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Musicogenic seizure – Wikipedia

Musicogenic seizure – Wikipedia

2023-06-21 11:51:01

Musicogenic seizure, also referred to as music-induced seizure, is a uncommon kind of seizure, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000,000 people, that arises from disorganized or irregular mind electrical exercise when an individual hears or is uncovered to a selected kind of sound or musical stimuli.[1][2] There are challenges when diagnosing a music-induced seizure as a result of broad scope of triggers, and time delay between a stimulus and seizure.[3][4] As well as, the causes of musicogenic seizures will not be well-established as solely restricted instances and analysis have been found and performed respectively.[1] However, the present understanding of the mechanism behind musicogenic seizure is that music triggers the a part of the brain that’s chargeable for evoking an emotion related to that music.[1] Dysfunction on this system results in an irregular launch of dopamine, ultimately inducing seizure.[5]

At present, there are various intervention methods that sufferers can select from relying on their conditions. They will have surgery to take away the area of the mind that generates a seizure.[6] Behavioral therapy can be out there; sufferers are skilled to achieve emotional management to cut back the frequency of seizure.[1] Drugs like carbamazepine and phenytoin (medicine for basic seizure) additionally counsel effectiveness to mitigate music-induced seizures.[7]

Indicators & signs[edit]

Whereas the indicators and signs of musicogenic seizures are just like that of different focal seizures, one distinctive distinction is the variation within the time interval between the stimulus and seizure amongst totally different sufferers.[4] Not like most focal seizures, the period between the triggering musical stimulus and seizure varies amongst sufferers; some sufferers encounter the seizure imminently after the set off, whereas some expertise a large time hole between the stimulus and seizure.[4]  Throughout this latent extended time lapse, the signs skilled are autonomic responses.[8] Sufferers might encounter adjustments in respiratory rate, blood pressure, and heart rate reminiscent of tachycardia, main them to really feel distressed and agitated.[9][8]

Moreover, hallucinations are sometimes skilled when encountering a seizure triggered by a musical stimulus.[8] For instance, musical release hallucinations and synesthetic experiences are the most typical hallucinations related to music-induced seizures.[8] Musical auditory hallucinations might also develop as a result of epilepsy within the temporal lobe, which is discovered to be affected in 75% instances of musicogenic seizures.[4]

Musicogenic seizures are typically outlined as a focal seizure, because the lateral and mesial temporal, and orbitofrontal areas of the mind are affected.[10] Musicogenic seizures have advanced stimuli as a result of broad scope of prospects of triggers.[3]

A large spectrum of triggers has been famous to stimulate musicogenic seizures and musicogenic epilepsy as the kind of music and technique of perceiving music varies from one affected person to a different.[4] It has been reported that 17% of music-evoked seizures are induced solely by music, whereas 53% are induced by miscellaneous musical stimuli.[4] Examples of musical triggers not solely embody listening to noise, sound, quantity, pure phrases, style, singer, music, and anthem, but additionally enjoying, pondering and dreaming of music.[3][8][11] Amongst these triggers, most sufferers are typically triggered by a selected tune, music or singer.[12] Musical traits reminiscent of cadence, frequency, and timbre are potential reasoning behind the musical stimuli.[3] Therefore, this proposes {that a} explicit rhythmic exercise or sample induces a seizure.[12]


Though the understanding of the precise causes of musicogenic seizures is at the moment not absolutely recognized, a generally understood mechanism is that this epilepsy is related to emotional responses to music quite than the music itself.[1] Particularly, music creates an emotional response that’s activated by the limbic areas.[1] This emotional impact of the music then triggers the rise of dopamine within the totally different components of the mind, ultimately resulting in hyperexcitation, which is an irregular excitation of neurons, and era of seizures in these areas when there’s a dysfunction on this system.[5]

This notion is supported by many purposeful imaging research like fMRI, PET scan, and clinical studies which prompt that sufferers of the musicogenic seizure usually categorical emotional emotions earlier than the onset of the seizure.[13]

Fig.1 A diagram that reveals the method concerned within the auditory sensory relay from air vibrations from music to the first auditory cortex

Emotional associations of music[edit]

The final relationship of the affiliation between emotion and music is that after the auditory sensory relay of the musical info to the primary auditory cortex (proven in determine 1), the hippocampal connection within the mind encodes the affiliation of constructive/detrimental feelings with sure music within the reminiscence.[1] Given this reminiscence, when an individual receives musical info from the atmosphere, the hippocampus relays the emotional info associated to that music to the mesolimbic system, which regulates the affiliation of emotion and dopamine launch.[14]

These connections between the hippocampus, mesolimbic system, and auditory cortex present a potential mechanism of music-induced seizure by serving to the mind to narrate music to emotion and dopamine launch.[1] Dysfunction on this sensory relay community results in an irregular launch of dopamine, ultimately inducing hyperexcitability of neurons and seizure when sure music is heard.[5] Furthermore, scientists found that there are different components of the mind like basolateral amygdala concerned on this connection between music, emotion, and seizure.[15] Therefore, this means that the mechanism behind musicogenic seizure nonetheless stays obscure and extra analysis is required to completely perceive it.[1]


The diagnoses of music-induced seizures are difficult as the character of stimulus is comparatively distinctive within the ambit of seizure triggers.[3] The standard prognosis of seizures is routinely carried out by electroencephalography (EEG), bodily examination and a overview of affected person historical past. Nonetheless, an EEG will not be applicable to diagnose and check an individual with music-evoked seizures since EEG is used to check photosensitive epilepsy, a type of epilepsy the place seizures are stimulated by gentle.[11] Whereas an EEG sometimes checks diversified frequencies of a lightweight stimulus, musicogenic seizures are stimulated in another way by music.[11]

Furthermore, there could also be a time interval delay between the music or sound stimulus obtained and seizure triggered.[11] The time hole between the stimulus and the response heightens the problem of diagnoses. Latest hypotheses really useful testing routine electroencephalography (REEG) or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (AEEG) to check music-evoked seizures. Nonetheless, additional obstacles come up in deducing the kind of sound, music, and elegance of music which impacts the sufferers with musicogenic seizures.[4] There’s a massive vary of potential sounds which will set off musicogenic seizures, reminiscent of church bells, a music related to nostalgia, dissonant sounds, and classical music.


Illustration of deep mind stimulation

As soon as the affected person is recognized with the illness, there are various interventions that sufferers can select from together with surgical, behavioral, and medicinal remedies.[1]

Surgical procedure[edit]

Surgical intervention is appropriate for sufferers with refractory epilepsy.[6] Particularly, the sufferers endure partial resectioning of the a part of the mind that generates a seizure.[6] This area is recognized by imaging strategies like EEG.[6]

See Also

For sufferers who will not be appropriate to endure a resectioning therapy, deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation could also be efficient options; nonetheless, outcomes counsel that it’s usually tough for each deep mind and vagus nerve stimulation to utterly cease seizures.[16]

Behavioral remedy[edit]

Behavioral or psychotherapeutic interventions could also be efficient in treating musicogenic epilepsy.[17] These therapies work by serving to sufferers acquire emotional management and thereby decreasing the frequency of seizure. Actually, many sufferers usually assert that their seizures are stopped after this behavioral remedy.[17]

Structural method of carbamazepine, a generally used medicine for epilepsy therapy.[6]


Many pharmacological interventions have proven constructive outcomes. Usually carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine, generally used for basic epilepsy therapy, are prescribed to sufferers with music-induced seizure.[6] In some sufferers, these drugs present higher outcomes when mixed with oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate, or levetiracetam, that are additionally different drugs for basic epilepsy therapy.[6]


Globally, epilepsy and seizures are among the many most extreme of the widespread neurological issues .[18] Energetic epilepsy, outlined as individuals who have persevering with seizures or require therapy, will be present in 4-10 people per 1000 worldwide. The next prevalence has been reported in low-income and middle-income international locations at 7 to fifteen instances of lively epilepsy per 1000 people.[19] Musicogenic epilepsy is a uncommon subtype of those, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000,000 people.[1]

The precise prevalence is perceived to be larger than reported. As a result of restricted variety of reported instances, inadequate analysis has been performed on musicogenic seizures and musicogenic epilepsy.[1] It has been prompt that the dysfunction has the next tendency to have an effect on females, whereas the typical age of onset is 28.[9] Nonetheless, the age of presentation is normally at 39, subsequently suggesting an underestimated prevalence.[4] Furthermore, the underestimated prevalence of musicogenic seizures is also as a result of challenges in prognosis reminiscent of deducing music as a seizure set off.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ellis, Liddy (2017-03-01). “The potential mechanism of musicogenic epilepsy and future research avenues”. Bioscience Horizons. 10. doi:10.1093/biohorizons/hzx004. ISSN 1754-7431.
  2. ^ Sugerman, Deborah Tolmach (2013-09-18). “Seizures”. The Journal of the American Medical Affiliation. 310 (11): 1195. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.277840. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 24045753.
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  13. ^ Morocz, I.A.; Karni, A.; Haut, S.; Lantos, G.; Liu, G. (2003-02-25). “fMRI of triggerable aurae in musicogenic epilepsy”. Neurology. 60 (4): 705–709. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000047346.96206.A9. ISSN 0028-3878. PMID 12601117. S2CID 76093.
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