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PageRank Algorithm for Graph Databases

PageRank Algorithm for Graph Databases

2023-01-30 04:02:49

Probably the most fascinating and well-known utility of PageRank is actually the one that truly sparked its creation. Google founders Larry Web page and Sergey Brin wanted an algorithm to rank pages and supply customers with the absolute best search outcomes.

Utilizing the PageRank algorithm, every web page receives a rating based mostly on the quantity and significance of different pages which can be linking to it. The pages with a better web page rank, improve the rating of the web page they hyperlink to greater than the pages with a decrease rank.

In graph database terminology, the PageRank algorithm is used to measure the significance of every node based mostly on the variety of incoming relationships and the rank of the associated supply nodes. What the PageRank algorithm really outputs is a likelihood distribution that represents the probability of visiting any explicit node by randomly traversing the graph.

So, it’s mainly a node reputation contest.


A extensively used sort of PageRank is Customized PageRank, which is extraordinarily helpful in suggestion methods. With Customized PageRank, you’ll be able to restrain the random stroll by permitting it to begin solely from one of many nodes in a given set, and bounce solely to one of many nodes in a given set. Such a PageRank brings out central nodes from the angle of that set of particular nodes. For instance, Twitter uses Personalized PageRank to suggest who to comply with on-line.

The animation beneath exhibits the outcomes of PageRank on a easy community. A sequel of a popular film will robotically be extra standard than only a random new title as a result of it already has a longtime fan base. In graph phrases, the largest node pointing to an adjoining node makes it extra vital.

gif animation

PageRank can be utilized as a measure of affect that can be utilized on a wide range of purposes, not simply on web site and film rankings.

PageRank use instances

If a social community or a search engine should not the merchandise you’re growing, take a look at how one can make the most of PageRank in numerous different use instances or data graphs constructed to deduce data in these niches.

Suggestion Engines

In Suggestion Engines, PageRank algorithm will be utilized to recommend products that match the goal person’s preferences or are at present trending amongst all the opposite customers. The algorithm considers the variety of purchases and the reliability of the customers who purchased or reviewed the product.

A dependable person has a sound utilization historical past and opinions, whereas unreliable customers are pretend clients whose goal is to artificially inflate the metrics of sure merchandise to make them seem extra fascinating.

Information Lineage

Understanding the significance of paperwork within the information lineage graph has two vital purposes: affect evaluation and system reliability.

In occasions of including new information property, migration or main updates, reminiscent of merging information sources after the acquisition, affect evaluation can assist assess the upstream and downstream impacts of such modifications.

PageRank can even assist determine high-impact nodes which can be required to stay extremely dependable as a result of they’re utilized in many different locations all through the group.

Fraud Detection

In fraud detection, PageRank can be utilized as a further characteristic (enter) to a machine studying algorithm, to enhance classification and cut back the false positives.

Customers who’re concerned in fraudulent transactions with shared cards usually tend to be fraudsters. So the node ranks concerned in these explicit transactions generally is a piece of priceless info that can be utilized in machine studying fashions to foretell and detect fraud amongst people which have connections with identified fraudsters within the community.

Nodes will also be ranked based mostly on how a lot cash flows by way of each to flag transactions that transfer way more cash than what’s common for a selected person.

Identification and Entry Administration

Whereas managing permission, you will need to prohibit entry to delicate property, as their exploitation might trigger costly harm to the corporate. In lots of methods, because of a scarcity of time and sources, excessive permissions are sometimes given to folks that don’t really want them.

PageRank can assist determine which delicate property are accessible by many customers to find out who, in actual fact, requires entry and take away permissions for the remainder of the customers.


Community Optimization

Important infrastructures are methods that may be represented as a community of extremely interdependent nodes and relationships. Because of their nature, failure in a single node could end in a cascade of failures in different nodes. PageRank can assist determine nodes more likely to fail and if they might cascade to different nodes within the community.


See Also

As power infrastructure can also be a community, utilizing PageRank to determine vulnerabilities within the topology is invaluable and may save time, cash and frustration for each corporations and customers.

Cyber Safety

As it’s not possible to take away completely each risk within the system. PageRank can assist calculate possibilities of sure malignant occasions inflicting extreme assaults. Simply as PageRank’s authentic goal was to find out which websites will extra most likely be randomly clicked on because of all the opposite websites pointing at it, within the safety system, it may be used to level out which assault will extra most likely be carried out, and penalties of which assaults can be extra extreme.

Implementation in Memgraph

Memgraph has implemented PageRank using C++ which makes it excellent to be used instances the place efficiency is extremely priceless. The graph must be directed, and the algorithm doesn’t take relationships’ weight under consideration.

Default arguments are the identical as within the NetworkX PageRank implementation, so if you are a NetworkX user it will likely be clean crusing:

  • max_iterations: integer (default = 100) ➡ The utmost variety of iterations throughout the PageRank algorithm.
  • damping_factor: double (default = 0.85) ➡ PageRanks damping issue. That is the likelihood of continuous the random stroll from a random node throughout the graph.
  • stop_epsilon: double (default = 1e-5) ➡ Worth used to terminate the iterations of PageRank. If the change from one iteration to a different is decrease than stop_epsilon, execution is stopped.

To name PageRank in Memgraph use the next question:

CALL pagerank.get()
YIELD node, rank
RETURN node, rank;

You possibly can attempt it out on Playground, within the Sandbox of the Europe gas pipelines dataset. Test the nodes with the very best worth (that would trigger issues in the event that they fail) with the next question:

CALL pagerank.get()
YIELD node, rank
RETURN node, rank


As with all the opposite algorithms within the MAGE open-source library, you’ll be able to run PageRank solely on a selected group of nodes with the project() function. Save the sub-graph in a variable, then present it as a primary argument of the algorithm:

MATCH p=(n:SpecificLabel)
WITH venture(p) AS subgraph
CALL pagerank.get(subgraph)
YIELD node, rank
RETURN node, rank;

In case your utility is extremely time-sensitive and nodes and relationships are arriving in a brief time period, use the Dynamic PageRank which permits the preservation of the beforehand processed state. When entities are up to date or new ones arrive within the graph, as a substitute of restarting the algorithm over the entire graph, solely the neighborhood objects of that arriving entity are processed at a continuing time.


PageRank is a mature graph algorithm that hasn’t but misplaced its relevance. Much more so, with the rise of graph database utilization it’s going to certainly discover its place in lots of administration methods. For extra examples of utilizing PageRank test Memgraph’s blog posts on the same topic, or discover extra graph algorithms.

In the event you ever have any doubts about whether or not you’re utilizing PageRank appropriately, otherwise you need assistance with implementing it into your use case, a welcoming group at Memgraph’s Discord server can be more than pleased that can assist you combine graphs and algorithms into your system.

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