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Regional handwriting variation – Wikipedia

Regional handwriting variation – Wikipedia

2023-07-01 18:50:42

Though folks in lots of elements of the world share widespread alphabets and numeral techniques (variations of the Latin writing system are used all through the Americas, Australia, and far of Europe and Africa; the Arabic numerals are almost common), kinds of handwritten letterforms differ between people, and generally additionally differ systematically between areas.

Arabic numerals[edit]

The handwritten numerals utilized in Western international locations have two widespread kinds:

  • “In-line” or “full-height” type is just like that used on typewriters and is taught in North America; on this type all numerals have the identical peak because the majuscule alphabet (i.e. the capital letters).
  • In “previous fashion” text figures, numerals 0, 1 and 2 are x-height; numerals 6 and 8 have bowls inside x-height, plus ascenders; numerals 3, 5, 7 and 9 have descenders from x-height, with 3 resembling ʒ; and the numeral 4 extends a brief distance each up and down from x-height. Outdated-style numerals are sometimes utilized by British presses.

Except for these two essential kinds, different regional variations abound.

The numeral 0: Some writers put a diagonal slash via the numeral 0 (zero), a observe that was used on some early, low-resolution laptop terminals which displayed a slashed “zero” glyph to differentiate it from the capital letter O. This observe conflicts with the usage of the letter “Ø” within the Danish and Norwegian languages, and the empty set character “∅” utilized in set theory. Types that keep away from confusion with Danish embrace:

  • a dot positioned within the centre of zero, however needing to be distinguished from monocular O (Ꙩ/ꙩ), the bilabial click letter (ʘ), or the Gothic letter hwair (????)
  • the usage of a tick, that’s, a slash that doesn’t cross your entire bowl of the determine, however lies utterly within the higher proper
  • a type present in Germany with a vertical slash
  • a type with a slash from higher left to decrease proper.

Confusion between the numeral 0 and the letter O will be resolved by utilizing a script letter O (with a loop on the prime).[1]

Handwriting variations, numeral 1.svg

The numeral 1: This numeral is typically written with a serif on the prime extending downward and to the left. Individuals in some elements of Europe lengthen this stroke almost the entire distance to the baseline. It’s generally written with a horizontal serif on the base; with out the serif it may resemble the form of the numeral 7, which has a near-vertical stroke and not using a crossbar, and a shorter horizontal prime stroke. This numeral is commonly written as a plain vertical line with out an ear on the prime; this way is definitely confused with a capital I, a lower-case L, and a vertical bar |.[2]

The numeral 2: Within the U.S., Germany and Austria, a curly model was taught and continues to be utilized by many in handwriting. This two will be confused with a capital script Q, or the letter Z. It seems as ੨.

The numeral 3: This numeral is typically written with a flat prime, just like the character Ʒ (ezh). This type is typically used to forestall folks from fraudulently altering a 3 into an eight (however introduces the potential for confusion with ezh or with cursive Z). It’s usually written with a mixture of two reversed or turned small letter “c”-like curves, just like the Cyrillic character З (ze) or a reversed or turned Latin letter epsilon (ɛ), with out the flat prime.

Handwriting variations, numeral 4.svg

The numeral 4: Some folks depart the highest “open”: all of the traces are both vertical or horizontal, as in a seven-segment display. This makes it simpler to differentiate from the numeral 9. Whether or not the horizontal bar terminates at or crosses the proper vertical bar is insignificant within the West, however to be distinguished from sure Chinese language characters (notably ), it should cross.

The numeral 5: In Taiwan, the left vertical bar is prolonged upwards as a protracted stem. If that is slanted, the general determine could extra carefully resemble an uppercase Y. If casually written it may be confused with the letter S.

The numeral 6: Will be confused with a letter capital G, or the lowercase b, or the 9 if inverted.[3] In conditions the place the quantity 6 could seem at numerous angles (resembling on billiard balls, some kinds of taking part in playing cards and cube), it may be underlined (showing as 6) or adopted by a full cease (showing as 6.) to point the correct viewing angle to disambiguate between 6 and 9; a 9 could or could not seem with related underlining or full cease (as 9 or 9.). It may also be written with a straight line quite than a curly line on prime, showing as b.

The numeral 7: The normal type present in copperplate penmanship begins with a serif on the higher left and has a wavy horizontal stroke (like a swash). In East Asian international locations (Korea, China and Japan), this numeral is usually written with such a serif, however no swash and no crossbar via the center. It’s normally written with simply two strokes, the highest horizontal and the (normally angled) vertical. A brief horizontal bar is typically used to cross the vertical within the center, to differentiate the seven from a numeral one, particularly in cultures (resembling French) that write 1 with a really lengthy upstroke. This type is used generally all through continental Europe, elements of the USA and continuously in Australia. In Taiwan two horizontal bars are generally used, though an extra-long serif is the characteristic which most clearly distinguishes 7 from 1. When the cross is added within the heart it may trigger confusion with a script capital F.

The numeral 8: Some folks write this numeral like two circles. Different folks write this numeral in a single steady movement, which makes it seem like two tear drops or a sideways lemniscate.

The numeral 9: In elements of Europe, this numeral is written with the vertical ending in a hook on the backside. This model resembles how the lowercase g is usually written (Rhv m g1.png). Elsewhere the same old form is to attract the vertical straight to the baseline. A 9 could or could not seem with underlining or full cease (as 9 or 9.) so as to keep away from confusion with 6. In China, southern Taiwan, and South Korea, the 9 is typically written with the loop to the left of the stick, resembling a lowercase “q” with the loop on the cap line.

The Latin writing system[edit]

The lowercase letter a: This letter is commonly handwritten because the single-storey “ɑ” (a circle and a vertical line adjoining to the proper of the circle) as a substitute of the double-storey “a” discovered in lots of fonts. (See: A#Typographic variants)

The lowercase letter g: In Polish, this letter is commonly rendered with a straight descender and not using a hook or loop. This successfully signifies that a handwritten g seems to be very like a q in different writing traditions. The letter q, which is barely utilized in overseas phrases and is extraordinarily uncommon, is then disambiguated from g by including a serif (usually undulated) extending to the proper from the underside tip of the descender.

The lowercase letter p: The French method of scripting this character has a half-way ascender because the vertical extension of the descender, which additionally doesn’t full the bowl on the backside. In early Finnish writing, the curve to the underside was omitted, thus the ensuing letter resembled an n with a descender (like ꞃ).

The lowercase letter q: In block letters, some Europeans wish to cross the descender to forestall confusion with the numeral 9, which additionally will be written with a straight stem. In North America the descender usually ends with a hook curving as much as the proper (Rhv m q1.png). In Polish, the lowercase q is disambiguated from g by a serif extending from the underside tip of the descender to the proper.

The lowercase letter s: See long s.

The lowercase letter t: In block letters, t is commonly written with straight mark with out the hook backside. In fashionable cursive, the descender usually ends with a hook to the proper.

The lowercase letters u and v: These letters have a typical origin and have been as soon as written in keeping with the placement within the phrase quite than the sound. The v got here first; the u initially had a loop extending to the left and was solely used to start out phrases. All different places for both u or v have been written with the latter. In Germany (particularly southern Germany), Austria and Switzerland, lowercase u is commonly written with a horizontal stroke or swish over it (ŭ, ū, ũ), to differentiate it from n. (cf. German orthography#handwritten umlauts)

The uppercase letter I: This letter is commonly written with one stroke on the highest of the letter and one on the underside. This distinguishes it from the lowercase letter l, and the numeral 1, which is commonly written as a straight line with out the ear.

The uppercase letter J: In Germany, this letter is commonly written with a protracted stroke to the left on the prime. That is to differentiate it from the capital letter “I”.

The uppercase letter S: In Japan, this letter is commonly written with a single serif added to the tip of the stroke.

The uppercase letter Z: This letter is normally written with three strokes. In elements of Europe resembling Italy, Germany and Spain, it’s generally written with a brief horizontal crossbar added via the center. This model is typically most well-liked in arithmetic to assist distinguish it from the numeral 2. In Polish, the character Ƶ is used as an allographic variant of the letter Ż. In Japan it’s usually written with a brief diagonal crossbar via the center (Rhv z1.png).[4] In France, it’s usually written with a loop on the backside.

See Also

The lowercase letter z: Within the cursive fashion utilized in the USA and most Australian states (excluding South Australia), this letter is written as an ezh (ʒ).[5][6]

Kurrent and Sütterlin script[edit]

German Kurrent and its modernized Twentieth-century faculty model Sütterlin, the type of handwriting taught in faculties and usually utilized in Germany and Austria till it was banned by the Nazis in 1941, was very completely different from that utilized in different European international locations. Nevertheless, it was usually solely used for German phrases. Any overseas phrases included within the textual content would normally be written within the “regular” script, which was known as the lateinische Schrift (Latin script) in German.

Slant is the predominant angle of the downward stroke in handwriting primarily based on Latin script. The slant of a pattern of writing is a characteristic of many regional handwriting variations, and in addition a mirrored image of the copybook that’s taught.


See additionally[edit]


  1. ^ F. Ryckman, Proposed commonplace SHARE character set, SHARE Secretary Distribution 82 compiled into “Towards standards for the Handwritten Zero and Oh” within the ACM Affiliation for Computing Equipment E-newsletter, Vol. 10, No. 8, 1961.
  2. ^ “Misidentification of Alphanumeric Symbols in Both Handwritten and Computer-generated Information”. ISMP Treatment Security Alert!. 2 July 2009. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
  3. ^ Davidson, W. P. (1935). “A study of confusing letters b, d, p, and q”. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
  4. ^ Medical Errors from Misreading Letters and Numbers.
  5. ^ “Handwriting fonts”. Schooling and Coaching, State Authorities of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
  6. ^ “Download Free Handwriting Resources”. Australian Faculty Fonts. Retrieved 2019-10-01.

Additional studying[edit]

Day, Lewis Foreman (1911), Penmanship of the XVI, XVII & XVIIIth Centuries (First ed.), London: B. T. Batsford; New York: C. Scribner’s Sons.

Misidentification of alphanumeric symbols., vol. 5 (1 ed.), ISMP Treatment Security Alert! Acute Care Version, 2000

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