includes quite a lot of cross-multiplications. Within the fancy frequency area, we nonetheless have a bunch of interactions, however $F(s)$ and $G(s)$ have consolidated them. We will simply multiply $F(2)G(2) = (3 + i)(7-i)$ to seek out the 2Hz ingredient within the convolved end result.

By analogy, suppose you wish to calculate:

displaystyle{(1 + 2 + 3 + 4)(5 + 6 + 7 + 8) = ?}

It is quite a lot of work to cross-multiply each time period: $(1 cdot 5) + (1cdot 6) + (1cdot 7) + …$

It is higher to consolidate the teams into $(1 + 2 + 3 + 4) = 10$ and $(5 + 6 + 7 + 8) = 26$, and then multiply to get $10 cdot 26 = 260$.

This nuance brought about me quite a lot of confusion. It looks as if $FG$ is a single multiplication, whereas $f * g$ includes a bunch of intermediate phrases. I forgot that $F$ already did the work of merging a bunch of entries right into a single one.

Now, we aren’t fairly executed.

displaystyle{f * g xrightarrow{mathscr{F}} FG xrightarrow{mathscr{F^{-1}}}  ?}

We will convert $f * g$ within the time area into $FG$ within the frequency area, however we most likely want it again within the time area for a usable end result:

displaystyle{f * g = mathscr{F}^{-1} lbrace FG rbrace}

You could have a riddle in English ($f * g$), you translate it to French ($FG$), get your good French buddy to work out that calculation, then convert it again to English ($mathscr{F}^{-1}$).

And in reverse…

The convolution theorem works this fashion too:

displaystyle{fg xrightarrow{mathscr{F}} F * G}

Common multiplication within the common world is fancy multiplication within the fancy world.

Cool, eh? As a substitute of multiplying two capabilities like some cave dweller, put in your monocle, convolve the Fourier Transforms, and and convert to the time area:

displaystyle{fg = mathscr{F}^{-1} lbrace F*G rbrace}

I am not saying that is enjoyable, simply that it is potential. In case your French buddy has a gnarly calculation they’re scuffling with, it would appear like arithmetic to you.

Mini proof

Bear in mind how we mentioned the integral of a convolution was a multiplication of the person integrals?

displaystyle{int (f * g) = int f cdot int g }

Nicely, the Fourier Remodel is only a very particular integral, proper?

displaystyle{int rightarrow mathscr{F}}

So (handwaving), it appears we may swap the general-purpose integral $int$ for $mathscr{F}$ and get

displaystyle{mathscr{F} (f * g) = mathscr{F} (f) cdot mathscr{F} (g) }

which is the convolution theorem. I want a deeper instinct for the proof, however this helps issues click on.

Half 5: Functions

The trick with convolution is discovering a helpful “program” (kernel) to use to your enter. This is just a few examples.

Shifting averages

As an instance you need a shifting common between neighboring objects in a listing. That’s half of every component, added collectively:

See Also

displaystyle{frac{a + b}{2} = frac{a}{2} + frac{b}{2}}

It is a “multiplication program” of [0.5 0.5] convolved with our record:

ListConvolve[{1, 4, 9, 16, 25}, {0.5, 0.5}, {1, -1}, 0] 
{0.5, 2.5, 6.5, 12.5, 20.5, 12.5}

We will carry out a shifting common with a single operation. Neat!

A 3-element shifting common could be [.33 .33 .33], a weighted common might be [.5 .25 .25].


The by-product finds the distinction between neighboring values. This is the plan: [1 -1]

ListConvolve[{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, {1, -1}, {1, -1}, 0] 
{1, 1, 1, 1, 1, -5}                         // -5 since we ran out of entries

ListConvolve[{1, 4, 9, 16, 25}, {1, -1}, {1, -1}, 0] 
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, -25}                        // discrete by-product is 2x + 1

With a easy kernel, we will discover a helpful math property on a discrete record. And to get a second by-product, simply apply the by-product convolution twice:

F * [1 -1] * [1 -1]

As a shortcut, we will precompute the ultimate convolutions ([1 -1] * [1 -1] ) and get:

ListConvolve[{1, -1}, {1,-1}, {1, -1}, 0] 
{1, -2, 1}

Now now we have a single kernel [1, -2, 1] that will get the second by-product of a listing:

ListConvolve[{1, 4, 9, 16, 25}, {1, -2, 1}, {1, -1}, 0] 
{1, 2, 2, 2, 2, -34, 25}

Excluding the boundary objects, we get the anticipated second by-product:

displaystyle{x^2 xrightarrow{d/dx} 2x xrightarrow{d/dx} 2}

Blurring / unblurring photos

A picture blur is basically a convolution of your picture with some “blurring kernel”:

displaystyle{text{blurred} = text{image} * text{blur}}

The blur of our 2D picture requires a 2D average:


Can we undo the blur? Yep! With our buddy the Convolution Theorem, we will do:

displaystyle{text{blurred} = text{image} * text{blur}}

displaystyle{mathscr{F} lbrace text{blurred} rbrace = mathscr{F} lbrace text{image} * text{blur} rbrace}

displaystyle{mathscr{F} lbrace text{blurred} rbrace = mathscr{F} lbrace text{image} rbrace mathscr{F} lbrace text{blur} rbrace}

displaystyle{frac{ mathscr{F} lbrace text{blurred} rbrace }{mathscr{F} lbrace text{blur} rbrace} = mathscr{F} lbrace text{image} rbrace }

displaystyle{mathscr{F}^{-1} lbrace frac{ mathscr{F} lbrace text{blurred} rbrace }{mathscr{F} lbrace text{blur} rbrace} rbrace = text{image}}

Whoa! We will get well the unique picture by dividing out the blur. Convolution is an easy multiplication within the frequency area, and deconvolution is an easy division within the frequency area.


A short time again, the idea of “deblurring by dividing Fourier Transforms” was gibberish to me. Whereas it may be daunting mathematically, it is getting less complicated conceptually.

Extra studying:

Algorithm Trick: Multiplication

What’s a quantity? A listing of digits:

1234 = 1000 + 200 + 30 + 4 = [1000 200 30 4]
5678 = 5000 + 600 + 70 + 8 = [5000 600 70 8]

And what’s common, grade-school multiplication? A digit-by-digit convolution! We sweep one record of digits by the opposite, multiplying and including as we go:


We will carry out the calculation by convolving the lists of digits (wolfram alpha):

ListConvolve[{1000, 200, 30, 4}, {8, 70, 600, 5000}, {1, -1}, 0]
{8000, 71600, 614240, 5122132, 1018280, 152400, 20000}

sum {8000, 71600, 614240, 5122132, 1018280, 152400, 20000}

Notice that we pre-flip one of many lists (it will get swapped within the convolution later), and the intermediate calculations are a bit totally different. However, combining the subtotals provides the anticipated end result.

Quicker Convolutions

Why convolve as an alternative of doing an everyday digit-by-digit multiplication? Nicely, the convolution theorem lets us substitute convolution with Fourier Transforms:

displaystyle{f * g = mathscr{F}^{-1} lbrace FG rbrace}

The convolution ($f * g$) has complexity $O(n^2)$. Now we have $n$ positions to course of, with $n$ intermediate multiplications at every place.

The best facet includes:

  • Two Fourier Transforms, that are usually $O(n^2)$. Nonetheless, the Quick Fourier Remodel (a divide-and-conquer approach) makes them $O(nlog(n))$.
  • Pointwise multiplication of the ultimate results of the transforms ($sum a_n cdot b_n$), which is $O(n)$
  • An inverse rework, which is $O(nlog(n))$

And the entire complexity is: $O(nlog(n)) + O(nlog(n)) + O(n) + O(nlog(n)) = O(nlog(n))$

Common multiplication within the fancy area is quicker than a elaborate multiplication within the common area. Our French buddy isn’t any slouch. (More)

Convolutional Neural Nets (CNN)

Machine studying is about discovering the maths capabilities that rework enter information right into a desired end result (a prediction, classification, and so forth.).

Beginning with an enter sign, we may convolve it with a bunch of kernels:

displaystyle{text{input} * k_1 * k_2 * k_3 ... = text{result}}

Provided that convolution can do complicated math (shifting averages, blurs, derivatives…), it appears some mixture of kernels ought to flip our enter into one thing helpful, proper?

Convolutional Neural Nets (CNNs) course of an enter with layers of kernels, optimizing their weights (plans) to achieve a aim. Think about tweaking the remedy plan to maintain medication utilization beneath some threshold.

CNNs are sometimes used with picture classifiers, however 1D information units work simply superb.

LTI System Conduct

A linear, time-invariant system means:

  • Linear: Scaling and mixing inputs scales and combines outputs by the identical quantity
  • Time invariant: Outputs depend upon relative time, not absolute time. You get 3 models on your first day, and it would not matter if it is Wednesday or Thursday.

A flowery phrase is “A LTI system is characterised by its impulse response”. Translation: If we ship a single affected person by the hospital [1], we’ll uncover the remedy plan. Then we will predict the utilization for any sequence of sufferers by convolving it with the plan.

displaystyle{text{system response} = text{impulse response} * text{inputs}}

If the system is not LTI, we will not extrapolate primarily based on a single individual’s expertise. Scaling the inputs could not scale the outputs, and the precise calendar day, not relative day, could affect the end result (think about fewer rooms obtainable on weekends).

Engineering Analogies

From David Greenspan: “Suppose you’ve a particular laser pointer that makes a star form on the wall. You tape collectively a bunch of those laser pointers within the form of a sq.. The sample on the wall now could be the convolution of a star with a sq..”

Common multiplication provides you a single scaled copy of an enter. Convolution creates a number of overlapping copies that observe a sample you have specified.

Actual-world methods have squishy, not instantaneous, conduct: they ramp up, peak, and drop down. The convolution lets us mannequin methods that echo, reverb and overlap.

Now it is time for the well-known sliding window instance. Consider a pulse of inputs (purple) sliding by a system (blue), and having a mixed impact (yellow): the convolution.



Convolution has a complicated technical definition, however the fundamentals may be understood with the proper analogy.

Fast rant: I examine math for enjoyable, but it took years to discover a satisfying instinct for:

  • Why is one operate reversed?
  • Why is convolution commutative?
  • Why does the integral of the convolution = product of integrals?
  • Why are the Fourier Transforms multiplied point-by-point, and never overlapped?

Why’d it take so lengthy? Think about studying multiplication with $f instances g = z$ as an alternative of $3 instances 5 = 15$. With out an instance I can discover in my head, I may solely memorize outcomes, not intuit them. Hopefully this analogy can prevent years of battle.

Blissful math.

Different Posts In This Collection

  1. A Visual, Intuitive Guide to Imaginary Numbers
  2. Intuitive Arithmetic With Complex Numbers
  3. Understanding Why Complex Multiplication Works
  4. Intuitive Guide to Angles, Degrees and Radians
  5. Intuitive Understanding Of Euler’s Formula
  6. An Interactive Guide To The Fourier Transform
  7. Intuitive Guide to Convolution
  8. Intuitive Understanding of Sine Waves
  9. An Intuitive Guide to Linear Algebra
  10. A Programmer’s Intuition for Matrix Multiplication
  11. Imaginary Multiplication vs. Imaginary Exponents
  12. Intuitive Guide to Hyperbolic Functions

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