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POSSE – IndieWeb

POSSE – IndieWeb

2023-04-19 22:34:09



POSSE is an abbreviation for Publish (in your) Personal Website, Syndicate Elsewhere, the observe of posting content material by yourself web site first, then publishing copies or sharing hyperlinks to 3rd events (like social media silos) with original post links to supply viewers a path to straight interacting along with your content material.


Let your folks learn your posts, their manner. POSSE lets your folks hold utilizing no matter they use to learn your stuff (e.g. social media silos like Instagram, Tumblr, Twitter, and so forth.).

Keep in contact with buddies now, not some theoretical future. POSSE is about staying in contact with present buddies now, slightly than the potential of staying in contact with buddies sooner or later.
▶️ watch Zach’s 1min* video intro to POSSE

Buddies are extra vital than federation. By specializing in relationships that matter to folks slightly than architectural beliefs, from a human perspective, POSSE is extra vital than federation. Moreover, if federated approaches take a POSSE strategy first, they are going to seemingly get higher adoption (everybody desires to remain in contact with their buddies), and thereby extra quickly strategy that federated future.

POSSE is past running a blog. It is a key a part of why and the way the IndieWeb motion is different from simply “everybody weblog on their very own web site”, and likewise completely different from “everybody simply set up and run (YourFavoriteSocialSoftware)” and so forth. monoculture options.

Why In Basic

POSSE is taken into account a sturdy and preferable syndication mannequin for the next causes:

  • Cut back third occasion dependence. By posting on to your personal web site, you are not depending on third Social gathering companies to take action — in the event you can entry your web site, you may publish your content material. Quite the opposite with PESOS, when the 3rd party site is down, you might be unable so as to add content material.
  • Possession. By posting first by yourself web site, you create a direct possession chain that may be traced again to you with none intervening third occasion companies (silos) TOS’s getting in the best way (which is a vulnerability of PESOS).
  • Personal canonical URLs to your content material. Canonical URLs to your content material are in your area.
  • Copies can cite the unique. By posting content material first to your personal web site (and thus making a permalink for it), copies that you simply put up on third Social gathering companies can hyperlink or cite the unique in your web site (see syndication_formats and POSSE Notes to Twitter)
  • Higher search. Looking out public content material by yourself area (with any net search engine of your selection) works higher than relying on silos solely to go looking your posts (e.g. Twitter for some time solely confirmed current tweets in search outcomes. Facebook nonetheless has very poor search outcomes).
  • backfeed can be utilized to drag in (reverse syndicate) responses from different companies
  • permits benefiting from different companies’ social layers and aggregation options whereas storing the canonical copy of your content material by yourself web site

Why Hyperlink To Your Unique

Widespread POSSE observe is to hyperlink from POSSE copies to your authentic, utilizing a permashortlink. Listed here are just a few explanation why:

  • Discovery of your authentic content material. discovery of your authentic content material from the copies on third occasion companies is enabled by the permashortlinks to your originals posted on stated companies
  • Subvert spammers who copy your posts. When spammers (e.g. @sin3rss) mindlessly copy out of your POSSE copies and repost, additionally they copy the hyperlink again to the unique, and thus present extra distribution for folks to search out and consider your authentic put up. “2011-01-09 internet aikido” of a kind.
  • Higher rating on your authentic posts. If/when your POSSE copies are themselves copied by others and (re)posted elsewhere (e.g. guide retweets, RSS bots and so forth.), when the copies hyperlink to your authentic posts, search engines like google and yahoo determine that out by following these hyperlinks again to the unique and rating it larger.

How one can

How one can implement

This part is for net builders implementing POSSE.

In Basic

Normally, when your content material posting software program posts one thing, it must also put up a duplicate to the silo locations of your selection, with an original post link (e.g. permashortlink or permashortcitation) again to your authentic.

The small print of how to take action range per vacation spot. See the silo-specific sections beneath.

After you have posted the copy to the silo, it is best to:

  • hyperlink to the syndicated copy from the unique in a posts-elsewhere part in your put up.

Consumer Interface

One of the best person interface (UI) is automated, reliable, and invisible. Should you can implement POSSEing in a manner that all the time does precisely what you need, predictably, then no specific UI is required.


A method to supply extra predictability and encourage confidence is to indicate what will likely be POSSEd (inside the limitations of the vacation spot) as a preview earlier than publishing

(wants screenshot)


Twitter is probably the preferred POSSE vacation spot and place to start out.

If you can begin posting notes (tweets) to your personal web site and POSSEing to Twitter, as an alternative of posting on to Twitter, you have got taken a giant step in direction of proudly owning your knowledge.


  • API Entry – posting new tweets works properly because of everlasting API tokens, and the return worth comprises a URL to the posted
    • As of 2022-11, Twitter is rejecting new API entry for functions used to POSSE/backfeed on the grounds that they might violate twitter’s guidelines and/or insurance policies — Barnaby Walters
  • Helps very full net motion endpoints, so semi-manual posting is straightforward to implement
    • What are these endpoints? Is that this nonetheless the case in 2022? — Barnaby Walters

See POSSE to Twitter for particulars on how you can POSSE each notes and articles (weblog posts) to Twitter.


There are two choices for POSSEing to Fb presently:



  • How does do it? (all his articles are manually POSSEd to
  • Chris Aldrich makes use of a WordPress plugin WordPress Crosspost to POSSE from a self-hosted WordPress set up to

Plain Textual content Notes

Some locations (e.g. SMS or push notifications) could require a pure plain textual content illustration.

Software program

Software program and libraries to implement POSSE:

  • PHP
    • The POSSE namespace in php-helpers (is perhaps moved to a separate package deal) comprises numerous truncation, preparation and syndication features together with HTML => plaintext µblog syntax converter
  • Python
    • SiloRider is a command-line instrument, applied in Python, that permits you to implement POSSE to varied companies (Twitter and Mastodon as of 2018-08-01).
    • Feed2Toot is one other command-line python instrument that parses any variety of RSS feeds and posts their content material on ActivityPub based mostly companies (examined with: Mastodon, Pleroma). Comprises some neat bells and whistles like superior put up filtering, quite a few choices for feed parsing and toot formatting.


  • Bridgy Publish is POSSE-as-a-service. It helps Twitter, Flickr, GitHub and Mastodon. You need to use it interactively or programmatically by way of webmention.
  • Mugged Tweets – will POSSE a notice to a mug (could require first POSSEing to Twitter)
  • IFTTT permits mechanically reposting content material with an RSS or Atom feed to quite a few silos incuding Twitter, Tumblr, and Fb

Publishing Flows

There’s at the very least two methods to implement a POSSE content material posting circulation:

Consumer to web site to silo
  • The person writes a chunk of content material utilizing a publishing consumer
    • Non-obligatory: consumer offers UI for choosing which third occasion companies to push to if it is aware of about them, with elective customizations for per service
  • Having completed the content material, the person publishes content material to their server (optionally: with metadata of which third occasion companies and any customizations thereof)
    • Non-obligatory: consumer can generate a permalink understanding the state of the server, and publish to that permalink
  • The server publishes the content material, generates a permalink and abstract (and/or personalized content material suited to third occasion companies) if essential
  • The server posts copies with permalinks to third occasion companies


  • Consumer solely has to work together with one web site over the web, their very own
  • Syndication will be performed absolutely mechanically by the server


Consumer to web site and silo
  • The person writes a chunk of content material utilizing a publishing consumer
  • Having completed the content material, the person publishes it to their server
  • The consumer queries the server for the URL of the content material it simply pushed
  • The publishing consumer presents the person with an interface for choosing:
    • Which third occasion companies to publish to
    • The precise content material revealed to the companies, pre-filled with a abstract based mostly on the produced content material
  • The person selects the companies and submits the shape
  • The publishing consumer posts the content material summaries out to the third occasion companies


  • Extra person management over timing and modifying of copies of content material to third occasion companies


  • Syndication requires a guide step every time
  • Depending on consumer connectivity on to third occasion companies (problematic in flakey cellular conditions, or when consumer is publishing utilizing domain-censored web entry).

IndieWeb Examples

The next IndieWebCamp individuals’ websites help a POSSE structure. When you have an implementation, add it, make screenshots or a screencast or weblog about it and put up the main points/hyperlink right here. In date order (earliest first) :

Tantek as of 2010-01-01[1] (2010-01-26 Twitter syndication began[2] and caught up[3][4]). Tantek Çelik applied POSSE in Falcon on

  • all self-hosted posts are brazenly with PuSH v0.4 + h-feed and Atom real-time syndicated with a PubsubHubbub hub to StatusNet, different subscribers and so forth. (additionally to Google Buzz til it shutdown)
  • note (and article titles), reply, RSVP posts are snowflake copied by the non-public web site server to Twitter with permashortlink quotation hyperlinks/references (see Whistle for particulars) again to the unique. Copies of notes to Twitter are additionally mechanically recopied from there to Fb.
    • RSVPs to Fb occasions are “copied” (extra like propagated) to Fb utilizing Bridgy publish
  • likes of tweets are “copied” (extra like propagated) to Twitter utilizing Bridgy publish

Barnaby Walters as of 2012-03-12. Barnaby Walters applied POSSE over at

  • as of 2012-09-25 all collections (notes, articles, exercise) are PuSH-subscribable feeds.
  • Utilizing the Consumer to Server to third Events circulation — 06:08, 25 September 2012 (PDT)
  • Syndicating to Twitter + Fb
  • As of 2014-06-19 Taproot can now optionally put up extra POSSE tweets when updating a notice or article — instance of updated note and POSSE tweet for the update. Be aware that Bridgy efficiently backfeeds silo interactions from the replace tweet in addition to the unique POSSE tweet

Brennan Novak as of 2012-07-01[5][6]. Brennan Novak applied POSSE on his web site with copies posted to Twitter and Fb

Aaron Parecki as of 2012-08-19[7][8]. Aaron Parecki applied POSSE on his web site with copies posted to Twitter containing permashortlinks again to originals on his personal web site.

Sandeep Shetty First put up POSSE’d on 2012-11-05. I primarily syndicate to Twitter utilizing a really lo-fi resolution of including silo (Fb, Twiiter, Google+) offered share hyperlinks to every put up that I can manually click on to prefill content material, edit and put up. I’ve prevented API integration due to the intensive expertise I’ve had utilizing Fb API and coping with it is random modifications. “Integration” has excessive prices generally so I hold it so simple as doable.

Ben Werdmuller as of 2013-05-31 [9]. Ben Werdmuller applied POSSE in his idno platform by way of plugins. New content material has an related Exercise Streams object kind; POSSE plugins hear for put up occasions related to these object varieties and syndicate appropriately.

  • Notes and articles are syndicated to Twitter and Fb
  • Pictures are syndicated to Fb, Flickr and Twitter
  • Locations are syndicated to Foursquare
  • Extra plugins are very simply doable; the Foursquare plugin took about an hour to construct

Shane Becker

  • Shane Becker utilizing Dark Matter on (since 2013-07-17[10]) with automated rel-syndication markup on guide POSSEing:

Glenn Jones as of 2014-01-14 Glenn Jones The weblog applied POSSE utilizing a brand new model of system. New content material added to transmat is related to objects varieties. A POSSE twitter plugins listens for put up occasions syndicating content material. At second solely notes are syndicated.

Jeremy Keith as of 2014-05-27 Jeremy Keith has applied POSSE utilizing his personal customized CMS.

Shane Hudson as of 2014-09-19 Shane Hudson has applied POSSE to Twitter for Craft CMS.

  • Beforehand engaged on WordPress however he was not eager on the UX.
  • Has reply contexts working however has to manually copy the ID.
  • Not but POSSEing pictures however plans to.
  • At the moment he has to manually copy the tweet from the principle textual content field to a 140 character restrict tweet textual content field. He plans to make that automated.

Ravi Sagar Implementing POSSE on my web site as of 2018-02-21.

  • The brand new blogs and notes are posted on Drupal
  • RSS Feed is generated for the blogs and notes tagged with “Share” key phrase
  • Utilizing Rebrandly to create shortlinks for the RSS Feed
  • Utilizing Zapier to share the newly created rebrandly hyperlinks to Twitter and Linkedin

Ludovic Chabant as of 2018-07-30 Ludovic Chabant has implement POSSE to Twitter and Mastodon from PieCrust CMS, utilizing SiloRider

  • SiloRider is CMS impartial — it solely depends on Microformats discovered within the revealed markup.
  • New articles are posted as title and hyperlink.
  • New microblogging updates are largely copied verbatim (if the match the exterior service’s character limits), and help photograph posts, together with multi-photo posts.

Adam Dawkins as of 2019-01-16 Adam Dawkins has applied POSSE utilizing his personal customized CMS.

  • Notes have been POSSEd since he first began posting them on his personal web site, on 2019-01-16


Shaun Ewing as of 2020-01-16 Shaun Ewing has applied POSSE utilizing Jekyll, and customized APIs.


capjamesg has been syndicating his notes from his personal web site to:

  • Twitter utilizing
  • micro.weblog utilizing micro.weblog’s feed polling system
  • The fediverse utilizing

This syndication occurs mechanically at any time when James posts a notice utilizing his Micropub consumer or his Microsub feed reader.

… add extra right here …

… Add a hyperlink to your POSSE–enabled web site and the date you began syndicating copies of your content material out to third occasion social sharing/publishing companies.

Partial POSSE websites

Websites which solely POSSE a few of their content material, and nonetheless put up on to the identical silo they POSSE to.

Different partial POSSE websites:

  • implements a partial POSSE with the next setups:
    • SNSAPI is a light-weight middleware to unify the information construction and interfaces of various social networking companies. It offers the scripting flexibility for developer customers to control social silos.
    • SNSRouter is an internet UI constructed upon SNSAPI the place one can learn an aggregated timeline from completely different websites, mass ahead messages, and replace statuses on all channels.
    • As is claimed in one of many description paragraph above, this mannequin just isn’t really POSSE. One cannot (hardly) distinguish authentic/ syndicated standing. I am planning to place a web page with permlink on my web site upon every standing replace after which use SNSAPI to syndicate to different silos.

Different Approaches


The same however reverse strategy is PESOS the place content material is posted first to third occasion companies after which copied/syndicated into a private web site.

If actual copies of content material are posted on each a private web site and third occasion companies, there is no approach to inform (wanting evaluating presumably non-existent sub-second correct revealed dates) whether or not a web site is utilizing POSSE or PESOS. Websites can provably help POSSE by together with perma(quick)hyperlinks in syndicated copies that hyperlink/reference again to revealed originals.


PESETAS is like PESOS however copying/syndicating all the pieces to a selected silo (with none involvement of a private web site).

For instance, most silos help cross-posting to Twitter, thus you possibly can join all the pieces to your Twitter account and all the time (auto-)cross-post there to make a copy.

E.g. Tumblr has a UI for cross-posting to Twitter. See Webapps StackExchange post for documentation and screenshots of UI.

Tumblr is a greater PESETAS vacation spot nonetheless, since it’s effectively established, permits for a greater variety of content material, and permits extra textual content, and hyperlinks to URLs straight as an alternative of linkwrapping them like Twitter does.



All the above, and so far (2013-222), POSSE has solely described syndicating the Creation of content material in your web site (publishing) to different websites. This mannequin has been fairly profitable and maybe could also be enough.

Nevertheless, it’s value exploring the potential utility of a full CRUD protocol for POSSE.


Create is the POSSE default. You create content material in your web site, you POSSE your creates to different websites. All of that is described above, and in silo-specific particulars on silo pages.


Learn as a verb is fascinating when utilized to POSSE.

At a minimal, it is helpful to implement storing hyperlinks to syndicated copies of your content material to supply for the long run risk of studying from downstream POSSE copies.


Precise direct makes use of of Studying from downstream POSSE copies:

See Also

  • reverse-syndication / backfeed of exercise across the POSSE copy onto your authentic:

As well as, holding a u-syndication hyperlink to the POSSE copy allows deleting it to carry out an Replace or a Delete motion, as described within the following sections.


If a POSSE vacation spot permits updates/edits, then if you edit your put up, you possibly can propagate that replace to the downstream POSSE copy as effectively.

  • E.g. Facebook permits modifying the textual content of a put up (together with any hyperlinks within the textual content), individual tags, however not the picture of a photograph put up

If the vacation spot disallows updates/edits, like Twitter, it’s nonetheless doable to nearly POSSE updates by deleting the POSSE tweet and reposting, i.e.:

Contemplate solely POSSEing updates to Twitter:

  • if nobody has replied to it but (in any other case you’d break a threaded dialog on Twitter)
  • in case your modifications can be proven within the truncated copy on Twitter (i.e. in case your modifications are previous the 140 (extra like 120) character horizon, no level in churning the Twitter copy).
  • inside a really quick time window, possibly like 2-5 minutes, as a result of in any other case the replace will likely be seen as a replica to people who find themselves studying you on Twitter.

All of those considerations are concerning the expertise that you simply present to your folks studying your tweets on Twitter, which after all must be the entire (design) purpose you are bothering to POSSE to Twitter within the first place.

For particulars, see silo-specific POSSE sections:

  • Facebook: POSSE to Facebook (to-do: wants particulars re: edit textual content okay, however no photograph modifying, photograph posts want delete/repost to simulate POSSE replace)
  • Flickr: (UI helps manually updating the picture of a photograph put up, however is that accessible within the API? and in that case, file a Bridgy Publish characteristic request GitHub problem to help POSSE Replace to Flickr (together with the picture of a photograph put up)
  • Twitter: POSSE to Twitter (to-do: copy the above delete/repost technique to there)


Deletes appear pretty simple to POSSE, particularly to companies which themselves propagate deletes to shoppers.

E.g. one can delete a notice on Twitter at any level.

Much like updates, take into account:

  • if there are already replies to a POSSE copy (or exercise like favorites/retweets), take into account holding it to maintain dialog threading (and others’ favorites/retweets).

Nevertheless, in the event you actually really feel like deleting the content material out of your web site and POSSE copies (e.g. on Twitter), go forward and achieve this.

Maybe this is a chance for the UI for the deletion of a put up to test to see if there’s been any exercise (replies, favorites, retweets) on the POSSE copy earlier than performing the delete. One doable implementation might contain the UI informing the person of this exercise (or lack of it) and reconfirming the delete request on a per-service foundation.

IndieWeb Examples

  • Grant Richmond helps POSSE deletes on twitter as of 2018-10-10, by checking if a put up on his web site has been unpublished / deleted and sending the suitable api request for likes, reposts and notes.


Fear about search engines like google and yahoo and duplicates

Q: Do we have to fear about search engines like google and yahoo penalizing apparently duplicate posts?

A: That is why the POSSE copies SHOULD all the time hyperlink again to the originals. In order that search engines like google and yahoo can infer that the copies are simply copies. Ideally POSSE copies on silos ought to use rel-canonical to hyperlink again to the originals, however even with out specific rel-canonical, the express hyperlink again to the unique is a robust trace that it’s an authentic.

That is additionally a bonus of POSSE over PESOS. With PESOS – there is no approach to inform what is the authentic and what is the copy – so that they do appear to be duplicates.

POSSE-post-discovery and backlinks

Q: can use posse-post-discovery to search out the connection between a syndicated put up and the unique when there may be not specific hyperlink. Does this imply I ought to cease including backlinks to syndicated copies?

A: POSSEing and not using a backlink is taken into account a final resort, and has some prices related to it. See posse-post-discovery#Tradeoffs for extra particulars.

POSSE or Ship Webmentions First

Briefly, POSSE first, then ship webmentions.

See: Webmention FAQ: POSSE or Send Webmentions First for particulars and reasoning.


Associated conceptually:

  • someday earlier than 2014-06-21[11]: POSE (Publish As soon as Syndicate In all places) time period outlined sooner or later previous to POSSE. Conceptually it was looser than POSSE, as “as soon as” might be interpreted as on a silo slightly than your “personal web site”, which POSSE (and the conceptual predecessors) made specific.


Articles and weblog posts about POSSE, particularly implementing it:

  • Chloe Weil: Hipster
  • Sebastian Greger An audience/context-conscious POSSE syndication plugin for WordPress
  • Scott Gilbertson (Ars Technica) How Google’s AMP project speeds up the Web—by sandblasting HTML
    […] this nudges publishers towards an concept that’s massive within the IndieWeb motion: Publish (in your) Personal Website, Syndicate Elsewhere (or POSSE for brief).

    The thought is to personal the canonical copy of the content material by yourself web site however then to ship that content material all over the place you may. Or slightly, all over the place you wish to attain your readers. Fb On the spot Article? Positive, hook up the RSS feed. Apple Information? Ship the feed over there, too. AMP? Positive, generate an AMP web page. No must cease there—faucet the brand new Medium API and half a dozen others as effectively.

    Studying is a fragmented expertise. Some folks will love studying on the Net, some by way of RSS of their favourite reader, some in Fb On the spot Articles, some by way of AMP pages on Twitter, some by way of Lynx of their terminal working on a restored TRS-80 (critically, it may be performed. See beneath). The fantastic thing about the POSSE strategy is that you could attain all of them from a single, canonical supply.


    For the Net’s sake, let’s hope Google sticks with AMP lengthy sufficient to persuade publishers that the actual future is dashing up their very own pages and embracing a POSSE-style strategy.

  • 2018-07-31 Ben Werdmüller: Stepping back from POSSE (archived)

POSSE as methodology for non-web situations

POSSE git repositories

As mentioned #indieweb it’s also doable POSSE your git repositories to git “silos”, reminiscent of GitHub or GitLab. A straightforward manner of doing this was described by Christian Weiske at [12].


See Additionally

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