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2023-12-02 22:14:52

Appendix 3: Precision Servo-driven Potentiometers



From FM 44-1-2 ADA Reference Handbook, 15 June 1984,
see web page 21 “Rings of Supersonic Steel”

Nike laptop
Put in in school room, not BC van.
From Rolf Goerigk

  • Left rack has the ability provides – outputs about 7 completely different voltages.
    High panel is switches, meters, voltage warning lights. (Word: within the
    van set up, this rack is on the correct aspect of the pc.)
  • Center two racks – operational amplifies, brown sq. containers are
    zero set models, again a part of each racks have many relays
  • Proper rack has the servo-driven potentiomenters. High panel has
    monitoring radar offsets,
    check switches (units check inputs, confirm outputs)
So – the Nike Analog Laptop System

– that is one in all 4 cupboards or racks –

consists of Zero Set Switches (the brown containers)

every can zero set 12 operational amplifiers.

Again of a swing out door/rack. Numerous elements – Analog computer systems
of this complexity, 78 Operational Amplifiers, had been costly and heavy. Have a look at all
that hand wiring and soldering. Days of labor – Your cellphone doubtless prices much less
than most of the elements you’re looking at –
The wall behind a swing out door. Word the numerous relays to set:

– operational modes, pre-launch, launch, 7 g dive, 1/2 g cruise

– and plenty of check circumstances, identified inputs to get identified outputs


0) Historical past of the Nike Analog Laptop

Now that digital computing logic parts (transistors) are

– what number of hundreds per penny?

– and floating level just about eliminates scaling,

Digital computing has just about taken over from Analog computer systems for course of management.

Again within the goode olde dayze,

– starting earlier than the Nineteen Thirties and
Vannavar Bush’s differential analyzer at MIT

http://web.mit.edu/klund/www/analyzer/

– till the Nineteen Sixties

Analog Computing was the sensible course of management for the plenty.

– Not many might afford the ENIAC,

– or the opposite large vacuum tube collections.

– And some hundred tubes are much more dependable than hundreds.

Within the late Nineteen Thirties, mechanical computing parts

– with quite awkward torque amplifiers

to deal with achieve, friction and losses

– started to present method to electrical computing parts

with vacuum tube amplifiers to
deal with achieve, resistance and losses

So – at the start of WWII, the wants for
fixing dynamic fire-control issues

started to be solved by digital analog computer systems.


http://www.ed-thelen.org/pre_nike.html#gun_dir


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier#1941:_First_.28vacuum_tube.29_op-amp


[Note: most artillery people did not have time to reference
the printed fire control tables

generated by human computers or by ENIAC.

The tables were needed to generate

– cam configurations

– potentiometer tapers

for the analog fire control computers. ]

A couple of generations later (1950), with enhancements

(together with computerized quite than handbook analog amplifier zero setting :-))

the M-33 analog fireplace management laptop for
anti plane weapons was within the subject

and dealing effectively –

So, by the point the Nike missile system was wanted, (1950)

the computing and show parts of the M-33
had been used for the associated missile steerage drawback.

Really, there was virtually no selection,
digital computing expertise
wouldn’t catch up/supercede analog
for a lot of management features
for about 20 one other years.

In 1974, when a lot of the Nike programs within the US
had been being shut down, a digital laptop alternative
(a militarized DEC PDP-11) was changing
the Nike analog laptop in the remainder of the world.


1) Mission of the Nike Laptop

The Nike Laptop had the next fundamental missions:

  • a) Present Predicted Intercept Level and Predicted Flight Time
    to Plotting Board – for human viewing

  • b) Present Predicted Intercept azimuth angle to missile throughout pre-launch
  • c) Present Missile Steering instructions after launch
  • d) Present Missile Burst command at right time after launch
  • e) (The Nike Hercules Computer had an added Floor-to-Floor operate.)
  • f) And naturally be straightforward to check, extremely dependable, correct, testable and maintainable
  • g) – and be compact sufficient to match right into a van with different gear and features.

There have been three fundamental modes:

  1. Check
  2. Pre-Launch – Compute Predicted_Intercept_Point and Time_of_Flight to plotting boards
  3. Submit-Launch – add Missile_Steering and Burst instructions

a) The Predicted Intercept Level is the purpose the place the missile
would intercept the plane if:

  • the plane continued in a straight path and on the similar pace
  • the missile was fired proper now

and the Predicted Flight Time is the time from now for that assembly.
Earlier than launch, this data is beneficial for the human choice making about
when to fireside a missile.
After launch, this data is constantly up to date primarily based upon precise plane
flight and missile place and flight traits.

b) The Predicted Intercept Azimuth is the route from the launcher to
the present Predicted Intercept Level. This route (azimuth) was despatched
to the gyro within the chosen missile earlier than launch, and was used to offer the missile
a way of “down”. This missile gyro and the missile management system
saved the stomach of the missile “down” and offered the pc and missile
a typical sense of “down” and left/proper.

c) Throughout missile flight, the pc sends Steering Instructions to the missile
(through the missile monitoring radar) to information the missile to the constantly
up to date Predicted Intercept Level.

d) The Missile Burst Command is generated by the pc since:

  • A human is far to sluggish and variable to ship the command. Because the missile
    is touring at about 3000 ft per second, a 0.1 second mistake means a
    missile explosion 300 ft from the meant location (a transparent miss).
  • Nike missiles didn’t “see” the meant goal, and couldn’t generate
    their very own burst command. (Though they’d routinely burst in the event that they
    didn’t obtain steering instructions for two seconds.)
The Missile Burst Command is shipped through pulse codes by means of the missile monitoring radar.

e) And naturally be extremely dependable, correct, testable and maintainable.

Within the 1950’s, digital computer systems had tens of hundreds of vacuum tubes,
and since
the vacuum tubes had a imply time to failure of only some thousand hours,
the computer systems had a imply time to failure of only some hours.
90 p.c “up” time was thought-about excellent, and required a around the clock employees of
actual specialists. Digital enter and output units had been equally failure susceptible.
(Within the Seventies, when dependable transistors and built-in circuits,
and cheaper excessive pace reminiscence grew to become accessible, some Nike analog computer systems had been changed by
digital computer systems.)

The solely various that was dependable sufficient and correct sufficient was the
digital analog laptop, which might
be applied for the Nike with fewer than 500 vacuum tubes. There have been failures, however the
expertise was maturing, the tubes had been run in a unique (not ON/OFF) method,
and the uptime exceeded 99% at most websites. (One failure a month was thought-about actually
poor.)

These check factors are inputs to computing networks, simply accessable. A “Null Voltage Check Set”
might be plugged into these check factors, and was delicate to 1/400 volt ( 2.5 millivolts )

Among the built-in check and hassle capturing aids

(Within the late Seventies, the analog laptop was changed by a digital laptop, a
PDP-11 W (working the RT-11 working system. Two of the 4 analog laptop cupboards
grew to become closets and cupboard space.)



2) What’s an Digital Analog Laptop?

The Nike analog laptop was single objective, a hard and fast program with a couple of completely different modes
set by relays to simplify and automate testing and completely different modes of operation.

wikipedia Analog_computer

An fascinating
Analog Computer Web site
Reverse-engineering precision op amps from a 1969 analog laptop

One other
Bernd Ulmann’s Analog Computer Museum

Schematics and Operation Handbook for the Heathkit EC-1
here

From “The Analog Laptop Museum and Historical past Middle” – not accessible

Analog laptop

– A pc that performs mathematical operations in a PARALLEL
method on CONTINUOUS variables. The elements of the pc are interconnected to
allow the pc to carry out as a mannequin, or in a way ANALOGOUS to some bodily
system.

Digital analog laptop

– An analog laptop with enter, output and program
operations which might be often expressed by way of direct present voltages.

Analog computer systems

could appear to be “easy” or “like a toy laptop”, the truth is they’re
highly effective instruments that had been used throughout the Fifties and Nineteen Sixties to design and check programs like
ICBMs, supersonic plane and spacecraft. However the analog laptop can be utilized to mannequin any
bodily system that may be described by mathematical formulation, much more mundane ones from
modeling the results of air pollution on the fish inhabitants in a river to positive tuning the
suspension on
a brand new automotive design. Analog computer systems is not going to solely check a hard and fast design but in addition permits
variables to
be shortly modified to check “what if’ circumstances. By scaling time as an unbiased variable,
bodily processes that occur shortly might be stretched out, and processes that occur over a
lengthy interval might be shortened to make the method simpler to review. And it is extremely straightforward to review
variables at any level in this system whereas it’s working to seek out faults in this system design.

Though

the analog machine is accurately termed a pc, it doesn’t carry out its
computations by numerical calculations as does the calculator or the digital laptop. The
analog laptop performs mathematical operations on CONTINUOUS variables as an alternative of
counting with digits. Constructive numbers are represented by optimistic voltages and unfavorable
numbers are represented by unfavorable voltages, all scaled to the pc’s working vary,
often -100 volts to +100 volts (vacuum tube) or -10 volts to +10 volts (transistorized),
Thus the
analog laptop doesn’t subtract 20 inches from 45 inches to acquire 25 inches however, quite,
it
subtracts 4 volts from 9 volts to acquire 5 volts. This 5 volts the operator reads as 25
inches in
accordance along with his arbitrarily specified “scale issue’ of 1 volt equals (or is ANALOGOUS
to) 5
inches.

The analog laptop

is principally a set of constructing blocks, every in a position to carry out particular
mathematical operations on direct present voltages and able to being simply interconnected
one to a different. Among the fundamental operations embrace addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, inversion, and integration. By interconnecting these constructing blocks, mathematical
equations are modeled. BUT an analog laptop is a real PARALLEL laptop that may remedy
one or one thousand equations on the similar time. Actually, related analog computer systems might be simply
related collectively to extend their computing energy. When you consider the results of many
equations being solved concurrently and turning into the enter to different equations, and
generally these options are then fed again or looped again into the unique equations with
all of
the variables altering CONTINUOUSLY with time, then you will get a quick look into the
unbelievable energy of those computer systems. Output is often a voltmeter, oscilloscope, or plotter.

Many universities
at the moment like Massachusetts Institute of Know-how, College of Illinois,
College of Notre Dame, and Purdue College supply lessons or do analysis utilizing analog.
computer systems, as a result of they understand that the final chapter of the historical past of analog computer systems
has not
being written. It is an ANALOG universe and analog computer systems are a pure method to research and
perceive it.

Ready by:

The Analog Laptop Museum and Historical past Middle
http://www.cowardstereoview.com/analog/”>http://www.cowardstereoview.com/analog/ – not accessible

We do besides donations of your unused analog computing gear, working or not.



3) Nike Hercules Laptop

The “Improved Nike Hercules” laptop commanded the missile flight in a number of selectable modes
(see MMS-150 Chapter 1)

  1. Floor to air low altitude mission – in opposition to low altitude plane – the missile sustainer
    motor begin is delayed to acquire a decrease altitude of the boosted a part of the flight path.
    Capable of assault nearer low altitude plane. Makes use of a “climb-and-dive” trajectory
    to reduce “the results of floor muddle within the missile monitoring radar system.”

  2. Radar scoring for Air Power simulated bombing runs.

From the deployment of Nike in 1954 to the mid 1970’s, the Nike Laptop was an
analog laptop.
That implies that distances, instances, and different values weren’t digital bit representing
numbers (like 12.3) however had been (on this case) voltage values (like 12.3 volts).

The values as said above had been voltages, and easy circuits
(utilizing 76 “operational amplifiers” of two.5 tubes every)
might shortly (1 microsecond):

  • add or subtract 2 or extra variables
  • decide fee of change (of distance giving velocity)
  • multiply or divide a variable by a relentless
  • approximate a operate to 1 %

however slower motor pushed potentiometers had been required to:

    • multiply or divide a variable by a variable
    • retailer a variable for a very long time (minutes or hours) (not wanted in anti-aircraft)
    • generate a precision non-linear operate

Every amplifier had a nominal achieve of 20,000

  • most amplifiers used “semi-precision” zero set switches with positive factors of 200, giving efficient positive factors of 4 million.
  • about 6 amplifiers used “precision” (re-entrant) zero setting, with positive factors of three,000.
There have been 2 operational amplifiers utilizing a complete of 5 tubes on a chassis. The output
tube was a twin triode, 1/2 of the tube was the ultimate amplifier for an amplifier.
The “plate” (the place the electrons landed) of the ultimate amplifier might be swung
between -100 volts and +100 volts utilizing the required exterior load resistor.

Chassis


Detail

Additional particulars on the operational amplifier are within the Technical Handbook
TM9-5000-13-Ch03 DC Amplifier Circuitry 265 KBytes

For photographs of the motor pushed potentiometers see
Computer (Servo driven potentiometers)

and
Computer (Details of Time Potentiometer)

The Nike anti-aircraft drawback didn’t require many sluggish motor pushed circuits
(about 7) and used about 100 of the straightforward quick circuits. It additionally used quite a few
relays to vary between the varied modes of operation (check, pre-launch, post-launch).

An fascinating attribute of analog computer systems is that the circuits are likely to
run in parallel
, The comparatively sluggish circuits all working collectively simply preserve
up with the anti-aircraft drawback in actual time.

An analog laptop (distances and instances had been voltages) used
analog (voltage) inputs from the Goal Monitoring and Missile Monitoring Radars.

These values (and derived goal and missile velocities) had been
used to calculate the remaining flight time and Predicted
Intercept level. The missile was guided to the expected
intercept level by the pc generated steering instructions
despatched by means of the Missile Monitoring Radar.

For vacuum tube fanatics, listed here are schematics of a

operational amplifier (42 Okay bytes)

power supply

voltage reference

+ 450 volt 1 amp thyratron power supply

used within the Nike Ajax and Hercules (in addition to the sooner M-33 gun laying analog
laptop and radar system).

The Nike analog laptop didn’t use integrators, however did use filtered
differentiators for velocity dedication in addition to motor pushed potentiometers
for multiplying by a variable (together with time to intercept) as talked about above.

One other system of amplifiers and motor pushed switches carried out as
Zero Set Amplifiers” to:

  • zero the bias of the operational amplifiers
  • improve the efficient achieve of the related operational amplifier(s) (to over 1,000,000)
  • alarm on extreme inputs brought on by operational amplifier failure or
    laptop not settled to a legitimate “reply”.

Various preset check instances (swap selectable) helped guarantee that
the pc was performing accurately.

Handbook knobs enter the offset between the missile monitoring and goal monitoring radars.
(For additional data, you may leap forward to
6) How does the computer know the radar offsets?


4) Laptop Improve to Digital

Click on here for the digital computer itself

Nike System improve to digital

Ramiro CARLI BALLOLA
wrote Sept 19, 2015

Howdy to all people, I am beginning reply your questions acquired by your mail dated September 17,

  1. No issues with the images and message (the images I am sending are mine)
  2. To reply to all different questions is preferable that I checklist a sequence of modification (and what the MWO launched into the system) applied on the European Nike Methods after the U.S. section out in 1974.

That is the story, to start with in 1959 the primary system was deployed in Europe,
8 International locations had been collaborating below the MAP , in 1961 the Logistic help was
positioned below the management of NAMSA (a NATO upkeep Company) and the
first NIKE Assist Convention (SC) amongst 8 International locations plus the Firing Vary in Crete (Greece)
was held and adopted by different 17 SC.

In 1973 MICOM (Missile Command) modified the help circumstances and a brand new settlement
was taken with NAMSA to make sure the technical and provide help till 1985 with NAMSA.

In 1977 the Assist Convention was modified in WSPC (Weapon System Accomplice Ship)
to take management of all side (provide, upkeep, overhaul ecc…)
of the system help in Europe, nonetheless below MICOM exterior help.

MICOM help for the nuclear elements was immediately adopted till 1988
(when the nuclear warheads have been dismissed from the European Methods).

Ranging from 1985 all Upkeep points was taken immediately from NAMSA,
switch of understand how befell apart from the Engineering elements from
1985 to 1988, after that additionally the engineering elements had been launched and
the European services began the direct help in 1989,
appearing to keep up the system functionality till 2005 for ITALY-GRECE and TURKEY
(all different 5 nations had been phasing out their programs).

Since 1977 began the research by AT&T for the primary and related modification
to deliver the system to be transformed in Strong State NIKE Missile System.

As you realize the common Nike System was actually common till the
SAMCAP mod. in 1972 (applied in Europe from 1973 to 1977)

This was a giant change as a result of launched the primary stable state circuits into the system.
(the primary change with the transistors addition was made by the LOPAR AJD modification
within the interval 1963-1964).

Ranging from the SAMCAP baseline the RAEMOD (Vary and angle encoder modification)
ready by SIERRA RESEARCH CORP. was applied into the programs
and consisted within the following adjustments:

  1. For all monitoring antennas, Azimuth and Elevation sin-cos outdated pots modified
    and transformed to digital output by the imply of opto-electrical converters,
    (no extra Bayol D change and spilling and heavy pots to be moved)

  2. Vary pot utterly taken out and altered with the brand new field
    (heavy just like the outdated one) containing 4 mini computer systems for the TTR:

    1. AES Angle Encoder Part (changing azimuth and elevation data to
      az/el error sign for the mechanical monitoring and to a digital phrases for the pc)

    2. RTS Vary tracker part (changing the vary data to a sign
      for monitoring the goal and to a digital phrases for the pc)

    3. PCS Periferal controller part to switch all of the indicators to the
      acceptable circuits nonetheless contained in the pot.

    4. CCS Coordinate Converter Part (to transform az-el-rng from
      geographical [or polar] to
      rectangular coordinates) this circuits had been working for the MTR too.

    Different three mini laptop for the MTR, the distinction was that AES-RTS-PCS had the
    similar operate of the TTR, however as an alternative of the CCS was solely a buffer circuit to switch
    the info to the TTR CCS which output was composed of 12 digital phrases
    (representing the radar coordinates) to be despatched to the pc.

  3. As a result of at the moment the pc was nonetheless analog (besides the Zero Set switches
    transformed to stable state) a brand new merchandise was applied positioned into the pc energy provide part, the CCDA (Coordinate Converter Digital to Analogic) known as additionally (RCU (Radar Conversion Unit)
    to deliver the 12 digital phrases again to analog data for use by the analog laptop.

    This was a really delicate and unstable circuit because of the thermal management of
    the changing networks inside, however was solely to cowl the hole till the introduction
    of the digital laptop within the 80’s.

After the implementation of the RAEMOD from 1978 by means of 1983 befell
one other huge modification known as NAMSA NIKE Assist Plan to deliver the hybrid system
to be utterly digital.

The modification was composed of:

Monitoring Antennas

TTR/MTR antenna to be digitalized altering:

  1. TTR/MTR the outdated TR Electron Tube with a brand new TRL (Transmit-Obtain and limiter)
  2. TTR solely, including a brand new Imageless rejection mixer and new converter with stable state amplifiers.
  3. TTR/MTR altering the outdated klystron native oscillator with a brand new VTO
    (nonetheless oscillator voltage managed)
  4. TTR/MTR new stable state Pores and skin AFC (computerized Frequency management)
  5. TTR/MTR new Coaxial Magnetron to have extra stability
  6. TRR new Energy Monitor, new duplexer with a brand new kind ferrite switches,
    TRL’s and stable state amplifiers
  7. TRR new stable state Monitoring information’s

Bore Web site Mast

  1. R.F.T.S. (Radar Frequency Check Set) utterly transformed to digital
    on the similar time of the opposite MWO’s to deliver the NIKE to digital system.
    Used for check functions for TTR/MTR/TRR.

    Contained in the RC Van we had the distant management of the RFTS.

RC Van

  1. TTR new stable state Synchronizer, Video Time Share Amplifier, Lin-Log circuits,
    IF Amplifiers, LP and SP filters, Video and AGC amplifier, Beacon AFC,
    Az/El error converter, Az/El angle amplifier, IF check sign generator,
    Distant RFTS management, Sign power meter, B scope amplifiers .

  2. MTR new digital Hercules Coder, similar modification as for the TTR
    besides Synchronizer and LP filters

  3. Utterly new digital Monitor Knowledge Processor, in a position to analize the 12 phrases
    coming from the TTR CCS and performing native simultaneous check
    (at that time limit all of the radar exams had been terminated) apart from
    radar parallax conversion for all three radars.

  4. TRR new stable state IF check sign generator, IF amplifiers
    and ancillary circuits

BC Van

  1. New digital laptop DEC PDP 11/34, positioned within the former outdated pot’s bay)
    and provide bay, the primary two bay have been left empty (used after a few years
    to incorporate the brand new IFF system) composed of:

    Former pot’s bay

    1. two containers containing CPU and Growth circuits
    2. Intercept laptop controller for the Plotting boards (with one other mini laptop)
      and all circuits related to the incoming data by the radars and
      from the pc to the Launching space.
    3. 2 Floppy disks (8 inches) one to report the Missions and the opposite
      one with the Tactical disk containing the pc program,
      one controller and one actual time clock,
      there was one other disk containing the pc diagnostic software program.

      Provide Bay

    4. Digital Show
    5. Digital keyboard
    6. Thermal printer
  2. New digital Tactical Management indicator
  3. New plotting boards arms actions by way of stepping motors and new pen kind
  4. New full Digital AJD circuits
  5. New digital STC amplifier, az/rng amplifier circuits, PI and PPI all circuit at stable state
  6. Contained in the Director Station Group all circuits transformed to digital circuits
    plus a totally new DMTI (Digital Shifting Goal Indicator)

Ensuing format of the earlier analog laptop space ( From Ramiro Carli Ballola, Feb 2022 )

      – in your reference, the earlier analog laptop bays are depicted here.

Ranging from BC Van entrance door,

  1. the primary two bays on the left aspect, has been used to insert the brand new IFF/Mark XII
    with Mode 4 system put in years after the pc digital implementation.

    In regards to the IFF MK XII set up:

    1. The gear was made by HAZELTINE Corp:
    2. the antenna driving circuits (put in inside the primary bay)
    3. the RCVR XMTR made by SIEMENS (put in contained in the second bay decrease half,
      along with the Mode 4 gear within the highest a part of the bay)
    4. the Coder Decoder made by Hazeltine corp. together with the decoder enlargement
      panel in a position to point out the peak of the IFF reply learn by an optical
      pen put in on the Horizontal Plotting board chassis
    5. Exterior apart the BC Van an highest pole with the pedestal mounted on high
      and the associated antenna 7 dipoles. After all the antenna rotation was
      synchronized and aligned with the LOPAR Antenna.
  2. the third for the Norden digital laptop and interfaces
  3. the fourth for show, printer and energy provides (5V 300Amps)

LOPAR

  1. New digital amplifiers
  2. New digital converters
  3. No extra energy meter and a brand new coaxial magnetron for a similar purpose
    of the tracks magy (stability)
  4. New delay circuit contained in the antenna related to the appliance
    of the HV to the Magnetron
  5. New stable state Native oscillators, and new entrance panel within the RCVR/XMTR

Launching Space

The modification on the missile had been related to boost the time response to the orders,
with a brand new alternate valve for the elevons and with the manuver elevated to 10 G’s

I’ve many different data for the next modification, however I imagine to have depicted the true state of affairs of the European Nike Methods till the tip of 1985.

I am accumulating different footage and as quickly as I’ve accomplished my assortment I’ll despatched to you,
in regards to the TM’s I’ve no probability to have them as a result of are nonetheless below Authorities management
(regardless of that they’ve been declassified) however I am making an attempt to have the ability to have a few of them.

Finest regards

Ramiro Carli Ballola (by the best way for me is sufficient in case you name me Ramiro)


Digital Laptop,
Ramiro CARLI BALLOLA
wrote to Greg Brown, Sept 16, 2015

Initially enable me to current my self, my identify is Ramiro CARLI BALLOLA.
I’ve been within the Italian Air Power as Upkeep Chief for the IFC space
of the 79th Group positioned at ZELO in decrease Veneto Area
(one of many squadron of the first Air Brigade).

I do know the Nike System since 1959 for my data and from 1967 for the Air Power.
I adopted all of the modifications applied within the system, till 1995 within the Air Power
and till the tip of System Life in 2007 for the NIKE WSPC at NAMSA
(a NATO Upkeep Company)

You requested to Base Tuono web site details about the digital laptop
applied within the system within the eighties.
I am following Base Tuono for the technical aspect

Principally was the DEC PDP 11 ruggedized for navy functions
by Norden Firm. Composed of the next gadgets:

    
– Two containers with the CPU and the Growth gadgets in one other field

    
– Floppy disks system (8 inches) with two of them and one controller,

    
– one actual time clock

    
– Show, printer and keyboard

    
– Plotting orizontal and vertical managed by one other single laptop

    
– Tactical management indicator modified to digital show

from “Computerworld” December 20, 1976

Militarized Mini From Norden

Options PDP-11 Compatibility

Norwalk, Conn. – The PDP-11/34M
fron the Norden Division of United Applied sciences
Corp. is a militarized digital minicomputer appropriate with the
Digital Tools Corp. PDP-11, based on the seller.

    The ruggedized mini options an prolonged
instruction set with greater than 400 directions,
the power to carry out single- and double-operand directions,
a reminiscence expandable to 128K phrases, 900 nsec cycle time in core,
byte parity, reminiscence administration, {hardware} multiply and divide and a
floating-point choice, the seller stated.

    It might probably function in environments from -65degrees F
and in altitudes as much as 85,000 ft, Norden stated.

    As well as the unit automotive face up to vibration, shock
and humidiity: it meets the necessities of the MIL-E-5400, 16400
and 4158 specs, the agency added.

    A fundamental one-half chassis PDP-11M prices $15,200 to $20,200 relying on
configuration; the full-chassis system prices $18,500 tp $24,700.

    A system with 32K of reminiscence and a communications
interface ranges in worth from $28,000 to $37,500.
Norden stated from Helen St., Norwalk, Conn. 06856.

from “Computerworld” September 18,1978

Navy Okays Norden PDP-11s

Norwalk, Conn. – Norden Methods’s PDP-11-11M
household of minicomputers has been
given the U.S. navy nomenclature designation of
AN/UYK-42(V).

    This designation is used as
official recognition for all
armed forces purposes and
was designated by the usNaval Digital Methods
Command, Division of the
Navy.

    Norden Methods, a subsidiary of United Applied sciences
Corp., militarizes the Digital
Tools Corp. household of
PDP-]7 minicomputers below
a particular license.

    Included in Norden’s s militarized minicomputers are the
PDP-11/70M, the PDP-11/-34M and the LSI-11M
microprocessor. All have full
software program similar to DEC’s
industrial software program.

Within the late 1970’s a digital laptop was made accessible for the Nike. These had been despatched to
“off-shore” areas as all U.S. websites had been de-activated. It’s fairly potential
that this laptop was a Norden PDP-11M. This was a licensed model of the
DEC (Digital Tools Company) PDP-11 that was housed in a harder case
and made extra vibration resistant and in different methods made extra appropriate for
a navy surroundings.

It’s identified that the file system format on the floppy disks was RT-11M.
(I’ve two floppies reported to be from a Nike web site, however can’t work out the info/program.) It had
two 8 inch floppy disk drives, a printer, (and a few I/O playing cards).
As as greatest I can decide, the monitoring antenna potentiometers
had been retained – the analog voltages being transformed to
digital for digital computing. Possibly the identical for the vary pot??

Any details about a digital Nike a lot appreciated.

Right here is Rolf Dieter Görigk’s
preliminary message – extra data to observe:


"  On the correct hand aspect of the pc cupboard below
the pc energy management panel, there was just a little monitor
about 10 by 6 inches, and a keyboard.
There below a printer. The printer printed out sampled information
each 100 msec. Throughout a sim monitor, information had been sampled
each 100 msec and printed out.
For me it was heaven. I already re-calculated lots
of the system capabilities and used the pc throughout
stay ECM and T1 ECM workouts.

Lastly I decided the radar cross part (RCS) of  targets and
discovered that the T1 was unsuitable by/in figuring out the radar decision
cell LP/SP and therefor misinterpreted the quantity of chaff that
might be fitted in a decision cell.

Nicely,  that sounds tutorial but it surely was the best success
for me and the rationale for a lot of unsuccessful scores of the
crew performances.
I came upon what the true RCS was for a particular airplane
however that was secret.
The Airforce informed (ordered) me to not speak about it.

Simply think about, a stay missile firing and information sampled each
100 msec!!!"   

August 2012, Rolf despatched the next

The next website and pages are not accessible on the Web.

Archive.org doesn’t have them archived as a consequence of Rolf’s “robots.txt” string in every net web page.

If anybody has latest details about Rolf or the contents of his website, please ship the knowledge to me.
Makes an attempt to contact Rolf by a number of folks have failed :-((



you`ll discover the digital modifications below:
http://www.nikesystem.de/Pages/nike_content.html

Click on on the "BCT & RCT" or "RADAR" button.

Many of the BCT modifications are at:
http://www.nikesystem.de/Pages/Equipment/nike_equipment_start.htm

Click on on "New BCT" or "RCT"
Keep in mind that the system was not modifyed to a full stable state standing.
So some "outdated" elements had been left within the system.

To take a look at the "radar" modifications click on on the RADAR button:
http://www.nikesystem.de/Pages/Antennas/nike_radars.htm

You`ll discover digital elements below "LOPAR", "HIPAR" or "TRACKING RADARS".
Typically outdated & new (digital)  Components are proven on the identical web page.
(Word the textual content.)

I`m engaged on higher (Full HD) image exhibits however that may take a while.

Hope that`s of some assist!

Rolf D. Goerigk

In August 2012, wo Enzo Chieregatti < chrnzo @ libero . it > despatched the next:

Hello I am searching for data of the operate of the Panel proven within the
hooked up picture that was mounted within the nike system.Thanks

The picture panel was a converter analog-digital information between development station
(R.S.P.U.) and the pc earlier than altering years 80 is it potential?

Donald Kraus < dkraus12 atsign hotmail dot com > e-mailed Might 02, 2013

Thought I’d inform you a narrative that pertains to the panel that one in all your contributors requested about

{above}

After I was getting out of engineering faculty in 1978, I used to be working for a corporation in Buffalo, New York named Sierra Analysis.

By the best way, this is identical firm that constructed the zero set switches that you’ve got footage of on the identical web page. The circuit boards have the Sierra federal firm code (12115) and a few of the potted transformers even have the Sierra Analysis identify on them. The way in which the half numbers labored at Sierra was that the primary two digits of the primary group of 4 digits was the 12 months of the contract that the half was for. The second two digits for circuit boards and issues that had been developed that had been contract particular had been the contract quantity for that 12 months. For particular half, just like the transformers, different codes had been used. The circuit playing cards for the zero set swap all have 6900 as the primary 4 digits – that means that these had been designed for the primary contract in 1969. Approach earlier than I joined the corporate. However this could aid you place when the motor pushed zero set switches had been changed with the digital model.

Anyhow, the story in regards to the digital to analog converter panel within the image. The panel was a part of a modification to interchange the vary and angle pots with microprocessors. The RSPUs (Radar Sign Processing Items -one for the MTR and one for the TTR) had been mounted within the cupboard the place the unique vary pots lived within the radar van. The unique vary pots had been not used, the return video being processed by some quick digital logic coupled to an 8080 microprocessor. The angle pots had been modified to take away the sine and cosine potentiometers. These had been change with an 8 pole resolver mounted immediately on the 9:1 shaft of the pot. This resolver sign together with an present 1:1 resolver sign had been fed into converters within the RSPUs and one other 8080 computed the pointing angles from resolvers together with the sine and cosine of the azimuth and elevation. One other microprocessor in every RSPU (we’re as much as six now – however they had been solely working at 2.0 megahertz) mixed the vary and angle information to compute the varied issues that the unique analog pots computed – slant vary, X and Y together with the velocities of these items. A single microprocessor in one of many RSPUs (that might be quantity 7) then packaged this all for a knowledge hyperlink to the battery management van, through a single coax cable.

The panel that you just present was on the opposite finish of the info hyperlink. This field contained a temperature managed compartment (ECU – heater/cooler swap decrease proper) which contained an 18 bit multiplexed digital to analog converter. The converter additionally included ramping between the updates by use of the speed elements computed within the RSPU. The output of the converter was fed into the unique analog laptop. The speed ramps had been wanted to assist preserve the digital sampling noise out of the analog circuits.

These modifications had been carried out on most of the Nike websites in Germany across the 1979/1980 timeframe.

Anyhow, as a younger engineer, I realized a bunch from serving to put this gear collectively. The documentation on the varied sign flows together with the schematics of the radar gear was high notch from my standpoint, the group of the particular gear in racks and drawers supported hassle capturing even in a small area. A very advanced piece of kit that was modularized to be maintainable. Not a lot that I’ve labored on since has come near this.

Simply thought I’d provide you with a few of the story on that panel.

Anyhow, hope this finds you effectively, and thanks once more for the wealth of knowledge in your web site.

Don Kraus




5)
Fixing the Predicted Intercept drawback

To preserve flight instances down, (and improve the efficient vary)
the missile is aimed forward of the goal at a calculated
Predicted Intercept Level. If the plane flies a straight
line, the missile horizontal flight path will even be straight.
(A canine chasing a goal runs immediately towards the goal,
involving an extended run if the goal runs straight.)

An individual can fear that assuming that airplane flying straight won’t
be a superb assumption, however what higher are you able to make? One can marvel about
the ten million 12 months success of dog-like creatures working immediately towards the
current place of their meant prey. Nevertheless their prey can change route and
p.c pace a lot quicker than an plane. Canine chase path succeeds with a barely
completely different drawback.

The pc has constructed into it common flight instances to varied ranges
and altitudes. Here’s a chart of

Ajax Fixed Time Circles




Ajax time of flight chart.

This data is in contrast with the pace and route of the
goal till a legitimate time of flight to predicted intercept level
is computed. This data is offered to the battery commander
on the About the Nike Plotting Boards
to help him in making the firing choice.

The pc computes the Predicted Intercept Level by:

  1. Assuming the designated, tracked Airplane will proceed on its current course.
  2. Utilizing a Trial Missile Flight Time, the place of the aircraft on the
    finish of that point is estimated
  3. Utilizing the identical Trial Missile Flight Time, and a trial missile azimuth,
    the postion of the missile on the finish of that point is estimated
  4. Based mostly upon variations of estimated tracked aircraft place and missile
    place,
    – the Trial Missile Flight Time is modified,
    – the Trial Missile Azimuth is modified
  5. Return to step 2, do that constantly.


How Predicted Intercept Point is computed
.

Rod Brimhall has a more complete discussion, 240 KBytes, .pdf

At longer ranges (flight instances) the Predicted Intercept Level can
differ drastically
as a consequence of goal plane maneuvers. The battery commander
should make allowances for a lot of prospects.

The predicted time to intercept can also be constantly up to date throughout
the missile flight to replace the expected intercept level to
help in making steering command instructions.



6) Missile steerage abstract

Please observe: for a missile perspective, please see
Nike Missile Flight Sequence

The missile is launched virtually straight up, boosted
to about mach 1.7 in 3.4 seconds. It then turns its stomach
towards the calculated Predicted Intercept (1 second), and a 7 g dive command is shipped to the missile.

That is a picture of the “Time-to-Intercept vs Altitude” plotting board describing the
“Useless Zone” choices that are limits of the Nike Flight dynamics. (The Nike
is proscribed to a 7 g flip.) The Nike can’t get into the “Useless Zone” of altitude vs time.
There are two choices of systainer motor begin relying upon how shut the
Predicted Intercept Level is to the launcher.



a) If the Predicted Intercept is shut, the firing of the systainer motor is delayed,
the missile goes slower, can flip tighter, with a smaller “Useless Zone”

b) Usually the sustainer is began instantly after the booster falls away, quicker flight
bigger turning radius, bigger “Useless Zone”.

The missile should not fly immediately over the Missile Monitoring Radar (MTR)
due to limitions inherent in that kind of antenna mount and the pointing system.
To keep away from flying immediately over the MTR, particular circuits are included within the laptop
to fly the missile in a path skirting round a flight path over the MTR.
This case is generally prevented by putting the launching space towards the anticipated
route of enemy plane – however the battery might be efficient in any case.

A full dive command (7 g’s) is shipped to the missile to dive it
from vertical towards horizontal. When the missile has reached a vertical angle
that will likely be a superb (1/2 g) flight path to the intercept level, the
full dive command is eliminated and regular steering begins.

For a preview of the “good flight path“, leap forward to
End of 7 G dive .



After the 7 g dive, the pc flies the missile on a
1/2 g flight path to the expected
intercept level.
For additional particulars of the 1/2 g flight path, see web page 64 of
TM9-5000-3 (4.5 MBytes).

The expected intercept level is continually being up to date by
the pc from information from the goal monitoring radar and
the missile monitoring radar. Utilizing the missile place from the Missile Monitoring Radar,
missile velocity and angle generated within the laptop, and the Predicted Intercept
Level, the laptop generates analog steering instructions in gravity models
(g’s)
for the missile. These
instructions are despatched to the Missile Monitoring Radar, the place the analog instructions are
transformed into radar pulse sequences indicating the command to the missile.

About 0.1 seconds earlier than the missile will likely be closest to the
goal, a missile burst command is ship by a coded pulse
sequence to the missile by the missile monitoring radar.
This burst command is decoded and the missile warhead exploded.
The aim is to explode the missile simply earlier than (10 meters) the missile
would influence (or be on the closest level with) the plane.
This manner, the increasing blast of fragements goes by means of the area the place
the goal plane can be – giving most harm even when a close to miss.

See Also



7) Steering Command Particulars

The steering instructions are principally to climb/dive and
flip left/proper a given variety of earth gravitational acceleration
models (g forces of fighter aircraft fame). For instance,
the pc may command the missile to show proper at a
fee of 1.0 g’s. The missile would modify its fins to show
laborious sufficient in order that the left/proper accelerometer would point out
1.0 g’s proper.

Really the missile fins are 45 levels from horizontal,
and the accelerometers are additionally 45 levels from horizontal.
The final stage of the laptop rotates the command so {that a}
1.0 g proper command will likely be despatched as 0.707 g up/proper and 0.707 g down/proper
which is able to end in 1.0 g flip proper. You do bear in mind your highschool
trig – do not you? Oh sure, you should be a “rocket scientist”.

The missile steering instructions are despatched in analog kind to the
Missile Monitoring Radar electronics the place they’re transformed to
radar pulse pairs which are acquired by the missile.
For an outline of the instructions as they’re despatched by the Missile Monitoring
Radar see Missile Tracking Radar.

About 0.1 second earlier than intercept, a burst command is shipped
to blow up the missile and hopefully disable the goal.



8) In regards to the Nike Plotting Boards

There have been 2 plotting boards

  • Horizontal Plotting Board, with 2 pens
    x,y – scale = +- 200,000 yards
    • one pen all the time plotted the goal
    • the opposite pen plotted
      • predicted intercept till the missile is launched
      • missile place after missile is launched

      <!DD>

  • Altitude Plotting Board, with 2 pens
      z,t – scale 0-100,000 ft, 0-160 seconds

    • the left pen plotted the goal altitude vs. time to intercept
    • the correct pen plotted time to intercept vs.
      • predicted intercept altitude till the missile is launched
      • missile altitude after missile is launched

      <!DD>

There have been timing marks each 10 seconds. These had been fast jogs up and proper.
A launch (fireplace) mark was a fast jog down and left.

The horizontal plotting board had lights to establish which pen was plotting what.

For a photograph of the plotting boards, go to

Battery Commander’s View of the World.


9) How does the pc know the radar offsets?

The Goal Monitoring Radar (TTR) is taken into account the middle of the world,
effectively not less than so far as the pc and IFC persons are involved.
All distances are measured from the TTR. Plotting board distances and elevations
are relative to the TTR.

The pc should know the place the Missile Monitoring Radar (MTR) is
relative to the Goal Monitoring Radar (TTR),
and likewise the relative location of the Goal Ranging Radar (TRR)
relative to the Goal Monitoring Radar (TTR).
This allows the pc to subtract out the positional variations, in order that
all three radars are, for computational functions, positioned on the similar level
is area
.

The offsets of the MTR and the TRR are dialed into potentiomenters positioned
on the pc. The coordinates are as North/South, East/West, Up/Down from
the Goal Monitoring Radar. Any errors dialed into these potentiometers will trigger
errors in flying the missile to the precise place of the goal.

The positional variations of the varied acquisition radars usually are not vital
as a result of they’re all the time inside 50 yards of the TTR and errors in vary and
parallax as a consequence of this offset don’t have an effect on operation (primarily the locking
on to the designated goal by the TTR operators). It’s vital that
the acquisition radars and the TTR (and any space supervision radars) have the
similar “North” reference
to inside a few diploma for extra precise goal designation.
(Which goal is it?)

The Monitoring Radars have the identical North very exactly as a consequence of their
alignment procedures.



10) Gotta have just a little enjoyable
– Mechanical computer systems.

You’ve gotten been excellent college students – severe – no sleeping or whispering – taking notes

– prepared for a quiz?

I have never the guts – time for enjoyable.

Tim Robinson makes analog computer systems for enjoyable – out of Meccano constructing “blocks”.

a differential analyzer

a mini-Babbage machine distinction engine



11) The Floor to Floor mission/mode

In July 2013, CW2 Robin E. Smith jogged my memory that there’s not a lot dialogue of the Hercules floor to floor mode.

OK – right here goes what I can glean from the manuals ( manner after my time ).

Assault floor targets under the radar horizon.
Dive straight down on a stationary goal. The burst order causes steerage cutoff
quite than an explosion.

Picture from TM9-1400-250-10-2

Textual content from MMS 150, 1-P7

(3) Floor to floor mission. In a floor
to floor mission (fig 7). the acquisition radars usually are not
used as a result of the goal place is thought. The vary.
azimuth, and elevation coordinates of the goal are
calculated and manually set into the TTR system.
due to this fact, the TTR provides fixed goal place information
to the pc. Though the operate of the pc
system is just like that described far a traditional floor
to air mission (a(1) above), the missile trajectory information
should be manually set into the pc. It will, in
flip, trigger the missile to be guided towards some extent in
area above the specified level of influence. When the
missile reaches the area reference level, the pc
system points a dive order that may trigger the missile to
strategy the bottom goal vertically. Because the missile
approaches the bottom, the pc sends a burst order
by way of the missile monitoring system. On account of particular
missile preparation in a floor to floor mission,
nonetheless, the burst order doesn’t trigger the missile
warhead to detonate. As a substitute, the burst order disables
the missile fail-safe mechanism and causes steerage cut-off
by disabling the missile receiver. The burst order additionally
arms a preset barometric fuze within the missile warhead and
rolls the missile 180 levels to compensate for any
potential management floor misalignment The missile then
follows a vertical trajectory till the barometric fuze
causes the nuclear warhead to detonate at a predetermined
altitude above the goal.

It does not take a lot creativeness to determine that setting the TTR to a specific azimuth, elevation, and vary,
and firing a missile will trigger the missile to get near that time, and explode. Even within the Ajax program
we thought that might be an fascinating concept. If the purpose is exterior the “useless zone”, a circle about 10,000 yards from
the launcher space, in case you might see it, you might blast it.

The Improved Hercules used a separate “Floor to Floor” mission/mode for each the pc and the missile.
This enabled Nike to hit what it could not see – amongst different issues, the curvature of the earth.

  1. There have been formal directions the best way to arrange the TTR in azimuth, elevation, vary out of your map coordinates
    to the map coordinates of the goal.

  2. To stop the sign from the MTR being misplaced or distorted by floor muddle, the elevation angle
    was set to five mils above the MTR floor muddle on the TTR azimuth (above).
    The MTR might monitor and information the missile reliably,
    and the burst command (which was not interpreted by the missile as burst however as “command steerage cut-off”)
    can be reliably acquired by the missile
  3. A nomograph (NOT identical to this one) was accessible to help calculations. Nomograph from http://www.tscm.com/rdr-hori.pdf
  4. CW2 Robin E. Smith was acknowledged as being professional within the above –
    I haven’t got the main points of the computations.

    “In preparation for our cellular mission every unit in our battalion needed to put together to calculate a
    floor to floor drawback and set the radars and laptop for firing. Within the launching space there
    had been additionally duties to be accomplished, however they had been pretty easy and the IFC personnel who calculated the
    fireplace mission gave them the knowledge that the launcher crew needed to set.”
  5. The missile was to be laptop guided to be going “straight down” at burst sign time

    – observe: “straight down” close to the earth 100 miles away is over 1 diploma completely different

    – CW2 Robin E. Smith stated that “straight down” is relative to the goal, not the Nike web site.

  6. The missile (earlier than launch) was set right into a particular mode
    • – a command burst was interpreted as command steerage cut-off
    • – after command steerage cut-off, ??? missile guided internally alongside a 0 g path by its accelerometers ???
    • – burst was to be triggered by altitude (atmospheric strain) solely

      – – In Europe, a nuclear warhead was assumed?
  7. Out there manuals appear very imprecise about many helpful and wanted particulars – ? nonetheless labeled ??
Some computations assuming the goal is 100 miles from the Nike web site.

Word that the tangent line from the Nike web site is 1.24 miles above the goal.

Please observe: These calculation must be checked by some competent individual.



Appendix 1: Chopper Stabilized Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)



Background

Operation

New (transistor) Zero Set Switch

Old (mechanical) Zero Set Switch

Background

It is extremely handy to imagine that Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps) for analog computer systems have

– infinite achieve (with stability)

– no enter “offset” voltages or currents

Thankfully, they are often made excellent in order that for a lot of issues errors might be held
to lower than say 0.01 p.c per stage

– the “offset” present to the grid of a superb triode (or FET) in on the order of nano amps.

Sadly, efforts have to be made to cut back off-set voltage errors – An operational amplifier
is anticipated to have zero volts output when the enter is zero volts.
Failure to do that is known as “off-set error”.
Sadly, in actual amplifiers, a lot of causes will trigger voltage off-set errors
which should be constantly corrected.

A precept technique of correcting voltage off-set error is to make use of computerized Zero Set gear which:

– reduces “offset” voltage

– will increase amplifier achieve with out lowering stability

You possibly can manually zero set an operational amplifier by:

– eradicating the amplifier output from the circuit (no feed again)

– connecting the enter of the amplifier to analog floor (zero volts)

– measuring to output voltage

– adjusting the amplifier zero set to realize zero volts on the output

then re-connecting the amplifier to the circuit for correct operation

Sadly, temperatures, voltages and different circumstances quickly change,

and you will need to zero set once more, and but once more.

Operation

Thankfully, a
good automatic method of zero setting operational amplifiers
was found – simply in time for Nike.

– (go away the operational amplifier related within the circuit :-))

– measure the voltage on the “summing junction”, the enter to the Op Amp

– amplify this voltage by 200 (within the Zero Set Amplifier)

     ** if this voltage is extreme, a separate amplifier tube (in collection) fires a warning neon lamp

– apply this amplified voltage to the Op Amp zero set enter

and do the above time and again.

The voltage measurement and correction might be performed within the AC world – which makes life simpler :-))

  1. Join the enter grid of the Zero Set Amplifier to floor
  2. Join the output capacitor of the Zero Set Amplifier to floor
    The above steps, 1 & 2, present a zero reference on the output capacitor
  3. Disconnect the output capacitor of the Zero Set Amplifier from floor
  4. Disconnect the enter grid of the Zero Set Amplifier from floor
  5. Join the enter grid of the Zero Set Amplifier to the summing junction (Op Amp enter grid)
  6. Join the output capacitor of the Zero Set Amplifier to the Op Amp zero set capacitor
    The above 4 steps place a corrective cost on the Op Amp zero set capacitor
  7. Disconnect the output capacitor of the Zero Set Amplifier from the Op Amp zero set capacitor
  8. Disconnect the enter grid of the Zero Set Amplifier to the summing junction (Op Amp enter grid)
    Prepared to begin the 1st step over again

With cautious design, this swap (and system) might be very dependable, effectively shielded, with low electrical noise.

Additional particulars in regards to the Zero Set
are within the Technical Handbook
TM9-5000-13-Ch04 Automatic Zero Setting Controls 155 KBytes

from one other supply



New (transistor) Zero Set Change

So – the Nike Analog Laptop System

– that is one in all 4 cupboards or racks –

consists of Zero Set Switches (the brown containers)

every can zero set 12 operational amplifiers.


Transistor Fashion Zero Set Change – Hercules solely? launched when? – Our Ajax system had “the outdated fashion” machanical under.
I do not understand how these “trendy” circuits labored – The “3N93” are listed as “Twin Emitter
Chopper Transistors” silicon PNP transistors

I am not a transistor man – if they do not have a heated cathode, they only cannot probably work ;-))
Nevertheless, for you trendy people – who do imagine in magic, here’s a spec sheet – search for the 3N93.

If anybody is aware of how the above zero setting circuits work – please ship me the phrase.




Previous Fashion (Mechanical) Zero Set Change ? Ajax solely ?

Norman Paik (a Nike class mate, who served on Rattle Snake Mountain, above Hanford, Washington) reviews
– “With just a little bit of damage or corrosion, these switches had been susceptible to sticking which might, the truth is, relying on how they caught, introduce errors into the analog computations. Nice enjoyable.”

May it have been mud?? dry air?? – On the Chicago water entrance we had no hassle with the
mechanical zero set switches.



Appendix 2: Precision Achieve Setting Resistors

We’re aware of the same old carbon composition and wire wound resistors,
with the said tolerances of 10% to 1%.

These usually are not practically correct sufficient (nor secure sufficient) for achieve setting resistors in a Nike system
with a system error price range of say 20 ft in 25 miles between the errors of the 2 monitoring radars
and the varied achieve delicate operational amplifiers within the laptop.

only for the sake of argument, allow us to enable error budgets of:

– 7 ft to the Missile Monitoring Radar subsystem

– 7 ft to the Goal Monitoring Radar(s subsystem)

– 7 ft to the pc subsystem

at a spread of 25 miles.

Pals, these are tight tolerances !! No room for slop anyplace –
The positive factors of the Missile Monitoring and Goal Monitoring radars in X, Y, and Peak should be as similar (and proper) as potential.

An Op Amp achieve is set by the RATIO of the (suggestions resistor)/(enter resistor).
[Assuming of course adequate amplifier gain.] If the suggestions resistor
is 0.1% low, the enter resistor should be an similar 0.1% low.
This right and secure RATIO is attained by a number of paths:

  1. Cautious precision matching throughout resistor community manufacture. That is performed by choosing and trimming
    precision resistors monitored by a precision resistor bridge.
  2. Minimal adjustments in resistance as a consequence of temperature adjustments. That is attained through the use of wire wound resistors
    of low temperature coefficient metallic – and non-stress packaging.
  3. Packaging every resistor community so that every resistor is identical temperature as each different resistor
    within the packaged community. That is completed by putting the enter and suggestions resistors of every
    op amp right into a separate aluminum container in order that they get heat and funky collectively. A draft within the
    laptop cupboard ought to have an effect on all of the resistors of an op amp “identically”. The RATIO ought to
    be maintained.

Appendix 3: Precision Servo-driven Potentiometers

The overall type of the potentiometer is a round card, tapered to the maths operate,
wound with resistance wire, contacted by a wiper arm.

The Nike analog laptop works in Cartesian coordinates coordinates ( X, Y, Z ) quite than spherical coordinates (elevation angle, azimuth angle, vary).

Sin – cosine potentiometers are used within the goal and missile monitoring radar mounts to
carry out the conversions.

  • The slant vary voltage is generated by every radar monitoring radar system from the
    time delay from the magnetron pulse to the return echo (heart of the “vary gate”)
  • The elevation sin operate converts slant vary voltage into top (“Z”),
  • The elevation cos operate converts slant vary voltage into floor vary.
  • The azimuth sin operate converts floor vary (above) into North|South (“Y”)
  • The azimuth cos operate converts floor vary (above) into East|West (“X”)

that are despatched to the Nike analog laptop.

The potentiometers within the Nike analog laptop assist with Time_To_Intercept, flight angle,
flight traits, ballistic traits, …


You probably have feedback or recommendations, Send e-mail

to Ed Thelen

Return to Home,

Return to beginning of Nike Computer,
Goto Next Section

Up to date February, 2022

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