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Ithkuil – Wikipedia

Ithkuil – Wikipedia

2023-05-21 11:54:20

Experimental constructed language

Ithkuil is an experimental constructed language created by John Quijada.[1] It’s designed to precise extra profound ranges of human cognition briefly but overtly and clearly, significantly about human categorization. It’s a cross between an a priori philosophical and a logical language. It tries to reduce the vagueness and semantic ambiguity in pure human languages.[2] Ithkuil is notable for its grammatical complexity and in depth phoneme stock, the latter being simplified in an upcoming redesign. The title “Ithkuil” is an anglicized type of Iţkuîl, which within the authentic type roughly meant “hypothetical illustration of a language.”[2] Quijada states he didn’t create Ithkuil to be auxiliary or utilized in on a regular basis conversations. As a substitute, he wished the language for extra elaborate and profound fields the place extra insightful ideas are anticipated, resembling philosophy, arts, science, and politics.[3]

Significant phrases or sentences can often be expressed in Ithkuil with fewer linguistic models than pure languages.[2] For instance, the two-word Ithkuil sentence “Tram-mļöi hhâsmařpţuktôx” will be translated into English as “Quite the opposite, I feel it might prove that this rugged mountain vary trails off in some unspecified time in the future.”[2] Quijada deems his creation as too advanced to have developed naturally, seeing it as an train in exploring how languages may perform. No particular person, even Quijada himself, is thought to talk Ithkuil fluently. Nonetheless, it was featured within the Language Creation Convention’s sixth Conlang Relay.

4 variations of the language have been publicized: the preliminary model in 2004, a simplified model known as Ilaksh in 2007, a 3rd model in 2011, and the present model (as of February 2023), known as New Ithkuil.[4][5][6][7] In 2004[8]—and once more in 2009[9] with Ilaksh—Ithkuil was featured within the Russian-language widespread science and IT journal Computerra. In 2008, David J. Peterson awarded it the Smiley Award.[10] In 2013, Bartłomiej Kamiński codified the language to parse difficult sentences shortly.[11] Julien Tavernier and nameless others have since adopted swimsuit.[12] Since July 2015, Quijada has launched a number of Ithkuil songs in a prog-rock type as a part of the album Kaduatán, which interprets to “Wayfarers.”[13] Not too long ago, on-line communities have developed in English, Russian, Mandarin, and Japanese.

Historical past[edit]


Ithkuil advanced over 45 years as a linguistic experiment past Western Indo-European languages in response to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and Charles J. Fillmore’s case grammar into “a posh, intricate array of interwoven grammatical ideas” with “concepts impressed by numerous hours learning texts in theoretical linguistics, cognitive grammar, psycholinguistics, language acquisition, linguistic relativity, semantics, semiotics, philosophy, fuzzy set theory, and even quantum physics.” Ithkuil was closely impressed by cognitive linguists together with George Lakoff, Ronald Langacker, Gilles Fauconnier, and Len Talmy.

For his influences, Quijada cites the obscure “morphophonology of Abkhaz verb complexes, the moods of verbs of sure American Indian languages, the aspectual system of Niger–Kordofanian languages, the nominal case systems of Basque and Dagestanian languages, the enclitic system of the Wakashan languages, the positional orientation methods of Tzeltal and Guugu Yimithirr, the Semitic triliteral root morphology, and the rumour and possessive classes of Suzette Elgin‘s Láadan language”. The writing system’s logical design borrows ideas from Ethiopic and Brahmi scripts, however employs a singular morphophonemic precept.[2] The script used all through the Ithkuil grammar bears a superficial resemblance to Hebrew sq. script and the varied Klingon fonts. Moreover, Ilaksh had a “cartouche script” and a cursive format (the previous of which had been an upcoming aesthetic mission of the designer’s).

Ilaksh (2007)[edit]

The preliminary publication of Ithkuil in 2004 had an intensive phonology of 65 consonants and 17 vowels. After a point out of Ithkuil within the Russian journal Computerra,[8] a number of audio system of Russian contacted Quijada and expressed enthusiasm to study Ithkuil for its utility to psychonetics, with a number of complaining about its issue in pronunciation. Quijada remade Ithkuil’s morphophonology with 30 consonants and 10 vowels (and the addition of tones) and printed the revision on 10 June 2007 as Ilaksh.[2] The language featured different amendments to grammar, together with some extra Ranges and a change of Instances. It was redesigned to be simpler to talk and included a further writing system.[14][15][16] The preliminary sequential “casual” system appropriate for handwriting or compact typesetting, and a “formal” logographic system with inventive prospects resembling Maya scripts.

Within the “casual” writing system, a number of parallel units of strains are formed to correspond sequentially to the totally different parallel units of lexemes and inflections. It’s instantly pronounceable. The creator designed it with reserve for handy handwriting. The general design would allow compact, clear, black-and-white rendering.

Within the colourful “formal” script, a single advanced glyph represented a complete sentence. Diversely formed, shaded and superimposed cartouches symbolize the syntactic relations of the verb and noun phrases of a sentence. The perimeters of the cartouches had explicit shapes that point out one set of inflections, the colours point out one other set of inflections, and the textures one more one. On the cartouches, letters of hexagonal define would spell out the types of explicit lexemes. The cartouches shaped phrases, with main phrases overlapping subordinate phrases. The coloring system utilized totally different shade densities and texturing for various colours in an effort to be usable by colorblind folks. These density conventions additionally allowed the formal system to be inexpensively printed in black-and-white, or inscribed or imprinted on stone or different supplies.[17]

Ithkuil (2011)[edit]

Ilaksh was outdated by a morphologically comparable language additionally termed Ithkuil due to its ties to the preliminary publication. The script makes use of a singular morphophonemic precept that enables sentences representing grammatical classes to be pronounced in a number of methods because the speaker sees match. It was deemed the ultimate model of the language, which grew consideration to conlangers on social media. One weblog interprets “I’m sleepy as a result of these rattling cats had been preventing all evening and I couldn’t sleep effectively!” as ur-rn aičnattîbi tei n-nrai’dáčnuitîb ti wëqam-msukšš hwaičúitôkçuxh rrolp żü’âluss.[18]

In 2014 the class of register was launched and in 2015 a mathematical and measurement-based sublanguage was printed. Dozens on the group Reddit discussion board have proposed revisions to make the language extra learnable. Quijada plans to undertake the cartouche script “to be used instead, ‘decorative’ writing system for inventive functions” to Ithkuil in a future replace of the language.

New Ithkuil (2023)[edit]

Owing to complaints in regards to the tough patterns within the language morphology, on 30 October 2017 Quijada printed a tentative define for a brand new model of the language, addressing learners’ wishes for a extra agglutinative morphophonology, together with a restructured formative define, and prolonged use of Adjuncts for shortened expression of the grammar to additional create phonaesthetics. Quijada has thought-about mandating verbal classes expressed in formatives to be redundantly spoken aloud in adjuncts to be extra naturalistic. Regardless of the complexity of the language, supposed solely as an experiment with out concern for the constraints of human learnability, he has printed a number of updates for a brand new language predicated off the unique grammar, most not too long ago in November 2019.[19][20] The brand new language is meant to function an expanded lexicon and writing system that may be handwritten.

In February 2023, Quijada printed the fourth iteration of the language, titled New Ithkuil, and introduced that the earlier model would stay on-line for archival functions.[21]


The data beneath refers to New Ithkuil which was printed in early 2023.


The phonology consists of 32 consonants and 9 vowels. The consonants are as follows:

The consonants c’, č’, ok’, p’, q, , q’, t’, and xh are eradicated, x is pronounced [x]~[χ], ň might be written as n earlier than ok, g, or x, and dh is now written as (or optionally đ or ). The clusters with h are disyllabic in word-medial positions, however often type allophones when discovered firstly of phrases. For instance, word-medially kh can be pronounced [kh] as within the English phrase “backhanded”, however kh is pronounced [kʰ] within the New Ithkuil phrase “khala”. The kinds hl, hr, hm, and hn will be pronounced both as [ɬ], [ɾ̥], [m̥], and [n̥] respectively, or as separate consonants. Mixtures of a voiced consonant plus following –h– are all the time dissyllabic. r is pronounced as a faucet [ɾ], however turns into a trill [r] when geminated. Following one other consonant, a non-geminated r might optionally be pronounced as an apico-alveolar-retroflex approximant [ɹ]. When ř is geminated it’s both [ʁ:] or will be strengthened to a uvular trill [ʀ].

The vowels are as follows:

The vowels ê, î, ô, and û are faraway from 2011 Ithkuil to permit for simpler memorization. The letter ä, pronounced [æ], is launched. a is pronounced [a]~[ɑ], e is pronounced [e]~[ɛ], i is pronounced [i]~[ɪ], o is pronounced [o]~[ɔ], u is pronounced [u]~[ʊ], ë is pronounced [ə]~[ʌ], ü is pronounced as [ʉ]~[y], and ø is pronounced as [ø]~[œ]. Guidelines for exterior junction between phrases have been described for audio system to have the ability to clearly parse phrase boundaries.

Stress is marked with an acute diacritic on letters with out diacritics and the circumflex on letters with a diaeresis. The letters i and u are marked with a grave diacritic when they’re unstressed and the primary of a couple of vowel after a consonant to remind the reader that they’re pronounced [iː] and [u] and never [j] nor [w], respectively.


The grammar is basically the identical as in Ithkuil 2011, however with a larger deal with the scope of grammatical classes to be extra logical. Stem sample has been changed by stem specification, and Suffixes had been renamed Affixes. The classes of Designation, Sanction, and Modality have been supplanted by affixual kinds. Possessive circumstances are named Appositive; Associative circumstances break up into Associative, Adverbial, Relational, and Affinitive; and Comparative circumstances are eradicated. The Ca advanced is modular and numerous classes observe a 9-valued vowel sequence. Included roots have been changed by a system of concatenation. Formatives and private reference classes now have the choice to hold Impact, a class prescribing helpful, detrimental, or impartial states to a referent.[excessive detail?]


The lexicon contains over 6000 roots and 600 affixes.

Potential benefits[edit]

The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis postulates that an individual’s language influences their perceptions and cognitive patterns. Stanislav Kozlovsky proposed[8] within the Russian popular-scientific journal Computerra {that a} fluent speaker of Ithkuil, accordingly, would assume “about 5 – 6 instances as quick” as a speaker of a typical pure language. The Sapir–Whorf speculation would recommend that, Ithkuil being an especially exact and synthetic language, its audio system would have a extra discerning, deeper understanding each of on a regular basis conditions and of broader phenomena, and of summary philosophical classes.

Nevertheless, sturdy types of the speculation, which postulate that language determines thought and never solely influences it, have been rejected by mainstream linguistics.[22] Furthermore, consistent with this, Quijada has acknowledged he doesn’t imagine a speaker would assume essentially any quicker as a result of despite the fact that Ithkuil is terse, a single phrase requires much more thought earlier than it may be spoken than it could in a pure language.[23]

Kozlovsky additionally likened Ithkuil to the fictional Speedtalk from Robert A. Heinlein‘s novella Gulf, and contrasted each languages with the Newspeak of the communicationally restricted society of Orwell‘s Nineteen Eighty-Four. Ithkuil is by far probably the most full language of the three, because the lexicon and grammar are described in far larger element. John Quijada acknowledged the similarity of Ithkuil’s design objectives to these of Speedtalk,[3] remarking that,

[h]owever, Heinlein’s Speedtalk seems to focus solely on the morpho-phonological part of language[, whereas] Ithkuil has been designed with an equal deal with [morphology, lexico-morphology, or lexico-semantics]. Moreover, the obvious goal of Heinlein’s language is straightforward rapidity/brevity of speech and thought, whereas Ithkuil is targeted on maximal communication in probably the most environment friendly method, a considerably totally different goal, during which brevity per se is irrelevant.

Previous variations[edit]

Ithkuil (2004)[edit]

The unique model of Ithkuil had a considerably extra difficult morphophonology.


On the left of every cell within the desk beneath is the phoneme, and on the proper its transliterated illustration. The unique 65 consonants had been as follows:

/w ɫ̪/ had been velarized and /m n̪ ŋ l ɫ ɻ/ could possibly be syllabic. h was [ɸ] when preceded by a vowel and adopted by one other consonant. [cʎ̥˔ʰ] was in free variation with [cʎ̥˔ʼ], the latter being extra frequent firstly of a phrase (each spelled ). All consonants besides y and w could possibly be geminated; when geminated, h was a bidental fricative ([h̪͆]) and r was an alveolar trill ([r]).

On the left of every cell within the desk beneath is the phoneme, and on the proper its transliterated illustration. The unique 17 vowels are as follows:

The diphthongs had been /ai̯/, /æi̯/, /ei̯/, /ɤi̯/, /øi̯/, /oi̯/, /ʊi̯/, /au̯/, /æu̯/, /eu̯/, /ɤu̯/, /ɪu̯/, /ou̯/, /øu̯/, /aɯ̯/, /eɯ̯/, /ɤɯ̯/, /ʊɯ̯/, /oɯ̯/, /ɪɯ̯/, /æɯ̯/, /øɯ̯/, /ʉɯ̯/, /ae̯/. All different sequences of vowels had been pronounced as separate syllables.


The lexicon of the unique Ithkuil consisted of the identical patterns because the 2011 type of the language. Nevertheless, every root consisted of two consonantal radicals, and will derive hundreds of lexemes by way of the usage of Ithkuil’s advanced guidelines of morphophonology, which concerned each consonantal and vocal mutation, shifts in syllabic stress and tone, and affixation.

Ithkuil phrases will be divided into simply two elements of speech, formatives and adjuncts. Formatives functioned each as nouns and as verbs, relying on the morphosemantic context. Formatives had been inflected for the present grammatical classes, plus 2 foci, and 81 circumstances; they might even have taken on among the 153 affixes, which additional certified into one in all 9 levels. Verbal formatives had been moreover inflected for 7 conflations.

Verbal adjuncts equally labored along side adjoining formatives to supply extra grammatical data. Two sorts of verbal adjuncts had been inflected to point 14 valencies, 6 variations, 8 codecs, 37 derivations, 30 modalities, 4 levels, 9 validations, 9 phases, 9 sanctions, 32 aspects, 8 moods, and 24 biases.

An instance of morphological evaluation[edit]

(based mostly solely on the unique Ithkuil grammar e-book)

The phrase iţkuîl was a formative derived from the root k-l (broadly regarding “speech”, “voice”, and even “interpretation”) by way of the addition of a number of morphological determinants:

kul was the holistic number of the Stem 2 of the three different doable stems from k-l. Translating roughly as “a significant unit of speech”, i.e. “a phrase”, it gave no emphasis on the that means or the vocal rendering of the phrase.
  • The u → uî mutation of the infix
Secondary mode, versus main mode, meant that the phrase kuîl is to not discuss with a real-life phenomenon, however relatively to a psychological illustration, or projection, of that phenomenon; to an imaginary or hypothetical object. Thus translating as, “a made-up phrase”.
  • A grade 8 mutation of the primary radical consonant: ok → ţk
The configuration of the time period was composite. Roughly comparable to the plurality idea in Indo-European languages, it additionally implies the objects in query (phrases, kuîl) to be numerous, whereas forming a “coherent emergent entity” (relatively than only a assortment or an array of various phrases), thus that means “a vocabulary” or “lexicon”.
  • The i- vocalic prefix, one of many 24 doable for formative roots
The extension was delimitive, perceiving “vocabulary” as whole, with clearly distinguished boundaries, versus it being only a native manifestation – resembling slang or a dialect – of a broader lexicon (-ţkuîl).
The affiliation of the set of objects in query was coalescent. This means that the person members of the set act collectively towards a better goal by coordinating their complementary capabilities. Thus, “a vocabulary/lexicon” turns into “a language”.
The perspective of the noun is monadic, seeing “the language” as a single and particular entity, relatively than a group of many languages current individually, the overall phenomenon (“human languages”) or the summary thought of language.

Thus, the approximate translation of iţkuîl was “an thought/fantasy of an entire purposeful system of complementary speech components”, or just “an imaginary language”.

Ilaksh (2007)[edit]

In an effort to make the language extra speakable, Quijada created a revision known as Ilaksh that relied on tone to cut back the phonemic stock.

The phonological system of Ilaksh was revised to include solely 30 consonants and 10 vowels. The consonants are the identical as these of Ithkuil IV with the omission of the unvoiced alveolar lateral fricative ɬ. /m ŋ l ɽ/ could possibly be syllabic. All consonants besides /j w ʔ/ could possibly be geminated; when geminated, h was a bidental fricative or a voiceless pharyngeal fricative, and ɽ was an alveolar trill. The clusters /n̪j/, /tj/, /dj/, and /lj/ could possibly be pronounced as such or because the palatals [ɲ], [c], [ɟ], and [ʎ]. The orthography used /đ ŧ ż/ as an alternative of /ḑ ţ ẓ/.

The vowels had been the identical as these of Ithkuil IV. The 14 diphthongs of Ilaksh had been /ai̯/, /æi̯/, /ei̯/, /əi̯/, /oi̯/, /øi̯/, /ui̯/, /au̯/, /æu̯/, /eu̯/, /əu̯/, /iu̯/, /ou̯/, and /øu̯/. All different sequences of vowels had been pronounced as separate syllables.

Ithkuil (2011)[edit]


Ithkuil has 45 consonants and 13 vowels. On the left of every cell within the desk beneath is the phoneme, and on the proper its transliterated illustration if it isn’t written the identical in IPA as in romanized Ithkuil. The consonants are as follows:[24]

/m n̪ ŋ l ɽ/ will be syllabic. All consonants besides /j w ʔ/ will be geminated; when geminated, /h/ is a bidental fricative or a voiceless pharyngeal fricative ([ħ]), and /ɽ/ is an alveolar trill.

The 13 vowels of Ithkuil are as follows:[24]

/ɪ ʊ/ are pronounced as /i u/ after they precede one other vowel, and on the finish of a phrase. /ɛ ɔ/ are pronounced /e o/ after they precede one other vowel, besides /ɪ ʊ/.

The diphthongs in Ithkuil are /äɪ̯/, /ɛɪ̯/, /əɪ̯/, /ɔɪ̯/, /ø̞ɪ̯/, /ʊɪ̯/, /äʊ̯/, /ɛʊ̯/, /əʊ̯/, /ɪʊ̯/, /ɔʊ̯/, /ø̞ʊ̯/. All different sequences of vowels are pronounced as separate syllables. The grave accent is used to point the vowel sequence shouldn’t be a diphthong. The grave and acute accents are used for stress. In a future revision of the language, circumflex accents might be used for stress, however grave accents is not going to be used for stress, and can solely be used to point the vowel sequence shouldn’t be a diphthong in order that the principles for marking stress are simplified.


Ithkuil phrases will be divided into simply two parts of speech, Formatives and Adjuncts. Formatives can perform each as nouns and as verbs, derived from the basis and relying on the morphosemantic context. They are often expanded by way of numerous ‘suffixes’.[25] Adjuncts serve two roles, both indicating private referents like pronouns, or specifying extra verbal data resembling grammatical bias. In a future model of the language, adjuncts will have the ability to convey suffix (or relatively, affix) data.


Roots are Ithkuil’s most simple semantic models. All Ithkuil formatives are derived from a restricted variety of roots. Every root consists of a cluster of 1–4 consonants (five-consonant clusters are additionally out there, however stay with out an assigned that means).[25] The present lexicon of Ithkuil can probably consist of roughly 3,600 word roots, simply over 1000 of which have been assigned definitions.[25][26] From the basis, phrase stems are shaped by affixing the vocalic affix that signifies stem sample, stem sort, perform for the stem, and by stressing a selected syllable to point casual or formal designation.[25]

There are three stems related to every root. Every stem is available in three patterns, one holistic and two complementary ones. Holistic stem 1 sometimes refers back to the most basic manifestation of a root, whereas holistic stems 2 and three sometimes discuss with extra particular manifestations related to the basis. Every holistic stem has two complementary stems related to it, which discuss with the complementary ideas associated to the holistic stem.[25] The particular that means of complementary stems relies upon considerably on the basis. These are derived from the phrase roots by prefixing a vowel or diphthong that additionally signifies the grammatical class perform.[25] Two examples are given within the tables beneath:

Holistic stem 1 Holistic stem 2 Holistic stem 3
nuclear member of the family
male nuclear member of the family
feminine nuclear member of the family
Complementary stems Complementary stems Complementary stems
little one
Holistic stem 1 Holistic stem 2 Holistic stem 3
higher-order animal lifeform
human being
non-human higher-order animal lifeform
Complementary stems Complementary stems Complementary stems
male higher-order animal lifeform
feminine higher-order animal lifeform
male human being
feminine human being
male non-human higher-order animal lifeform
îq- / ûq-
feminine non-human higher-order animal lifeform
Fundamental morphology[edit]

All Ithkuil formatives, whether or not functioning as nouns or verbs, inflect for numerous grammatical classes which can be fairly dissimilar from any of these in pure languages.[27] Quantization is kind of lined by the grammatical classes of Configuration, Affiliation, and Perspective, despite the fact that these don’t technically discuss with quantity per se.[27]


The 9 configurations (Uniplex, Duplex, Discrete, Aggregative, Segmentative, Componential, Coherent, Composite, Multiform) describe the bodily similarity and relationship between the members of a set, e.g. bushes might happen in a group of the identical species, of various species, and even in a patternless assortment with vegetation that aren’t bushes.


The 4 affiliations (Consolidative, Associative, Variative, Coalescent) describe the subjective goal or perform of members of a set, e.g. a gaggle of bushes might happen naturally and haven’t any goal, they might have the identical goal, complementary functions, or totally different functions.


The 4 views (Monadic, Unbounded, Nomic, Summary) describe the boundedness of a set, i.e. whether it is seen as a single unit, a number of disconnected models, seen generically, or its traits thought-about abstractly.


The six extensions (Delimitive, Proximal, Inceptive, Terminative, Graduative, Depletive) describe the referred a part of a set, e.g. its starting or its finish.

See Also


The 2 essences (Regular, Consultant) describe whether or not the referred set is in the true world or exists solely psychologically.


The 4 contexts (Existential, Useful, Representational, Amalgamate) describe the psychological relevance of the set, e.g. merely its existence or the set as symbolic for one thing else.


The 2 designations (Casual, Formal) describe the authority or permanence of a set.


The six variations (Processual, Completive, Ineffectual, Incompletive, Constructive, Efficient) describe whether or not the motion is goal-oriented or not, and whether or not the motion is efficiently accomplished.


The 5 registers (Narrative, Discursive, Parenthetical, Cogitant, Impressionistic) describe the mode of non-public communication (narration, private cogitation, subjective impression, direct speech, parenthetical “apart”).


There are 96 grammatical cases in Ithkuil, one particular case being the Vocative, used for direct handle. Verbal formatives inflect for case underneath Body constructions (i.e., dependent clauses). The grammatical circumstances of Ithkuil will be divided into a number of distinct teams:[28]

Class Identifies Quantity
Transrelative the individuals to the verb 11
Possessive possessive relationships between nouns 7
Associative non-possessive relationships between nouns and adverbial relationships with verbs 32
Temporal temporal relationships 15
Spatial spatial relationships; this doesn’t cowl spatial relationships resembling ‘to be inside’, that are lined by separate formatives 6
Comparability comparisons to different nouns, used along side Degree 24
Verbal morphology[edit]

A number of distinct grammatical classes apply solely to verbal formatives. These are listed beneath:[29]


The 4 capabilities describe the overall relationship that the verbal formative has with its nominal individuals (state, motion, description). Ithkuil nominal formatives additionally carry a perform, however can’t be inflected for them, all the time remaining within the “stative”.[29]


The eight moods describe attitudes or views on the act or the diploma of factuality.


The six illocutions describe the overall goal of the speech act (assertion, query, warning, demand, and so on.).


The 2 relations describe whether or not the verbal formative is a part of a subordinate clause.


The 9 phases describe the temporal sample of the act or prevalence.


The 9 sanctions describe the type of truthfulness the listener ought to ascribe to it (assertion, allegation, counterargument, refutation, and so on.).


The fourteen valences describe the way of participation of two separate entities to the verbal formative.


The six validations describe the proof supporting the assertion.


The 32 elements describe the temporal relationship of the verbal formative in its context.


The 24 biases describe the speaker’s emotional angle in the direction of the motion.


Ithkuil makes use of a wide range of affixes, termed suffixes, to additional delineate what’s described by the formative. They arrive in three varieties and sometimes correlate with adverbs.


There are two sorts of adjuncts in Ithkuil: personal-reference adjuncts and verbal adjuncts.[25] All adjuncts are extremely synthetic.

Private reference adjuncts are akin to pronouns in English. There are two sorts of personal-reference adjuncts in Ithkuil: Single-referent and dual-referent.[30]

Verbal adjuncts are adjuncts that work along side verbal formatives to supply details about the latter’s Valence, Degree, Section, Sanction, Illocution, Modality, Side, and Bias.[25] Of those, Modality and Degree can solely be indicated utilizing verbal adjuncts, whereas the others will also be expressed on the verbal formative.[31]

Numerical system[edit]

Ithkuil makes use of a base 100 numeral system with roots for the numbers 1 to 10, and a stem-specific spinoff suffix used with a quantity root so as to add a a number of of 10, offering the numerals as much as 99. Ithkuil didn’t initially use the idea of zero. Numbers larger than 100 are expressed by way of a number of formatives, and a particular numerical script has logograms for the numbers 1 to 100 and exponential powers of 100. On 27 March 2015, Quijada launched a mathematical sublanguage utilizing a dozenal quantity system which makes use of the circle fixed tau.[32]


“Tram-mļöi hhâsmařpţuktôx” written within the Ithkuil script. English translation: “Quite the opposite, I feel it might prove that this rugged mountain vary trails off in some unspecified time in the future”

Ithkuil makes use of a morphophonemic script as a result of characters convey each phonetic and morphological data. (Notably, it has no alphabet as such.) Its use is carefully tied to Ithkuil’s grammatical system, which permits a lot of the phonological side of phrases to be morpho-syntactically inferred. These elements of an Ithkuil phrase whose pronunciation is predictable usually are not written, whereas the characters used to point the pronunciation of the unpredictable elements of a phrase additionally convey the grammatical data essential to reconstruct the implicit phonetics. Phrases are thus written in a extremely abbreviated method, significantly helpful for the extremely inflected, sometimes elongated phrases of the Ithkuil language. The script can also be used alphabetically for transliterating international phrases and mathematical expressions.[17]


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  14. ^ “Ilaksh script diagram (indicates what the various parts of an Ilaksh logogram indicate)”. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011.
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  16. ^ “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 11: The Script”. 2009-05-22. Archived from the original on 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  17. ^ a b “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 11: The Writing System”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  18. ^ “Ithkuil for Beginners. A Hypothetical Lesson • Aitôxhalin Açnalüpç”. Aitôxhalin Açnalüpç on Svbtle. 19 August 2014.
  19. ^ “r/Ithkuil – A (LONG) MESSAGE FROM JOHN Q ABOUT A FUTURE REFORM OF ITHKUIL”. reddit. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  20. ^ “Ithkuil Update”. ithkuil.internet. Archived from the unique on 2019-10-29. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  21. ^ “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Introduction”.
  22. ^ Ahearn, Laura (6 Might 2011), Residing language: an introduction to linguistic anthropology (1. publ. ed.), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 69, ISBN 9781405124416
  23. ^ “FAQs”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  24. ^ a b “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 1: Phonology”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 2: Morpho-Phonology”. ithkuil.internet.
  26. ^ “Lexicon”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  27. ^ a b “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 3: Basic Morphology”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  28. ^ “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 4: Case Morphology”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  29. ^ a b “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 5: Verb Morphology”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  30. ^ “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 8: Adjuncts”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  31. ^ “A Grammar of the Ithkuil Language – Chapter 6: More Verb Morphology”. www.ithkuil.internet.
  32. ^ “Expressing mathematics and measurement in Ithkuil” (PDF).

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