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Pantala flavescens – Wikipedia

Pantala flavescens – Wikipedia

2022-08-16 03:09:56

Species of dragonfly

Pantala flavescens
Pantala flavescens-Kadavoor-2017-05-04-002.jpg
male, Kerala, India
Wandering glider (Pantala flavescens).JPG
feminine, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Odonata
Infraorder: Anisoptera
Household: Libellulidae
Genus: Pantala

P. flavescens

Binomial name
Pantala flavescens
Pantala flavescens distribution map.svg
Distribution of Pantala flavescens
  • Libellula analis Burmeister, 1839
  • Libellula flavescens Fabricius, 1798
  • Libellula terminalis Burmeister, 1839
  • Libellula viridula Palisot de Beauvois, 1807
  • Orthetrum mathewi Singh & Baijal, 1955
  • Sympetrum tandicola Singh, 1955

Pantala flavescens,[3] the globe skimmer, globe wanderer or wandering glider,[1] is a wide-ranging dragonfly of the household Libellulidae.[1] This species and Pantala hymenaea, the “spot-winged glider”, are the one members of the genus Pantala. It was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1798.[4] It’s thought-about to be probably the most widespread dragonfly on the planet with good inhabitants on each continent besides Antarctica though uncommon in Europe.[1][5] Globe skimmers make an annual multigenerational journey of some 18,000 km (about 11,200 miles); to finish the migration, particular person globe skimmers fly greater than 6,000 km (3,730 miles)—one of many farthest identified migrations of all insect species.[6]


Construction of the grownup[edit]

Male has slender apical brown spot on the hind border of wings

Feminine lacks apical brown patches in wings

Feminine wings

Male wings

The dragonfly is as much as 4.5 cm lengthy,[7] reaching wingspans between 7.2 cm and eight.4 cm.[8][9][10] The entrance facet of the pinnacle is yellowish to reddish. The thorax is normally yellow to golden colored with a darkish and furry line. There have been additionally specimens with a brown or olive thorax. The abdomen has an identical color because the thorax.[8][11][9]

The wings are clear and really broad on the base. There, too, there are some specimens with olive, brown and yellow wings. On Easter Island there are wandering gliders with black wings.[8][11][9]

The pterostigma turns yellowish. The clear wings might flip a yellowish shade in the direction of the tip. The chestnut-red eyes take up a lot of the head, as is common within the massive dragonflies (Anisoptera).[12][9] The above colors clarify the numerous scientific descriptions of this species beneath totally different names.

Females present some variations in contrast with males. The overall rule is, the males have reddish yellow stomach marked with black whereas the females lack the reddish wash in stomach. The males have golden yellow patch on base of hindwings and slender apical brown spot on the hind border of wings. The females lack apical brown patches in wings.[9][10]

In mainland males, the size of the femur, the longest leg part, varies; additionally they have longer entrance and shorter hindwings than the females. The island representatives, nevertheless, have the entrance and hindwings longer than the feminine, and the femur is similar for each sexes. There are different variations between mainland and island specimens, significantly by way of colouring. Island representatives are typically darker.[11]

Construction of the larva[edit]

The larva is between 24 and 26 mm lengthy. It’s mild inexperienced with mild, brown speckles. The spherical eyes are sideways on the underside of the pinnacle, the stomach and the tail blunt.[13]

The paired facet plates on the eleventh segment of the stomach, the so-called paraproct, is easy when seen from the facet. The unpaired dorsal plate of the eleventh section, known as the epiproct, is roughly the identical size as or longer than the paraproct. This distinguishes them from larvae of the genus Tramea, the place the epiproct is shorter than the paraproct. Moreover, the mouth elements (palpus) have 12–14 bristles and thus fewer than P. hymenaea which has 15–18 bristles.[14]

Related species[edit]

Pantala flavescens could also be confused with the P. hymenaea, the “spot-winged glider”, however this has a putting brown basal fleck within the hindwing and is mostly barely darker in color. It could be taken for a member of the genus Tramea however these normally have a particular stripe on their hindwings.[15]

Life cycle[edit]

Replica and improvement[edit]

As is common within the Libellulidae household, there is no such thing as a distinct courtship ritual. The females might pair many instances, however normally solely as soon as a day.[16]

After mating, the migrant dragonflies fly in tandem, with the feminine ovipositing whereas the male stays linked. A clutch consists of about 500 to 2000 eggs. The eggs are spheroid in form with the semi-major axis 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm on the smallest factors.[17]

The larvae develop inside 38 to 65 days,[18] which permits this migrant dragonfly to breed in momentary waters and even in swimming swimming pools.[19] Nonetheless, the larvae appear to be very delicate to temperature.[20] The life expectancy isn’t identified and due to their excessive mobility it’s virtually unimaginable to find out.


The larvae of the globe skimmer, like all dragonflies, are predatory. It forages very actively and eats pretty indiscriminately all kinds of aquatic invertebrates, equivalent to aquatic insect larvae and small shrimps (Peracarida). Even tadpoles and small fish are used for meals. The imago eats largely small bugs equivalent to mosquitoes, swarming flying ants, and termites.[13]

Flight behaviour[edit]

Pantala flavescens wandering behaviour

They’re very conspicuous dragonflies; seen in swarms over paddy fields, playgrounds or open areas. They fly tirelessly with typical wandering flight for hours with out making any perch.[9] Their flight velocity is as much as 5 m/s.[21] Particularly within the autumn, the wandering glider flies in massive swarms, utilizing thermals to benefit. One report even speaks of a “cloud” protecting 34 km2.[13] They like moist winds.[22] In regular flight, island populations maintain to 2.5 meters above the bottom and cease flying in thermal updraughts. The continental populations fly at altitudes of three to 4 meters, and don’t cease flying even in unhealthy climate. These on Easter Island have tailored away from their migratory habits as a result of to fly out to the open sea would normally imply sure demise.[11]

When touchdown, it seeks a vertical perspective.[7] Like all massive dragonflies, the wings are held out from the physique at relaxation.

Distribution and flight[edit]

An aggregation of dragonflies throughout migration

The globe skimmer, as its identify suggests, has a really large distribution space, between in regards to the fortieth parallels of latitude or throughout the 20 °C isotherm (areas of the world the place the annual imply temperature is above 20 degrees Celsius), and as much as in regards to the fiftieth parallel north in North America.[23][24] In Europe there are solely occasional sightings of the species, with credible proof so far primarily from the Aegean Sea and the adjoining mainland. Globe skimmer information from England or France are uncertain and should come up from co-importation with shipments of bananas. An evidence for the shortage in Europe of this in any other case widespread species is the barrier impact of the Sahara which generates unfavourable winds, such because the Sirocco,[22] whose dryness makes dragonfly passage virtually unimaginable.[25]

Their arrival within the subtropics and tropics coincides with the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[26] Extra proof of their choice for moist winds is that the dragonfly migrates to Southeast India’s Tamil Nadu solely after the second monsoon, which brings the rain to that area. In the remainder of India, nevertheless, it arrives with the primary rain-making monsoon.[22] Observations and steady isotope proof means that they migrate from India or past to Africa throughout the Arabian Sea.[27][28]

It’s the highest-flying dragonfly, recorded at 6,200 m within the Himalayas. It was additionally first dragonfly species that settled on Bikini Atoll after the nuclear tests there.[19] Moreover, it’s the solely Odonata on Easter Island. These people appear to be a small gene pool, derived from the continental populations, which is slowly creating a brand new kind by genetic drift. In colder areas like South Australia and Southern Canada, the species can’t overwinter and should subsequently get replaced by new migrants every year.[11]

In accordance with latest analysis carried out by biologists at Rutgers University-Newark this species of dragonfly is the world’s longest identified distance insect traveller. Genetic proof taken from dragonflies throughout the globe means that these small measurement bugs are travelling huge distances to mate and are thus making a worldwide gene pool.[29] One other research concluded that Pantala flavescens is a close to global panmictic population.[30]

Modelling of dragonfly flight, vitality reserves and wind speeds within the Indian Ocean have instructed that Pantala flavescens performs the longest identified continuous migration in comparison with physique measurement within the animal kingdom. Particularly the theorised migratory route from Male, Maldives to Kap Hafun, Somalia, is >2500 km lengthy and constitutes travelling 50.7 million physique lengths of the dragonfly with none chance of stopping to relaxation.[31]

See Also

Frequent identify[edit]

The English widespread names “wandering glider” and “globe skimmer” check with its migratory behaviour.[7] The German identify Wanderlibelle means “migrant dragonfly”. In Hong Kong, its identify interprets as “typhoon dragonfly” because it arrives with or shortly earlier than the seasonal rain.[22] The Japanese identify is usubaki-tombo (ウスバキトンボ) which is translated as “yellow dragonfly with delicate wings”. Equally, the South Korean identify is ‘된장잠자리'(translated as “doenjang dragonfly”) as a result of its color is much like doenjang, the Korean bean paste.

Scientific identify[edit]

Within the scientific identify Pantala flavescens, the genus identify Pantala means “all wings”, alluding to the massive and lengthy wings. The specific identify comes from the Latin flavescens, which means “yellowish”, and refers to its distinctive golden tint.[7]

The species was first described in 1798 as Libellula flavescens by Fabricius as follows:

L. [flavescens] alis hyalinis: stigmate niveo, corpore flavescente. Habitat in India Dom. Daldorff. Statura praecedentium. Caput flavescens oculis magnis, fuscis. Thorax flavescens, immaculatus. Stomach compressum, flavescens linea dorsali nigra. Alae albae stigmate marginali niveo.

— Fabricius, Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta Complement S. 285

The primary description of this underlying holotype is within the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen University taken from a feminine collected from India. In following years there appeared extra descriptions with totally different names. In 1805, Palisot de Beauvois designated a specimen from Nigeria as Libellula viridula. Round 1823 the British entomologist Dale, in an unpublished manuscript, described an allegedly Norfolk-trapped male as Libellula sparing halli,[32] It’s now within the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1839, the German entomologist Burmeister named a male collected in Madras as Libellula analis (now within the Zoological Assortment of the University of Halle-Wittenberg) and one other male from Brazil as Libellula terminalis (now within the Pure Historical past Museum of Vienna.) In 1910, the sector was cleared as Richard Anthony Muttkowski acknowledged that these species have been all synonyms. An outline product of Sympetrum tandicola (Singh) 1955 from a male collected within the Himalayas and deposited on the Zoological Survey India, Calcutta, was recognized as belonging to Pantala flavescens in 1973.[4]

Safety standing[edit]

The globe skimmer has NatureServe conservation status G5, which means it’s safe (widespread, widespread and ample) worldwide. This standing was awarded on 30 December 1985. In the US, it has the nationwide equal safety standing N5. In Canada, nevertheless, it’s decrease with N4 which means it’s apparently safe – unusual however not uncommon however with some trigger for long-term concern. Even at this degree, it’s granted protected standing in lots of states of the US and Canada.[33]

Postage stamps[edit]

As a consequence of its large distribution, the globe skimmer seems on quite a few stamps.

On 29 July 1974 Wallis and Futuna printed a forty five franc with a dragonfly over a water floor with some crops exhibiting. It has Michel catalog quantity 257 showing in a set of insect motifs. On 9 November 1975. The Pitcairn Islands printed a 15 cent with a dragonfly flying on a darkish blue background. Its Miche quantity is 154, and it additionally appeared in an insect assortment.[34]

Tuvalu introduced out a ten cent on 25 Could 1983 which reveals a globe skimmer. The lithographic illustration was designed by J E Cooter. Its Michel quantity is 190, and it appeared in a set of dragonflies.[35][36] The illustration was restricted to the dragonfly with grasses. Botswana printed a six-thebe stamp exhibiting the entrance of a blue dragonfly on a inexperienced background.[37]

Wallis and Futuna printed one other stamp on 4 August 1998, a 36F with the dragonfly proven flying on a yellowish background. It has Michel quantity 736 and appeared along with different insect motifs.[38]

The most recent stamp comes from 2003 and appeared in North Korea. Its worth is 15 wŏn and it represents a sedentary globe skimmer on a spike.[39]

  1. ^ a b c d Boudot, J.-P.; Clausnitzer, V.; Samraoui, B.; Suhling, F.; Dijkstra, Okay.-D.B.; Schneider, W.; Paulson, D.R. (2016). Pantala flavescens. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T59971A65818523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T59971A65818523.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ Fabricius, J.C. (1798). Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae. Vol. 5. Hafniae : Proft et Storch. pp. 573 [285]. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.65803 – by way of Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  3. ^ Dennis Paulson; Martin Schorr; Cyrille Deliry. “World Odonata List”. University of Puget Sound. Retrieved 15 Feb 2022.
  4. ^ a b Henrik Steinmann (1997). World Catalogue of Odonata (in German). Vol. Band II (Anisoptera). Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. pp. 542f. ISBN 978-3-11-014934-0.
  5. ^ James William Tutt (1997). “The Entomologist’s File and Journal of Variation” (in German). London: Charles Phipps. pp. 213.
  6. ^ “Dragonfly insect (ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA)”.
  7. ^ a b c d Cynthia Berger (March 2004). Dragonflies (Wild Guides) (in German). Mechanicsburg (Pennsylvania): Stackpole Books. pp. 97. ISBN 978-0-8117-2971-0.
  8. ^ a b c Arnett H. Ross jr. (2000). American Bugs. A Handbook of Bugs of America North of Mexico (in German). Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 128. ISBN 978-0-8493-0212-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798″. India Biodiversity Portal. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  10. ^ a b C FC Lt. Fraser (1936). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, Odonata Vol. III. Pink Lion Courtroom, Fleet Avenue, London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 414–416.
  11. ^ a b c d e M. J. Samways, R. Osborn, M.; Osborn, R. (1998). “Divergence in a transoceanic circumtropical dragonfly on a distant island”. Journal of Biogeography. 25 (5): 935–946. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1998.00245.x. S2CID 84134147.
  12. ^ Tim Manolis, Timothy D. Manolis (April 2003). Dragonflies and Damselflies of California (California Pure Historical past Guides (Paperback)). College of California Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-520-23567-0.
  13. ^ a b c Mark Lung, Stefan Sommer. Pantala flavescens. Retrieved 9 March 2006.
  14. ^ Jerrell James Daigle (November 1992). “Florida Dragonflies (Anisoptera): A Species Key to the Aquatic Larval Phases”. Technical Collection. 12 (1): 23.
  15. ^ J.C. Abbott. “OdonataCentral: An online resource for the Odonata of North America. Austin, Texas”. Retrieved 12 Could 2006.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ Alex Córdoba-Aguilar (2006). “Sperm ejection as a potential cryptic feminine selection mechanism in Odonata (Insecta)”. Physiological Entomology. On-line. Early (2): 146. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.2005.00498.x. S2CID 84968729.
  17. ^ Kamilla Schenk, Dagmar Söndgerath (2005). “Affect of egg measurement variations inside egg clutches on larval parameters in 9 libellulid species (Odonata)”. Ecological Entomology. 30 (4): 456. doi:10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00707.x. S2CID 86460786.
  18. ^ Frank Suhling; Kamilla Schenk; Tanja Padeffke; Andreas Martens (2004). “A area research of larval improvement in a dragonfly assemblage in African desert ponds (Odonata)”. Hydrobiologia. 528 (1–3): 75–85. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-3047-8. S2CID 19164081.
  19. ^ a b Jill Silsby (2001). Dragonflies of the World (in German). Plymouth: The Nationwide Historical past Museum. pp. 180. ISBN 978-0-565-09165-1.
  20. ^ J. H. Hawking, B. A. Ingram (1994). “Charge of larval improvement of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) at its southern restrict of vary in Australia. (Odonata: Libellulidae) (zit. nach Laister)”. Odonatologica. 23: 63–68.
  21. ^ Robert B. Srygley (March 2003). “Wind Drift Compensation in Migrating Dragonflies Pantala (Odonata: Libellulidae)”. Journal of Insect Behavior. 16 (2): 217–232. doi:10.1023/A:1023915802067. S2CID 33663287.
  22. ^ a b c d Philip S. Corbet (1 August 1999). Dragonflies: Behaviour and Ecology of Odonata (zit. nach Laister) (in German). Colchester: Harley Books. ISBN 978-0-946589-64-7.
  23. ^ Cannings, R.A. (2014). Chapter 8 The Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of Canadian Grasslands. In: Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 3): Biodiversity and Systematics Part 1 (PDF) (Cárcamo HA, Giberson DJ (Eds) ed.). Ottawa, ON: Organic Survey of Canada. pp. 231–269. ISBN 978-0-9689321-6-2.
  24. ^ Pantala flavescens (Wandering Glider)”. Odonata Central. The College of Alabama Museums Analysis and Collections. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  25. ^ G. Laister (2005). “Pantala flavescens auf Rhodos, mit einem Überblick über den Standing der Artwork in Europa (Odonata: Libellulidae)”. Libellula Supplement. 6: 33–40.
  26. ^ Gerhard Jurzitza (1978). Unsere Libellen (in German). Franckh. pp. 22. ISBN 978-3-440-04553-4.
  27. ^ Anderson RC (2009). “Do dragonflies migrate across the western Indian Ocean?”. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 25 (4): 347–348. doi:10.1017/s0266467409006087. S2CID 86187189. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02.
  28. ^ Hobson, Okay.A.; Anderson, R.C.; Soto, D.X.; Wassenaar, L.I. (2012). “Isotopic Evidence That Dragonflies (Pantala flavescens) Migrating through the Maldives Come from the Northern Indian Subcontinent”. PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e52594. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…752594H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052594. PMC 3527571. PMID 23285106.
  29. ^ “Small dragonfly found to be world’s longest-distance flyer”. Science Day by day. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  30. ^ Daniel Troast, Frank Suhling, Hiroshi Jinguji, Göran Sahlén, Jessica Ware (2016). “A Global Population Genetic Study of Pantala flavescens. PLoS ONE. 11 (3): e0148949. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1148949T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148949. PMC 4775058. PMID 26934181.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: makes use of authors parameter (link)
  31. ^ Hedlund, Johanna S. U.; Lv, Hua; Lehmann, Philipp; Hu, Gao; Anderson, R. Charles; Chapman, Jason W. (2021). “Unraveling the World’s Longest Non-stop Migration: The Indian Ocean Crossing of the Globe Skimmer Dragonfly”. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9: 525. doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.698128. ISSN 2296-701X.
  32. ^ F.C. Fraser (1956). “A restatement of the case of Pantala flavescens (F.) (Odon., Libellulidae) as an informal customer to Britain”. The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine. 92: 347–350.
  33. ^ “NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life”. NatureServe. February 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2006.
  34. ^ “Libellen Briefmarken 1970–1979”. Gesellschaft deutschsprachiger Odonatologen. Archived from the original on 12 July 2002. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
  35. ^ “1983 – Tuvalu Commemorative Stamps”. Tuvalu On-line. Brian Cannon. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
  36. ^ “Libellen Briefmarken 1980–1984”. Gesellschaft deutschsprachiger Odonatologen. Archived from the original on 17 December 2005. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
  37. ^ “Dragonfly Stamp of Botswana”. Bugs on Stamps. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
  38. ^ “Libellen Briefmarken 1995–1999”. Gesellschaft deutschsprachiger Odonatologen. Archived from the original on 9 September 2002. Retrieved 24 March 2006.
  39. ^ “Libellen Briefmarken 2003–2005”. Gesellschaft deutschsprachiger Odonatologen. Archived from the original on 17 December 2005. Retrieved 24 March 2006.


Preliminary descriptions[edit]

  • Fabricius. “Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta : Complement” (in German). pp. 285.
  • Beauvois. “Insectes recueillis en Afrique et en Amérique” (in German). pp. 69.
  • Burmeister. “Handbuch der Entomologie” (in German). Band 2. pp. 852.

Secondary literature[edit]

Scientific literature and articles[edit]

  • Philip S. Corbet (1999). Dragonflies: Behaviour and Ecology of Odonata (in German). Colchester: Harley Books. ISBN 978-0-946589-64-7.
  • F. C. Fraser (1956). “A restatement of the case of Pantala flavescens (F.)(Odon., Libellulidae) as an informal customer to Britain”. The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine (in German). 92. pp. 347–350. ISSN 0013-8908.
  • J. H. Hawking; B. A. Ingram (1994). “Charge of larval improvement of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) at its southern restrict of vary in Australia. (Odonata: Libellulidae)”. Odonatologica (in German). 23. pp. 63–68. ISSN 0375-0183.
  • A. Kumar (1984). “On the life historical past of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) (Libellulidae: Odonata)”. Annals of the Entomological Society of America (in German). 2 (1). pp. 43–50. ISSN 0013-8746.
  • G. Laister (2005). “Pantala flavescens auf Rhodos, mit einem Überblick über den Standing der Artwork in Europa (Odonata: Libellulidae)”. Libellula Complement (in German). 6. pp. 33–40. ISSN 0723-6514.
  • M. Samways; R. Osborn (1998). “Divergence in a transoceanic circumtropical dragonfly on a distant island”. Journal of Biogeography (in German). 25 (5). pp. 935–946. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1998.00245.x. ISSN 0305-0270. S2CID 84134147.
  • Henrik Steinmann (1997). World Catalogue of Odonata (in German). Vol. Band II (Anisoptera). Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. pp. 542f. ISBN 978-3-11-014934-0.
  • Okay. Van Damme; H. J. Dumont (1999). “A drought–resistant larva of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) (Odonata: Libellulidae) within the Lencois Maranhenses, NE-Brazil”. Worldwide Journal of Odonatology (in German). 2. pp. 69–76. ISSN 1388-7890.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

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