Now Reading – Geolocation – Geolocation

2023-09-14 06:00:46

Obtain Geolocation Database

Title Measurement in MB Num Networks Final Up to date Description Obtain
IPv4 Geolocation Database 262M

2,599,907 September 14, 2023

The total geolocation database for all IPv4 addresses as CSV (Documentation)

IPv6 Geolocation Database 50M

486,938 September 14, 2023 The total geolocation database for all IPv6 addresses as CSV (Documentation)



Geolocation is the method of mapping IP addresses to a geographical location outlined by latitude and
longitude. There are various use-cases for geolocation intelligence which are demanded by on-line companies and

  • Focused Promoting – Permits advertisers to serve advertisements which are geographically related
    to customers. By understanding the approximate location of an IP handle, advertisers can ship focused
    commercials based mostly on the person’s location, equivalent to selling native occasions, companies, or merchandise.
  • Fraud Detection and Prevention – By understanding the geolocation of an IP handle, uncommon
    login makes an attempt or uncommon monetary transactions will be detected and blocked. For instance, if a banking
    account is often utilized by a IP handle from nation A and there may be abruptly a login try from nation
    B, the login try will be denied or the person will be requested for extra verification.
  • Content material Localization – Web sites and apps typically need to ship localized content material to
    customers. Primarily based on the person’s location, web sites can present region-specific info, language
    preferences, or show costs within the native forex.
  • Digital Rights Administration and Compliance – Content material suppliers use IP geolocation
    intelligence to
    implement digital
    rights administration (DRM) insurance policies and rules or restrictions. These suppliers might limit entry to
    content material based mostly on the person’s
    location, guaranteeing compliance with licensing agreements and copyright restrictions.
  • Community Safety – IP geolocation performs a job in community safety by offering
    insights into the origin of potential threats. Safety techniques can use IP geolocation knowledge to establish
    and block suspicious IP addresses or implement entry controls based mostly on geographic areas.
  • Analytics and Insights – IP geolocation knowledge will be worthwhile
    for analyzing person
    habits and developments. Companies can achieve insights into the place their prospects are situated, which may inform
    advertising methods, growth plans, and product improvement.

IP Geolocation Accuracy

Why is IP geolocation typically not correct basically?

In some circumstances, allotted IPv4 and
IPv6 networks are distributed geographically and thus one community can have a number of geographical
places. Moreover, many networks are distributed geographically by design. Examples of such
geographically disparate networks are cell networks or
satellite tv for pc networks.

For instance, how precisely would you geolocate the IP ranges belonging to the satellite tv for pc Web from
Starklink from SpaceX? Discover out by your self by inspecting
Starlink’s AS14593.

In different circumstances, IP networks are reassigned or reallocated by Regional Web Registries or IP leasing
(equivalent to IPXO or and the
adjustments as quickly as a IP handle is assigned a brand new proprietor.

It seems that the method of geolocating IP addresses is a sophisticated endeavour. Nevertheless, the accuracy
will be obtained is just too good to
be ignored in any IP handle API.

Learn how to construct a IP Geolocation Database from

The reminder of this web page makes a deep dive into the technicalities of making a geolocation database from
scratch. If
you’re solely
involved in downloading the geolocation database, you are able to do so here.

Every IP handle within the Web is owned or administered by a corporation. Regional Web Registries
(RIR’s) equivalent to ARIN or APNIC retailer
possession info of their WHOIS databases.

Nevertheless, WHOIS information do not
essentially embrace geolocation info for allotted networks. Moreover, organizations that
personal networks can use these networks in any geographical location they find yourself selecting. Even worse, these
organizations can assign networks to any third-party group or lease IP blocks to different
entities. Due to this fact, it’s inherently tough to geolocate IP addresses and thus geolocation is commonly not

Having stated that, the duty to search out and accumulate geolocation info will be divided into three
totally different

  1. Extract Geolocation Information from WHOIS Information Instantly – WHOIS information typically embrace
    geolocation details about IP addresses. WHOIS attributes equivalent to geoloc and
    geofeed can be utilized to derive self-published geolocation information about IP addresses.
  2. Interpolate Geolocation Information from WHOIS Information – Typically it’s
    doable to derive and interpolate geolocation info from WHOIS attributes not directly. For instance,
    which are administratively answerable for a community have to supply their postal handle in
    Generally, this postal handle can also be the geographical location of the group’s networks.
  3. Think about Open Supply Geolocation Tasks – Many entities invested appreciable
    assets into the geolocation drawback and so they present their geolocation info at no cost. RIPE IPmap, geofeed-finder and OpenGeoFeed are good examples of such worthwhile
    open supply initiatives.

After compiling a uncooked geolocation database from the above sources, it might have incomplete or inconsistent

The collected geolocation knowledge could also be incomplete since information with nation and metropolis info do not
all the time
embrace coordinates. Vice versa, typically uncooked information with coordinates haven’t got nation and metropolis
If uncooked
information solely comprise a
accuracy can’t be greater than on nation degree.

Due to this fact, geolocation
knowledge must be enriched and reworked right into a
widespread format. This course of is extraordinarily vital and is achieved through the use of open supply geographical
equivalent to those from or

Put otherwise, the information enrichment job is to both:

  1. Discover the latitude and longitude from a given metropolis and nation pair. Instance: What are the
    coordinates for US, San Francisco?
  2. And however, if solely the latitude and longitude is given, the duty is to acquire the closest
    metropolis for these coordinates. Instance: What’s the metropolis and nation
    for the coordinates 52.524526 13.410037?

The following sections describe all the key steps that have to be adopted to be able to construct a geolocation
from scratch.

Extract Geolocation Information from WHOIS Information

This part describes how the totally different WHOIS databases from the 5 main Regional Web
present direct geolocation assist for IP networks of their WHOIS information.

By analyzing and parsing WHOIS knowledge from all 5 Regional Web Registries, many IP
addresses will be mapped to a geographical location. Since every RIR has their very own WHOIS database format,
every RIR
must be handled distinctively. Within the subsequent sections, will probably be mentioned how geolocation
info is supplied in every of the 5 totally different WHOIS databases.

Determine 1: The 5 totally different Regional Web Registries (Source)

Geolocation in RIPE NCC

The RIPE NCC database has two totally different attributes that present geolocation info for
inetnum and inet6num objects. The inetnum and inet6num
objects assign an IP community to a corporation. It’s prompt to learn the RIPE
documentation about inetnum
and inet6num

As talked about, there are two totally different attributes in inetnum and inet6num
objects that permit to supply geolocation info to IP networks:

  1. The geoloc attribute
  2. The geofeed attribute

The geoloc attribute

The primary attribute is the geoloc
. The geoloc attribute merely incorporates latitude and longitude
in string format (Instance: "47.855374 12.132041").

The geoloc attribute is outlined within the RIPE
as follows:

“geoloc:” – The geolocation coordinates for the useful resource in decimal levels notation.
Format is latitude
adopted by longitude, separated by an area. Latitude ranges from [-90,+90] and longitude from [-180,+180].
All extra particular objects to the inetnum object containing this attribute inherit this knowledge.

For instance, the inetnum object for the IP handle consists of the
geoloc attribute. The WHOIS
document under will be obtained by way of any whois consumer with the terminal command

inetnum: -
netname:        KOMRO
descr:          komro GmbH
nation:        DE
admin-c:        KIN65-RIPE
tech-c:         KIN65-RIPE
standing:         ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:         KOMRO-MNT
mnt-lower:      KOMRO-MNT
mnt-routes:     KOMRO-MNT
created:        2003-08-29T12:22:59Z
last-modified:  2017-07-31T05:45:34Z
supply:         RIPE # Filtered
geoloc:         47.855374 12.132041
language:       DE

So what does the above WHOIS document reveal? The accountable group of the community - is komro GmbH and the geoloc attribute claims that
the community
is situated on the
47.855374 12.132041. These coordinates level to Rosenheim,
a city close to Munich in Germany

What’s the complete protection of the geoloc attribute for all inetnum and
inet6num objects within the RIPE NCC database?

On the time of writing in July 2023, there have been 4,190,644
inetnum and 819,381 inet6num objects within the RIPE NCC database. However solely 114,389
inetnum or inet6num objects contained the geoloc attribute.

Due to this fact, the
total protection of the geoloc attribute is solely 2.3%.
Nevertheless, increasingly more organizations begin utilizing the geoloc attribute, subsequently it’s helpful
to start out gathering it.

The geofeed attribute

One other technique to supply geolocation info within the RIPE NCC database is the geofeed attribute.

The geofeed attribute is outlined within the RIPE
as follows:

“geofeed:” – Incorporates a URL referencing a CSV file containing geolocation knowledge for the
useful resource. The geofeed
format is outlined in RFC

The worth of the geofeed attribute is a HTTPS url that factors to a file that incorporates
info. The format of such geofeed recordsdata is laid out in RFC
. At present, there are two alternative ways to supply such a geofeed url in WHOIS information:

  • A technique is to make use of a
    devoted attribute geofeed with the geofeed url as worth
  • The opposite technique is to make use of the remarks attribute to
    specify the geofeed property.

An instance of utilizing the remarks attribute to specify a geofeed url
can be:

inetnum: -
netname:        OOOSET-NET
descr:          OOO SET
remarks:        INFRA-AW
remarks:        Geofeed
nation:        RU

Utilizing the remarks attribute requires to specify the geofeed url within the format
Geofeed {URL} to be able to point out that the url factors to a RFC
geofeed file.

The following instance illustrates how the geofeed attribute is used within the RIPE NCC database.
The terminal command
whois returns a WHOIS document that follows the geofeed: attribute

inetnum: -
nation:        FR
netname:        FR-AERO-ME
descr:          Airbus SAS
descr:          110Bis Av. du G?n?ral Leclerc, 93500 Pantin, France
descr:          FR AI ICC as ISP
geoloc:         48.902741962025644 2.422918799104585
language:       FR
org:            ORG-EDG4-RIPE
nation:        FR
mnt-domains:    EADS-MNT
admin-c:        CI1306-RIPE
tech-c:         LR1133-RIPE
standing:         ASSIGNED PI
mnt-by:         RIPE-NCC-END-MNT
mnt-by:         EADS-MNT
created:        2002-04-12T15:19:59Z
last-modified:  2023-06-06T12:37:59Z
supply:         RIPE

Because the WHOIS document above reveals, the geofeed url for the community -
How does such a RFC
geofeed CSV file appear to be?

  • The primary column is the IP Prefix. Typically, Classless Inter-Area Routing (CIDR) notation is used for the
    IP Prefix column, however it isn’t essentially a requirement. Instance:
  • The second column is the nation as Alpha2code. Instance:
  • The third column is the ISO area code
    conforming to ISO 3166-2. Instance:
  • The fourth column is a metropolis in free format. Instance:
  • The fifth column is a postal code in free format (deprecated). Instance:
    139964,FR,FR-IDF,Pantin,93500,DE,DE-HE,Frankfurt,65933,SG,SG-01,Singapore,139964,US,US-WV,Ashburn,20147,FR,FR-OCC,Toulouse,31400,FR,FR-IDF,Le Plessis-Robinson,92350,IN,IN-KA,Bengaluru,560001,FR,FR-IDF,Pantin,93500,FR,FR-IDF,Les Mureaux,78440,FR,FR-OCC,Toulouse,31060,FR,FR-IDF,Pantin,93500,AU,AU-NSW,Sydney,2000,FR,FR-PAC,Marignane,13700,DE,DE-HE,Frankfurt,65933

What’s the complete protection of the geofeed attribute for all inetnum and
inet6num objects within the RIPE NCC database?

On the time of writing in July 2023, there have been 6643 occurrences of geofeed urls in remarks
attributes and 2035 WHOIS information
had the
geofeed attribute.
Due to this fact, the
total protection of geofeed urls is solely 0.17%. Nevertheless, geofeed recordsdata often embrace extra
than one community, subsequently, there are extra networks with geolocation info than there are geofeed
urls. Therefore, the protection variety of 0.17% is deceptive right here.

Geolocation in ARIN

A not so latest article from 2018 discusses Geolocation
. The conclusion of this text is that geolocation is inherently tough. It appears that evidently
ARIN doesn’t present a lot help to exterior entities that need to geolocate IP addresses.

Geolocation within the ARIN database for NetRange objects is supplied by way of geofeed urls in
Remark attributes. There was a request so as to add
a devoted geofeed property, nevertheless it was denied
since including geofeeds over Remark or Comment attributes is
deemed ample.
For instance, when wanting up the IP handle
whois, the next WHOIS document is obtained from ARIN:

NetRange: -
NetName:        OFL-62
NetHandle:      NET-96-43-192-0-1
Dad or mum:         NET96 (NET-96-0-0-0-0)
NetType:        Direct Allocation
Group:   Omni Fiber (OFL-62)
RegDate:        2022-03-30
Up to date:        2022-12-07
Remark:        Geofeed
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.internet/registry/ip/

Geofeed urls observe RFC 8805 and the format of these
RFC 8805 recordsdata was already mentioned within the part
about RIPE NCC.

The ARIN database at present would not make use of the geoloc attribute as it’s the case within the
RIPE NCC database.

Geolocation in LACNIC

LACNIC is rather more supportive relating to geolocation in comparison with ARIN. LACNIC hosts a
Geofeed Service that gives members the
risk to supply geolocation info for IP addresses they personal. a part of LACNIC members
supplied geolocation info which is publicly out there at

Moreover, the LACNIC WHOIS database already offers geolocation info (correct to metropolis degree) by
default. The LACNIC database will be downloaded from their FTP server:

As will be seen within the LACNIC database excerpt under, LANIC offers metropolis and nation info for all
inetnum and inet6num objects:

inetnum: 190.5.128/19
standing: allotted
metropolis: Antiguo Cuscatlan
nation: SV
created: 2006-06-16
modified: 2020-08-31
supply: LACNIC

inetnum: 190.5.160/19
standing: allotted
metropolis: Buenos Aires
nation: AR
created: 2014-05-22
modified: 2014-05-22
supply: LACNIC

inetnum: 190.5.192/20
standing: allotted
metropolis: POPAYAN
nation: CO
created: 2006-11-30
modified: 2006-11-30
supply: LACNIC

Geolocation in AFRINIC

In keeping with the AFRINIC support page, AFRNIC doesn’t
present geolocation companies and
doesn’t have any formal or
operational relationship with any geolocation supplier.

However, AFRINIC additionally helps the utilization of geofeed urls in
remarks attributes related as within the RIPE NCC database.
For instance, when wanting up the IP handle with the command
whois, the next WHOIS document is obtained:

inetnum: -
netname:        TZ-DAR-CABLE
descr:          Wananchi Cable Tanzania
nation:        TZ
admin-c:        WL8-AFRINIC
tech-c:         WL8-AFRINIC
standing:         ASSIGNED PA
remarks:        Geofeed
mnt-by:         WCL4-MNT
supply:         AFRINIC # Filtered
mum or dad: -

In conclusion, AFRINIC offers geolocation info with the identical attributes as with RIPE.

Geolocation in APNIC

APNIC offers roughly the identical assist for geolocation as RIPE NCC. In keeping with a APNIC article about geolocation, they assist the
geoloc attribute and the geofeed urls by way of the remarks attribute.

Moreover, APNIC appears to be fairly open to enhance the geolocation assist as one in every of their publications
suggests: “Do we
need a registry for IP
geolocation information?”

For instance, when wanting up the IP handle with the command
whois, the next WHOIS document is obtained from APNIC:

inetnum: -
netname:        PACIFICINTERNT-TH
descr:          Pacific Web (Thailand) Ltd.
nation:        TH
admin-c:        AP3-AP
tech-c:         NPT3-AP
abuse-c:        AP993-AP
standing:         ALLOCATED NON-PORTABLE
remarks:        Geofeed
mnt-by:         MAINT-TH-PITH
mnt-irt:        IRT-PI-TH
last-modified:  2021-01-19T07:37:32Z
supply:         APNIC

In conclusion, APNIC offers geolocation info with the identical attributes as with RIPE.

Interpolate Geolocation Information from
WHOIS Information

This part describes how WHOIS attributes that have been by no means immediately meant for geolocation functions can
used to derive geolocation intelligence. This course of is inherently error susceptible, however the obtained outcomes
are too correct to be ignored.

WHOIS knowledge from the 5 Regional Web Registries is probably the most correct knowledge supply for IP addresses. The
important function of WHOIS is to supply registrant info for organizations that personal Web
numbers equivalent to IP addresses or AS numbers. As such, WHOIS databases additionally typically embrace the postal
nations of the group’s headquarter or administrative location.

Typically, the postal handle of a corporation can also be the geographical location the place their IP addresses are
used. That is after all not all the time the case. The executive postal handle of enormous
organizations typically would not correspond with the situation of all of the group’s IP addresses.

Within the subsequent sections, for every of the 5 RIR’s, an IP handle instance the place the WHOIS knowledge can be utilized
to derive
geolocation info will likely be mentioned (constructive instance).

Moreover, a counterexample the place WHOIS
meta knowledge is
will likely be supplied (detrimental instance). If relevant, a conclusion will likely be drawn from the examples.

Geolocation Interpolation in RIPE NCC

Optimistic Instance –

When wanting up the IP handle with a WHOIS consumer, the next
WHOIS document is obtained:

inetnum: -
descr:          Pumpentechnik Erkrath GmbH + Co. KG
nation:        DE
admin-c:        CK5074-RIPE
tech-c:         CK5074-RIPE
standing:         ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:         KOMMITT-MNT
created:        2018-09-25T12:33:17Z
last-modified:  2018-09-25T12:33:17Z
supply:         RIPE

individual:         Christine Kessel
handle:        Max-Planck-Str. 28
handle:        40699 Erkrath
telephone:          +49 211 925480
nic-hdl:        CK5074-RIPE
mnt-by:         KOMMITT-MNT
created:        2018-09-25T12:32:01Z
last-modified:  2018-09-25T12:32:01Z
supply:         RIPE # Filtered

In keeping with many various IP geolocation companies, the IP handle is situated
within the metropolis of Erkrath in Germany with coordinates 51.22235, 6.9083.

When wanting on the above WHOIS document, it turns into clear that there are various totally different attributes that would
be used to extract the town title “Erkrath” or the nation “Germany”:

  • The nation will be extracted from the nation attribute: DE
  • The town will be extracted from the netname attribute:
  • The town can be extracted from the descr attribute:
    Pumpentechnik Erkrath GmbH + Co. KG
  • And the handle attribute additionally reveals the town title:
    Max-Planck-Str. 28, 40699 Erkrath

Definitely, it is rather laborious to extract the town title from the netname and descr
attributes, since these names have a free format. Nevertheless, the handle attribute will be simply
used to parse out the situation, since postal adresses have a a lot stricter format.

Optimistic Instance –

One other constructive instance is supplied for instance that the descr attribute can typically be used
for geolocation functions.
When wanting up the IP handle with whois, the next
WHOIS document is obtained:

inetnum: -
netname:        FYLKOMOEST
descr:          Oestfold Fylkeskommunes Sentraladministrasjon
descr:          Bos 220, N-1701
descr:          Sarpsborg
nation:        NO
admin-c:        JT1367-RIPE
tech-c:         JT1367-RIPE
standing:         LEGACY
mnt-by:         AS41572-MNT
mnt-by:         AS2116-MNT
created:        2004-02-02T16:19:07Z
last-modified:  2022-09-12T12:32:28Z
supply:         RIPE

In keeping with most geolocation companies, the IP handle is situated within the metropolis of
Sarpsborg in Norway. This corresponds with what the descr attribute of the above WHOIS document
states. Even higher, the WHOIS document above offers a full handle which permits for very correct
That is an instance that underlines the usablilty of the descr attribute for correct

Unfavorable Instance –

When wanting up the IP handle with a WHOIS consumer, the next
WHOIS document is obtained:

inetnum: -
netname:        BE-BELGACOM-ADSL1
descr:          ADSL-GO-PLUS
descr:          Belgacom ISP SA/NV
nation:        BE
admin-c:        SN2068-RIPE
tech-c:         SN2068-RIPE
standing:         ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:         SKYNETBE-MNT
mnt-by:         SKYNETBE-ROBOT-MNT
created:        2011-11-25T10:16:24Z
last-modified:  2011-11-25T10:29:00Z
supply:         RIPE

position:           Proximus NOC directors
handle:        Proximus SA de droit public
handle:        TEC/NEO/IPR/TDN/DTO/DSL Web Networks
handle:        Boulevard du Roi Albert II, 27
handle:        B-1030 Bruxelles
handle:        Belgium
telephone:          +32 2 202-4111
fax-no:         +32 2 203-6593
admin-c:        BIEC1-RIPE
tech-c:         BIEC1-RIPE
nic-hdl:        SN2068-RIPE
mnt-by:         SKYNETBE-MNT
created:        1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
last-modified:  2020-03-04T06:19:15Z
supply:         RIPE # Filtered

The handle attribute from above reveals that the executive location of the group
“Proximus” is situated at Boulevard du Roi Albert II, 27, B-1030 Bruxelles, Belgium.

Nevertheless, most geolocation suppliers place the IP handle in different Belgian
cities equivalent to Hasselt, Grimbergen or Wuustwezel. Due to this fact, if we might use the handle
attribute from this WHOIS document, we might get hold of a sligthly improper geolocation. Nevertheless, utilizing Bruxelles as
geolocation continues to be higher than selecting the improper nation or perhaps a improper continent. This instance reveals why
geolocation suppliers typically have
approximative accuracy.


Having seen the three examples from above, what attributes can be utilized from the RIPE NCC database to
interpolate geolocation info from inetnum and inet6num objects?

The inetnum
and inet6num
have at the least three attributes that may probably be used to derive geolocation info:

  1. The nation attribute (Solely yields nation degree accuracy)
  2. The descr attribute
  3. The netname attribute (Unreliable and laborious to parse)
  4. The handle attribute (Strictly talking an attribute of the position object and never
    inetnum and inet6num)

The nation attribute is outlined within the RIPE
as follows:

“nation:” – This identifies a rustic utilizing the ISO 3166-2 letter nation codes. It has
by no means been specified what this nation represents. It might be the situation of the pinnacle workplace of a
multi-national firm or the place the server centre is predicated or the house of the Finish Person. Due to this fact, it can’t
be utilized in any dependable technique to map IP addresses to nations.

The reason above speaks for itself. It’s considerably protected to make use of the nation
attribute for geolocation, because the accuracy of nation degree info is reasonably coarse and thus the
room of errors is diminished. Put otherwise: Since most multinational organizations have at the least one
postal handle for every nation, these organizations typically use the postal handle of the identical nation the place
the IP networks are literally used.

The descr attribute is outlined within the RIPE
as follows:

“descr:” – A brief description associated to the article.

See Also

Due to this fact the contents of the descr attribute might be something, since RIPE NCC doesn’t
strictly outline what this worth represents. It seems that the descr attribute is commonly used
by organizations to supply location and handle info for the community. In conclusion, the
descr attribute may be very helpful to be able to derive geolocation info from it.

Further info will be supplied for inetnum and inet6num objects
with the position object. Due to this fact, it’s also attention-grabbing to debate the position object.

The handle attribute of position objects is outlined within the RIPE
as follows:

“handle:” – It is a full postal handle for the position represented by this object.

Despite the fact that handle attributes can have excessive geolocation accuracy, the handle
attribute specifies the postal handle of a job object. The inetnum and inet6num
objects can have an handle assigned by way of a job object, because the postal handle of an organization is just not
essentially the situation the place the IP addresses are used.

Nevertheless, because the
detrimental instance from above proofs, it’s a mistake to imagine that IP addresses have the identical geolocation as
postal handle of a role

Geolocation Interpolation in ARIN

Optimistic Instance –

When wanting up the IP handle with a WHOIS consumer, the next
WHOIS document is obtained:

NetRange: -
NetName:        UMN-CC-NET
NetHandle:      NET-192-42-152-0-1
Dad or mum:         NET192 (NET-192-0-0-0-0)
NetType:        Direct Allocation
OriginAS:       AS57, AS217
Group:   College of Minnesota (UNIVER-233-Z)
RegDate:        1988-10-12
Up to date:        2021-12-14
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.internet/registry/ip/

OrgName:        College of Minnesota
OrgId:          UNIVER-233-Z
Handle:        Workplace of Info Know-how
Handle:        2218 Univ Ave SE
Metropolis:           Minneapolis
StateProv:      MN
PostalCode:     55414
Nation:        US
RegDate:        2009-10-13
Up to date:        2019-09-30
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.internet/registry/entity/UNIVER-233-Z

Most IP geolocation suppliers find the IP handle within the metropolis of Minneapolis in
the US. This corresponds with the Metropolis, StateProv, PostalCode and
attributes of the above WHOIS
Thus, the above instance reveals that these attributes can be utilized to geolocate the community -

Unfavorable Instance –

When wanting up the IP handle with a WHOIS consumer, the next
WHOIS document is obtained:

NetRange: -
NetName:        GOOGLE-FIBER
NetHandle:      NET-136-32-0-0-1
Dad or mum:         NET136 (NET-136-0-0-0-0)
NetType:        Direct Allocation
Group:   Google Fiber Inc. (GF)
RegDate:        2015-10-06
Up to date:        2015-10-06
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.internet/registry/ip/

OrgName:        Google Fiber Inc.
OrgId:          GF
Handle:        1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Metropolis:           Mountain View
StateProv:      CA
PostalCode:     94043
Nation:        US
RegDate:        2010-10-08
Up to date:        2019-11-01
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.internet/registry/entity/GF

Most IP geolocation suppliers find the IP handle in San Antonio in Texas.
Nevertheless, if we might have used the above WHOIS document for geolocation, we might have taken the pinnacle workplace
from Google in Mountain View, California for geolocation. This may clearly have been a mistake.


It appears that evidently utilizing the next ARIN WHOIS attributes is considerably dependable if the group is
small or centered in just one location:

  1. Handle attribute
  2. Metropolis attribute
  3. StateProv attribute
  4. PostalCode attribute
  5. Nation attribute

Examples for small organizations are universities, hospitals and governmental ministries. These
use the IP
addresses of NetRange objects the on the similar
location as their administrative postal handle. This isn’t the case with bigger companies or nation extensive
organizations that personal many NetRange objects.

Geolocation Interpolation in LACNIC

It isn’t essential to derive geolocation info from LACNIC WHOIS information, since LACNIC offers full
geolocation assist of their WHOIS database as discussed
earlier on this page

Geolocation Interpolation in AFRINIC

AFRINIC has the identical WHOIS database format as RIPE NCC, so the identical rules apply as for RIPE NCC.

In brief, it’s doable to make use of the nation or descr attribute from inetnum
or inet6num
objects from the AFRINIC database to interpolate geolocation info.

Moreover, the handle attribute from role
can be used to derive geolocation
info. The handle attribute specifies the postal handle of a job, which is commonly used
to specify possession of a community.

Geolocation Interpolation in APNIC

APNIC makes use of the identical WHOIS database format as RIPE NCC, so the identical rules apply as for RIPE NCC.

Open Supply Geolocation Tasks

A number of open supply geolocation initiatives are explored on this part. Open supply initiatives are sometimes the
foundation for a lot of business geolocation initiatives. Particularly the contributions from RIPE NCC, APNIC and ARIN
are reviewed,
since these Regional Web Registries present one of the best assist for geolocation.


RIPE IPmap is (was – plainly the it isn’t longer
maintained) an API that gives
geolocation knowledge for core Web
infrastructure. RIPE IPmap makes use of a number of totally different engines to deduce geolocation for IP addresses. RIPE IPmap
is a system for lively (stay) IP geolocation, which signifies that every IP must be geolocated actively, which
is usually a time consuming course of.

Probably the most attention-grabbing engine from RIPE IPmap is known as latency and single-radius
engine. The latency engine makes use of measurements from RIPE
to supply a latency radius for the geolocation of an IP handle. Put otherwise, through the use of
a whole lot of geographically distributed latency measurement servers from RIPE
, it’s doable to estimate the situation of an IP handle by triangulating with minimal
measurements. The RIPE IPmap

offers a full description for the latency engine.

It’s fairly easy to know how the latency engine works in apply. If a
sure IP handle must be geolocated, latency measurements will be both obtained by actively pinging
the IP handle or by recording the RTT of incoming connections (passive). The minimal latency units an higher
threshold for the maximal
doable distance as a result of definition of the pace of sunshine in fiber optic medium.

reverse-dns is one other RIPE IPmap engine that makes use of the hostnames from PTR information to be able to
geolocate IP
addresses. The RIPE IPmap
explains how the reverse-dns engine works. Basically, the thought is
to extract metropolis degree geolocation from PTR information of hostnames. For instance, the next traceroute
output reveals
how hostnames from routers point out their geogrpahical location:

ae59-300.edge9.frankfurt1.level3.internet (  31.713 ms  29.638 ms
9  ae59-300.edge9.frankfurt1.level3.internet (  31.189 ms * *
10  * att-level3-washington12.level3.internet (  124.232 ms  120.208 ms
11  att-level3-washington12.level3.internet (  119.936 ms  122.603 ms *

Within the traceroute dump from above, it may be seen how the IP is situated in
Frankfurt (Germany) and the IP in Washington
(USA) in accordance with their respective

The RIPE IPmap database will be downloaded from right here:

The database has the
following CSV format: ip, geolocation_id, city_name, state_name, country_name, country_code_alpha2,
country_code_alpha3, latitude, longitude, rating

Sadly, whereas the concepts of RIPE IPmap are definitely nonetheless good, the venture’s accuracy and protection
degraded significantly in accordance with the former maintainers website.
It looks like there aren’t any new contributions to RIPE IPmap since 2019.


geofeed-finder is a open supply venture by
Massimo Candela who was previously employed by RIPE NCC. The aim of the venture is as follows:

This utility discovers and retrieves geofeed recordsdata from whois knowledge. Moreover, it validates the possession
of the prefixes, manages the cache, and validates the ISO codes. See RFC9092.

This device can be utilized to extract geofeeds from WHOIS knowledge in accordance with RFC 9092. As mentioned on this web page, the protection
of geofeed info in all networks may be very low, subsequently this device has restricted actual life usablilty, however
it’s promising since geofeed protection will probably improve within the coming years.

LACNIC Geofeeds Service

The LACNIC Geofeeds Service
offers geolocation info for a superb a part of LACNIC’s members. The information is publicly out there for
obtain at
is an important venture, because it permits to entry geolocation info the place it ought to be collected:
On the RIR degree.


OpenGeoFeed is a open supply venture that compiles self-published
geofeeds in accordance with RFC 9092. OpenGeoFeed offers
a single geofeed file that incorporates all identified public geofeed recordsdata
right here:

Whereas OpenGeoFeed is a promising venture, plainly the geofeed
protection is just not updated and it’s unlikely that the information sources are ceaselessly up to date.

Geolocation Information Enrichment

Typically the uncooked geolocation info obtained from WHOIS knowledge or geofeeds do not embrace all of the meta
essential to populate all geolocation fields that the database offers. On this part, it’s
explaind how uncooked
geolocation knowledge is enriched by contemplating third occasion sources.

This knowledge enrichment course of is
achieved through the use of open supply geographical databases equivalent to:

The information enrichment course of will be divided into two circumstances:

  1. For these uncooked information the place solely metropolis and nation geolocation info is given, there’s a have to
    discover the latitude and
    longitude (coordinates) from a given metropolis and nation. Instance: What are the geographical
    coordinates for US, San Francisco?
  2. On the opposite aspect, if solely the latitude and longitude is offered within the uncooked knowledge, the purpose is to
    get hold of the closest metropolis
    and nation
    for these coordinates. Instance: What’s the closest metropolis and nation
    for the coordinates 52.524526 13.410037 (if there’s a metropolis in any respect near these
    coordinates) ?

For instance, makes use of the next databases to counterpoint geolocation

  1. GeoNames Postal Code
    – All identified postal codes of all nations of the world (excluding some nations for authorized
  2. – all cities with a inhabitants >
  3. countryInfo.txt – nation
    info equivalent to Nation Capital, Inhabitants, Continent and different nation
    meta knowledge

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