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Michel de Montaigne – Wikipedia

Michel de Montaigne – Wikipedia

2023-05-23 07:19:43

French creator, thinker, and statesman (1533–1592)

The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne

Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne ( mon-TAYN;[4] French: [miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ]; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592[5]), generally known as Michel de Montaigne, was one of the vital vital philosophers of the French Renaissance. He’s identified for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is famous for its merging of informal anecdotes[6] and autobiography with mental perception. Montaigne had a direct affect on quite a few Western writers; his huge quantity Essais incorporates among the most influential essays ever written.

Throughout his lifetime, Montaigne was admired extra as a statesman than as an creator. The tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and private ruminations was seen as detrimental to correct type somewhat than as an innovation, and his declaration that “I’m myself the matter of my guide” was considered by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, nonetheless, Montaigne got here to be acknowledged as embodying, maybe higher than every other creator of his time, the spirit of freely entertaining doubt that started to emerge at the moment. He’s most famously identified for his skeptical comment, ”Que sçay-je?” (“What do I do know?”, in Middle French; now rendered as “Que sais-je?” in fashionable French).


Household, childhood and schooling[edit]

Montaigne was born within the Aquitaine area of France, on the household property Château de Montaigne in a city now referred to as Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, near Bordeaux. The household was very rich. His great-grandfather, Ramon Felipe Eyquem, had made a fortune as a herring service provider – and had purchased the property in 1477, thus changing into the Lord of Montaigne. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time, and had additionally been the mayor of Bordeaux.[5]

Though there have been a number of households bearing the patronym “Eyquem” in Guyenne, his father’s household is believed to have had a point of Marrano (Spanish and Portuguese Jewish) origins,[7] whereas his mom, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism.[8] His maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez,[9] from Zaragoza, was from a rich Marrano (Sephardic Jewish) household, that had transformed to Catholicism.[10][11][12][13] His maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic household in Gascony, France.[14]

Throughout a fantastic a part of Montaigne’s life his mom lived close to him, and even survived him; however she is talked about solely twice in his essays. Montaigne’s relationship along with his father nonetheless is ceaselessly mirrored upon and mentioned in his essays.[15]

Montaigne’s schooling started in early childhood, and adopted a pedagogical plan, that his father had developed, refined by the recommendation of the latter’s humanist mates. Quickly after his start Montaigne was delivered to a small cottage, the place he lived the primary three years of life within the sole firm of a peasant household, as a way to, in keeping with the elder Montaigne, “draw the boy near the folks, and to the life circumstances of the folks, who want our assist”.[16] After these first spartan years Montaigne was introduced again to the château.

One other goal was for Latin to turn into his first language. The mental schooling of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor (a physician named Horstanus, who couldn’t converse French). His father employed solely servants who might converse Latin, they usually additionally got strict orders at all times to talk to the boy in Latin. The identical rule utilized to his mom, father, and servants, who have been obliged to make use of solely Latin phrases he employed; and thus they acquired a data of the very language his tutor taught him. Montaigne’s Latin schooling was accompanied by fixed mental and religious stimulation. He was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical technique that employed video games, dialog, and workout routines of solitary meditation, somewhat than the extra conventional books.[17]

The environment of the boy’s upbringing engendered in him a spirit of “liberty and delight” – that he would later describe as making him “relish…obligation by an unforced will, and of my very own voluntary movement…with none severity or constraint”. His father had a musician wake him each morning, taking part in one instrument or one other;[18] and an epinettier (with a zither) was the fixed companion to Montaigne and his tutor, taking part in tunes to alleviate boredom and tiredness.

Across the yr 1539 Montaigne was despatched to check at a extremely regarded boarding school in Bordeaux, the College of Guienne, then beneath the path of the best Latin scholar of the period, George Buchanan, the place he mastered the entire curriculum by his thirteenth yr. He completed the primary section of his instructional research on the Faculty of Guienne in 1546.[19] He then started his examine of regulation (his alma mater stays unknown, since there aren’t any certainties about his exercise from 1546 to 1557)[20] and entered a profession within the native authorized system.

Profession and marriage[edit]

Portrait of Montaigne c. 1565, by an nameless artist

Montaigne was a counselor of the Courtroom des Aides of Périgueux, and in 1557 he was appointed counselor of the Parlement in Bordeaux, a excessive court docket. From 1561 to 1563 he was courtier on the court docket of Charles IX, and he was current with the king on the siege of Rouen (1562). He was awarded the very best honour of the French nobility, the collar of the Order of Saint Michael.[21]

Whereas serving on the Bordeaux Parlement, he grew to become a really shut buddy of the humanist poet Étienne de La Boétie, whose dying in 1563 deeply affected Montaigne. It has been advised by Donald M. Body – in his introduction to The Full Essays of Montaigne – that due to Montaigne’s “imperious want to speak”, after shedding Étienne, he started the Essais as a brand new “technique of communication”, and that “the reader takes the place of the lifeless buddy”.[22]

Montaigne married Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565, in all probability in an arranged marriage. She was the daughter and niece of rich retailers of Toulouse and Bordeaux. They’d six daughters, however solely the second-born, Léonor, survived infancy.[23] He wrote little or no concerning the relationship along with his spouse, and little is understood about their marriage. Of his daughter Léonor he wrote: “All my youngsters die at nurse; however Léonore, our solely daughter, who has escaped this misfortune, has reached the age of six and extra, with out having been punished, the indulgence of her mom aiding, besides in phrases, and people very mild ones.”[24] His daughter married François de la Tour and later Charles de Gamaches. She had a daughter by every.[25]


Following the petition of his father, Montaigne began to work on the primary translation of the Catalan monk Raymond Sebond‘s Theologia naturalis, which he printed a yr after his father’s dying in 1568 (in 1595 Sebond’s Prologue was placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum due to its declaration that the Bible is just not the one supply of revealed truth). Montaigne additionally printed a posthumous version of the works of his buddy, Boétie.[26]

In 1570 he moved again to the household’s property, the Château de Montaigne, which he had inherited. He thus grew to become the Lord of Montaigne. In 1571 he retired from public life to the Tower of the château – his so-called “citadel” – within the Dordogne, the place he nearly completely remoted himself from each social and household affair. Locked up in his library, which contained a group of some 1,500 works, he started work on his Essais (“Essays”) – first printed in 1580. On the day of his thirty eighth birthday, as he entered this nearly ten-year interval of self-imposed reclusion, he had the next inscription positioned on the crown of the bookshelves of his working chamber:

Within the yr of Christ 1571, on the age of thirty-eight, on the final day of February, his birthday, Michael de Montaigne, lengthy weary of the servitude of the court docket and of public employments, whereas nonetheless total, retired to the bosom of the discovered virgins, the place in calm and freedom from all cares he’ll spend what little stays of his life, now greater than half run out. If the fates allow, he’ll full this abode, this candy ancestral retreat; and he has consecrated it to his freedom, tranquility, and leisure.[27]


Portrait of Michel de Montaigne round 1578 by Dumonstier

Throughout this time of the Wars of Religion in France, Montaigne, a Roman Catholic,[28] acted as a moderating pressure,[29] revered each by the Catholic King Henry III – and the Protestant Henry of Navarre, who later transformed to catholicism.

In 1578 Montaigne, whose well being had at all times been wonderful, began affected by painful kidney stones, an inclination he inherited from his father’s household. All through this sickness he would don’t have anything to do with medical doctors or medicine.[5] From 1580 to 1581 Montaigne traveled in France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, partly searching for a remedy, establishing himself at Bagni di Lucca, the place he took the waters. His journey was additionally a pilgrimage to the Holy House of Loreto, to which he introduced a silver reduction (depicting him, his spouse, and their daughter, kneeling earlier than the Madonna) contemplating himself lucky that it ought to be held on a wall inside the shrine.[30] He stored a journal, recording regional variations and customs[31] – and quite a lot of private episodes, together with the size of the stones he succeeded in expelling. This was printed a lot later, in ?1774?, after its discovery in a trunk, that’s displayed in his tower.[32]

Throughout a go to to the Vatican that Montaigne described in his journey journal, the Essais have been examined by Sisto Fabri, who served as Master of the Sacred Palace beneath Pope Gregory XIII. After Fabri examined Montaigne’s Essais, the textual content was returned to him on 20 March 1581. Montaigne had apologized for references to the pagan notion of “fortuna“, in addition to for writing favorably of Julian the Apostate and of heretical poets, and was launched to observe his personal conscience in making emendations to the textual content.[33]

Later profession[edit]

Journey to Italy by Michel de Montaigne 1580–1581

Whereas within the metropolis of Lucca in 1581 he discovered that, like his father earlier than him, he had been elected mayor of Bordeaux. He thus returned and served as mayor. He was re-elected in 1583 and served till 1585, once more moderating between Catholics and Protestants. The plague broke out in Bordeaux towards the top of his second time period in workplace, in 1585. In 1586 the plague and the French Wars of Religion prompted him to depart his château for 2 years.[5]

Montaigne continued to increase, revise, and oversee the publication of the Essais. In 1588 he wrote its third guide – and in addition met Marie de Gournay, an creator, who admired his work, and later edited and printed it. Montaigne later referred to her as his adopted daughter.[5]

When King Henry III was assassinated in 1589, Montaigne, regardless of his aversion to the reason for The Reformation, was anxious to advertise a compromise, that will finish the bloodshed, and gave his assist to Henry of Navarre, who would go on to turn into King Henry IV. Montaigne’s place related him with the politiques, the institution motion that prioritised peace, nationwide unity, and royal authority over non secular allegiance.[34]


Portrait of Montaigne circa 1590 by an nameless artist

Montaigne died of quinsy on the age of 59 in 1592 on the Château de Montaigne. In his case the illness “caused paralysis of the tongue”,[35] particularly tough for one who as soon as stated: “probably the most fruitful and pure play of the thoughts is dialog. I discover it sweeter than every other motion in life; and if I have been compelled to decide on, I believe I’d somewhat lose my sight than my listening to and voice.”[36] Remaining in possession of all his different schools, he requested Mass, and died throughout the celebration of that Mass.[37]

He was buried close by. Later his stays have been moved to the church of Saint Antoine at Bordeaux. The church not exists. It grew to become the Convent des Feuillants, which additionally has disappeared.[38]

His humanism finds expression in his Essais, a group of a lot of quick subjective essays on varied subjects printed in 1580 that have been impressed by his research in the classics, particularly by the works of Plutarch and Lucretius.[39] Montaigne’s acknowledged purpose was to explain people, and particularly himself, with utter frankness.

Impressed by his consideration of the lives and beliefs of the main figures of his age, he finds the good selection and volatility of human nature to be its most elementary options. He describes his personal poor reminiscence, his potential to resolve issues and mediate conflicts with out actually getting emotionally concerned, his disdain for the human pursuit of lasting fame, and his makes an attempt to detach himself from worldly issues to arrange for his well timed dying. He writes about his disgust with the non secular conflicts of his time. He believed that people should not in a position to attain true certainty. The longest of his essays, Apology for Raymond Sebond, marking his adoption of Pyrrhonism,[40] incorporates his well-known motto, “What do I do know?”

Montaigne thought-about marriage crucial for the elevating of youngsters however disliked robust emotions of passionate love as a result of he noticed them as detrimental to freedom. In schooling, he favored concrete examples and experience over the instructing of abstract knowledge supposed to be accepted uncritically. His essay “On the Schooling of Kids” is devoted to Diana of Foix.

The Essais exercised an essential affect on each French and English literature, in thought and elegance.[41] Francis Bacon‘s Essays, printed over a decade later, first in 1597, normally are presumed to be immediately influenced by Montaigne’s assortment, and Montaigne is cited by Bacon alongside different classical sources in later essays.[42]

See Also

Montaigne’s affect on psychology[edit]

Though not a scientist, Montaigne made observations on subjects in psychology.[43] In his essays, he developed and defined his observations of those subjects. His ideas and concepts lined subjects similar to thought, motivation, fear, happiness, child education, experience, and human action. Montaigne’s concepts have influenced psychology and are part of its wealthy historical past.

Little one schooling[edit]

Little one schooling was among the many psychological subjects that he wrote about.[43] His essays On the Schooling of Kids, On Pedantry, and On Expertise clarify the views he had on baby schooling.[44]: 61 : 62 : 70  A few of his views on baby schooling are nonetheless related at present.[45]

Montaigne’s views on the schooling of youngsters have been against the widespread instructional practices of his day.[44]: 63 : 67  He discovered fault each with what was taught and the way it was taught.[44]: 62  A lot of schooling throughout Montaigne’s time, centered on studying the classics and studying by way of books.[44]: 67  Montaigne disagreed with studying strictly by way of books. He believed it was crucial to coach youngsters in quite a lot of methods. He additionally disagreed with the best way info was being introduced to college students. It was being introduced in a method that inspired college students to take the data that was taught to them as absolute truth. College students have been denied the possibility to question the information; however Montaigne, on the whole, took the place that to be taught actually, a scholar needed to take the data and make it their very own:

“Let the tutor make his cost cross all the things by way of a sieve and lodge nothing in his head on mere authority and belief: let not Aristotle’s rules be rules to him any greater than these of the Stoics or Epicureans. Let this number of concepts be set earlier than him; he’ll select if he can; if not, he’ll stay doubtful. Solely the fools are sure and warranted. ‘For doubting pleases me at least understanding.’ (Dante). For if he embraces Xenophon’s and Plato’s opinions by his personal reasoning, they may not be theirs, they are going to be his. He who follows one other follows nothing. He finds nothing; certainly he seeks nothing. ‘We aren’t beneath a king; let every one declare his personal freedom.’ (Seneca). . . . He should imbibe their mind-set, not be taught their precepts. And let him boldly overlook, if he desires, the place he acquired them, however let him know the right way to make them his personal. Fact and cause are widespread to everybody, and no extra belong to the person who first spoke them than to the person who says them later. It’s no extra in keeping with Plato than in keeping with me, since he and I see it in the identical method. The bees plunder the flowers right here and there, however afterward they make of them honey, which is all theirs[.]”[citation needed][46]

On the basis, Montaigne believed that the collection of tutor was essential for the coed to turn into nicely educated.[44]: 66  Schooling by a tutor was to be performed on the tempo of the coed.[44]: 67  He believed {that a} tutor ought to be in dialogue with the coed, letting the coed converse first. The tutor additionally ought to enable for discussions and debates available. Such a dialogue was supposed to create an atmosphere wherein college students would train themselves. They might be capable to understand their errors and make corrections to them as crucial.[citation needed]

Individualized studying was integral to his concept of kid schooling. He argued that the coed combines info already identified with what’s discovered and varieties a singular perspective on the newly discovered info.[47]: 356  Montaigne additionally thought that tutors ought to encourage the pure curiosity of scholars and permit them to query issues.[44]: 68  He postulated that profitable college students have been those that have been inspired to query new info and examine it for themselves, somewhat than merely accepting what they’d heard from the authorities on any given subject. Montaigne believed {that a} kid’s curiosity might function an essential instructing instrument when the kid is allowed to discover the issues that the kid is interested by.[citation needed]

Expertise additionally was a key component to studying for Montaigne. Tutors wanted to show college students by way of expertise somewhat than by way of the mere memorization of knowledge typically practised in guide studying.[44]: 62 : 67  He argued that college students would turn into passive adults, blindly obeying and missing the power to assume on their very own.[47]: 354  Nothing of significance can be retained and no skills can be discovered.[44]: 62  He believed that studying by way of expertise was superior to studying by way of using books.[45] For that reason he inspired tutors to coach their college students by way of follow, journey, and human interplay. In doing so, he argued that college students would turn into lively learners, who might declare data for themselves.[citation needed]

Montaigne’s views on baby schooling proceed to have an affect within the current. Variations of Montaigne’s concepts on schooling are integrated into fashionable studying in some methods. He argued in opposition to the favored method of instructing in his day, encouraging individualized studying. He believed within the significance of expertise, over guide studying and memorization. In the end, Montaigne postulated that the purpose of schooling was to show a scholar the right way to have a profitable life by practising an lively and socially interactive way of life.[47]: 355 

Associated writers and affect[edit]

Thinkers exploring concepts much like Montaigne embody Erasmus, Thomas More, John Fisher, and Guillaume Budé, who all labored about fifty years earlier than Montaigne.[48] A lot of Montaigne’s Latin quotations are from Erasmus’ Adagia, and most critically, all of his quotations from Socrates. Plutarch stays maybe Montaigne’s strongest affect, by way of substance and elegance. Montaigne’s quotations from Plutarch within the Essays quantity greater than 500.[50]

Ever since Edward Capell first made the suggestion in 1780, students have advised Montaigne to be an affect on Shakespeare.[51] The latter would have had entry to John Florio‘s translation of Montaigne’s Essais, printed in English in 1603, and a scene in The Tempest “follows the wording of Florio [translating Of Cannibals] so carefully that his indebtedness is unmistakable”.[52]
Most parallels between the 2 could also be defined, nonetheless, as commonplaces:[51] as similarities with writers in different nations to the works of Cervantes and Shakespeare may very well be due merely to their very own examine of Latin ethical and philosophical writers similar to Seneca the Younger, Horace, Ovid, and Virgil.

A lot of Blaise Pascal‘s skepticism in his Pensées has been attributed historically to his studying Montaigne.[53]

The English essayist William Hazlitt expressed boundless admiration for Montaigne, exclaiming that “he was the primary who had the braveness to say as an creator what he felt as a person. … He was neither a pedant nor a bigot. … In treating of males and manners, he spoke of them as he discovered them, not in keeping with preconceived notions and summary dogmas”.[54] Starting most overtly with the essays within the “familiar” type in his personal Table-Talk, Hazlitt tried to observe Montaigne’s instance.[55]

Ralph Waldo Emerson selected “Montaigne; or, the Skeptic” as a topic of certainly one of his sequence of lectures entitled, Consultant Males, alongside different topics similar to Shakespeare and Plato. In “The Skeptic” Emerson writes of his expertise studying Montaigne, “It appeared to me as if I had myself written the guide, in some former life, so sincerely it spoke to my thought and expertise.” Friedrich Nietzsche judged of Montaigne: “That such a person wrote has actually augmented the enjoyment of dwelling on this Earth”.[56] Sainte-Beuve advises us that “to revive lucidity and proportion to our judgments, allow us to learn each night a web page of Montaigne.”[57]

The American thinker Eric Hoffer employed Montaigne each stylistically and in thought. In Hoffer’s memoir, Fact Imagined, he stated of Montaigne, “He was writing about me. He knew my innermost ideas.” The British novelist John Cowper Powys expressed his admiration for Montaigne’s philosophy in his books, Suspended Judgements (1916)[58] and The Pleasures of Literature (1938). Judith N. Shklar introduces her guide Atypical Vices (1984), “It is just if we step exterior the divinely dominated ethical universe that we will actually put our minds to the widespread ills we inflict upon each other every day. That’s what Montaigne did and that’s the reason he’s the hero of this guide. In spirit he’s on each certainly one of its pages…”

Twentieth-century literary critic Erich Auerbach referred to as Montaigne the primary fashionable man. “Amongst all his contemporaries”, writes Auerbach (Mimesis, Chapter 12), “he had the clearest conception of the issue of man’s self-orientation; that’s, the duty of creating oneself at residence in existence with out mounted factors of assist”.[59]

Discovery of stays[edit]

The Musée d’Aquitaine introduced on 20 November 2019 that the human stays, which had been discovered within the basement of the museum a yr earlier, may belong to Montaigne.[60] Investigation of the stays, postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resumed in September 2020.[61]


The birthdate of Montaigne served as the premise to determine Nationwide Essay Day in the US.

The humanities department of the University of Bordeaux is called after him: Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux 3.[62]


  1. ^ a b Foglia, Marc; Ferrari, Emiliano (18 August 2004). “Michel de Montaigne”. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2019 ed.).
  2. ^ Robert P. Amico, The Problem of the Criterion, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995, p. 42. Main supply: Montaigne, Essais, II, 12: “Pour juger des apparences que nous recevons des subjets, il nous faudroit un instrument judicatoire; pour verifier cet instrument, il nous y faut de la demonstration; pour verifier la demonstration, un instrument : nous voilà au rouet [To judge of the appearances that we receive of subjects, we had need have a judicatorie instrument: to verifie this instrument we should have demonstration; and to approve demonstration, an instrument; thus are we ever turning round]” (transl. by Charles Cotton).
  3. ^ “Small Talk: José Saramago”. “Every thing I’ve learn has influenced me not directly. Having stated that, Kafka, Borges, Gogol, Montaigne, Cervantes are fixed companions.”
  4. ^ “Montaigne”. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
  5. ^ a b c d e Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). “Montaigne, Michel, Seigneur” . Collier’s New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Firm.
  6. ^ His anecdotes are ‘informal’ solely in look; Montaigne writes: ‘Neither my anecdotes nor my quotations are at all times employed merely as examples, for authority, or for decoration…They typically carry, off the topic beneath dialogue, the seed of a richer and extra daring matter, they usually resonate obliquely with a extra delicate tone,’ Michel de Montaigne, Essais, Pléiade, Paris (ed. A. Thibaudet) 1937, Bk. 1, ch. 40, p. 252 (tr. Charles Rosen)
  7. ^ Sophie Jama, L’Histoire Juive de Montaigne [The Jewish History of Montaigne], Paris, Flammarion, 2001, p. 76.
  8. ^ “His mom was a Jewish Protestant, his father a Catholic who achieved huge tradition in addition to a substantial fortune.” Civilization, Kenneth Clark, (Harper & Row: 1969), p. 161.
  9. ^ Winkler, Emil (1942). “Zeitschrift für Französische Sprache und Literatur”.
  10. ^ Goitein, Denise R (2008). “Montaigne, Michel de”. Encyclopaedia Judaica. The Gale Group. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  11. ^ Introduction: Montaigne’s Life and Occasions, in Apology for Raymond Sebond, By Michel de Montaigne (Roger Ariew), (Hackett: 2003), p. iv: “Michel de Montaigne was born in 1533 on the chateau de Montagine (about 30 miles east of Bordeaux), the son of Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne, and Antoinette de Louppes (or Lopez), who got here from a rich (initially Iberian) Jewish household”.
  12. ^ “…the household of Montaigne’s mom, Antoinette de Louppes (Lopez) of Toulouse, was of Spanish Jewish origin….” – The Full Essays of Montaigne, translated by Donald M. Frame, “Introduction,” p. vii ff., Stanford College Press, Stanford, 1989 ISBN 0804704864
  13. ^ Popkin, Richard H (20 March 2003). The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle. ISBN 978-0195107678.
  14. ^ Inexperienced, Toby (17 March 2009). Inquisition: The Reign of Fear. ISBN 978-1429938532.
  15. ^ Goitein, Denise R (2008). “Montaigne, Michel de”. Encyclopaedia Judaica. The Gale Group. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  16. ^ Montaigne. Essays, III, 13
  17. ^ Bakewell, Sarah (2010). How to Live – or – A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer. London: Classic. pp. 54–55. ISBN 9781446450901. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  18. ^ Hutchins, Robert Maynard; Hazlitt, W. Carew, eds. (1952). The Essays of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne. Nice Books of the Western World. Vol. twenty–5. Trans. Charles Cotton. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. v. He had his son woke up every morning by ‘the sound of a musical instrument’
  19. ^ Philippe Desan (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Montaigne, Oxford College Press, 2016, p. 60.
  20. ^ Bibliothèque d’humanisme et Renaissance: Travaux et documents, Volume 47, Librairie Droz, 1985, p. 406.
  21. ^ Lowenthal, Marvin; de Montaigne, Michel (1999). The Autobiography of Michel de Montaigne. New Hampshire: Nonpareil Books. p. xxxii.
  22. ^ Body, Donald (translator). The Full Essays of Montaigne. 1958. p. v.
  23. ^ Kramer, Jane (31 August 2009). “Me, Myself, And I”. The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  24. ^ St. John, Bayle (16 March 2019). “Montaigne the essayist. A biography”. London, Chapman and Corridor. Retrieved 16 March 2019 – by way of Web Archive.
  25. ^ Bertr, Lauranne. “Léonor de Montaigne – MONLOE : MONtaigne à L’Œuvre”. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  26. ^ Kurz, Harry (June 1950). “Montaigne and la Boétie in the Chapter on Friendship”. PMLA. 65 (4): 483–530. doi:10.2307/459652. JSTOR 459652. S2CID 163176803. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  27. ^ As cited by Richard L. Regosin, ‘Montaigne and His Readers’, in Denis Hollier (ed.) A New Historical past of French Literature, Harvard College Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London 1995, pp. 248–252 [249]. The Latin authentic runs: ‘An. Christi 1571 aet. 38, pridie cal. mart., die suo natali, Mich. Montanus, servitii aulici et munerum publicorum jamdudum pertaesus, dum se integer in doctarum virginum recessit sinus, ubi quietus et omnium securus (quan)tillum in tandem superabit decursi multa jam plus parte spatii: si modo fata sinunt exigat istas sedes et dulces latebras, avitasque, libertati suae, tranquillitatique, et otio consecravit.’ as cited in Helmut Pfeiffer, ‘Das Ich als Haushalt: Montaignes ökonomische Politik’, in Rudolf Behrens, Roland Galle (eds.) Historische Anthropologie und Literatur: Romanistische Beträge zu einem neuen Paradigma der Literaturwissenschaft, Königshausen und Neumann, Würzburg, 1995 pp. 69–90 [75]
  28. ^ Desan, Philippe (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Montaigne. ISBN 978-0-19-021533-0.
  29. ^ Ward, Adolphus; Hume, Martin (2016). The Wars of Religion in Europe. Perennial Press. ISBN 9781531263188. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  30. ^ Edward Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations for the reason that Renaissance, 2nd ed. (London, 2000), p. 89.
  31. ^ Cazeaux, Guillaume (2015). Montaigne et la coutume [Montaigne and the custom]. Milan: Mimésis. ISBN 978-8869760044. Archived from the original on 30 October 2015.
  32. ^ Montaigne’s Journey Journal, translated with an introduction by Donald M. Body and a foreword by Man Davenport, San Francisco, 1983
  33. ^, L’encicolpedia Italiana, Dizionario Biografico. Retrieved 10 August 2013
  34. ^ Desan, Philippe (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Montaigne. p. 233.
  35. ^ Montaigne, Michel de, Essays of Michel de Montaigne, tr. Charles Cotton, ed. William Carew Hazlitt, 1877, “The Lifetime of Montaigne” in v. 1. n.p., Kindle version.
  36. ^ “The Autobiography of Michel De Montaigne”, translated, launched, and edited by Marvin Lowenthal, David R. Godine Publishing, p. 165
  37. ^ “Biographical Observe”, Encyclopædia Britannica “Nice Books of the Western World”, Vol. 25, p. vi “Montaigne”
  38. ^ Bakewell, Sarah. The way to Reside – or – A Lifetime of Montaigne in One Query and Twenty Makes an attempt at an Reply (2010), pp. 325–326, 365 n. 325.
  39. ^ “Titi Lucretii Cari De rerum natura libri sex (Montaigne.1.4.4)”. Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  40. ^ Bruce Silver (2002). “Montainge, Apology for Raymond Sebond: Happiness and the Poverty of Reason” (PDF). Midwest Research in Philosophy XXVI. pp. 95–110.
  41. ^ Bloom, Harold (1995). The Western Canon. Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-1573225144.
  42. ^ Bakewell, Sarah (2010). How to Live – or – A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer. London: Classic. p. 280. ISBN 978-0099485155.
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