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Roman architectural revolution – Wikipedia

Roman architectural revolution – Wikipedia

2023-04-10 23:30:59

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Concrete revolution

The Roman architectural revolution, also referred to as the concrete revolution,[2] is the title typically given to the widespread use in Roman architecture of the beforehand little-used architectural types of the arch, vault, and dome. For the primary time in historical past,[when?] their potential was totally exploited within the development of a variety of civil engineering buildings, public buildings, and army amenities. These included amphitheatres, aqueducts, baths, bridges, circuses, dams, roads, and temples.

A vital issue on this improvement that noticed a trend to monumental architecture was the invention of Roman concrete (additionally referred to as opus caementicium), which led to the liberation of the form from the dictate of the normal supplies of stone and brick.[3]

For the primary time in recorded historical past we discover proof of an curiosity within the shapes of the area contained robust sufficient to outweigh the practical logic of the masonry lots that contained it. There was nothing new within the employment of curvilinear or polygonal types, as such…However in as far as such buildings integrated curvilinear or polygonal rooms and corridors, the shapes of those had been decided by the type of the constructing as an entire, not by any aesthetic precept.[3]

The event of Roman structure, nevertheless, didn’t stay restricted to those new types and supplies. An unrelated means of architectural innovation continued unabated, which, though much less conspicuous, proved their usefulness for fixing structural issues and located their manner completely into Western structure, such because the lintel arch, the impartial corbel, and the metal-tie.[4]

See Also

In the course of the Age of Augustus, virtually the complete metropolis of Rome was rebuilt inflicting an inflow of craftsman and designers from all throughout Europe. Emperor Augustus aimed to develop new concepts within the development of his buildings that may without end defy the boundaries that had been ever thought attainable. The Mausoleum in Campus Martius was one of many main monuments constructed by Augustus throughout his reign that was made virtually fully of concrete utilizing up to date development strategies. The concrete is utilized in concentric rings that assist the construction of the constructing like partitions. The Theatre of Marcellus was one other concrete triumph accomplished in the course of the Age of Augustus, devoted to the nephew of the emperor. The brick-faced concrete construction development began underneath Julius Caesar however was accomplished underneath Augustus. It was this constructing that reveals the combination of latest concrete constructing strategies of Augustus’s architects versus these of Caesar.[5] The Theatre of Marcellus makes use of a wide range of supplies that help within the development of the concrete revolution utilizing available volcanic stones resembling Tuscolo tuff and Tufo Lionato as aggregates in pozzolanic concretes.

These newly concocted recipes for concrete supplied sturdiness to partitions and barrelled vaults in addition to a singular aesthetic enchantment. The built-in stone and masonry design illustrate a refinement that got here with the concrete revolution on account of the brand new strategies and kinds developed underneath Augustus. The craftsmanship of the Theatre Marcellus demonstrated a talented employment in addition to rigorous technical supervision.[6]

See additionally[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ball, Larry (2003), The Domus Aurea and the Roman Architectural Revolution, Cambridge College Press, ISBN 978-0-521-82251-0
  • Brown, Frank (1961), Roman Structure, George Braziller, pp. 25–31, ISBN 978-08076-0156-3
  • DeLaine, Janet (1990), “Structural Experimentation: The Lintel Arch, Corbel and Tie in Western Roman Structure”, World Archaeology, 21 (3): 407–424 (407), doi:10.1080/00438243.1990.9980116
  • Gardner, Helen (2005), Gardner’s Artwork By The Ages: The Western Perspective, Wadsworth Publishing, p. 170, ISBN 978-0-495-00479-0
  • Jackson, M. D.; Ciancio Rossetto, P.; Kosso, C. Okay.; Buonfiglio, M.; Marra, F. (2011), “Constructing Supplies of the Theatre of Marcellus, Rome”, Archaeometry, 53 (4): 728–742, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2010.00570.x
  • Lechtman, H. N.; Hobbs, L. W. (1987), “Roman Concrete and the Roman Architectural Revolution”, Ceramics and Civilization, vol. 3, pp. 81–128
  • MacDonald, William (1982), The Structure of the Roman Empire (2nd ed.), Yale College Press, pp. 38–46, 141–146, 167–183, ISBN 978-0-300-02819-5
  • McKay, A. G. (1975), Homes, Villas and Palaces within the Roman World, The Johns Hopkins College Press, pp. 130–131
  • Ward-Perkins, J. B. (1956), “Nero’s Golden Home”, Antiquity, 30 (120): 209–219 (217–19), doi:10.1017/S0003598X00026843, S2CID 162484253
  • Ward-Perkins, J. B. (1981), Roman Imperial Architecture (2nd ed.), The Yale College, pp. 97–120, ISBN 978-0-300-05292-3
  • Rook, Tony (1992), Roman Baths in Britain, Osprey Publishing, pp. 18–19, ISBN 978-0-7478-0157-3
  • Sear, Frank (1982), Roman Structure, Cornell College Press, pp. 101–102, ISBN 978-0-8014-9245-7
  • Sear, Frank (1983), Roman Structure, Cornell College Press, pp. 49–85, ISBN 978-08014-9245-7

Additional studying[edit]

  • Adam, Jean-Pierre (2005), Roman Constructing. Supplies and Methods, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-98436-6
  • Lancaster, Lynne (2005), Concrete Vaulted Building in Imperial Rome. Improvements in Context, Cambridge College Press, ISBN 978-0-511-16068-4
  • MacDonald, William (1958), “Some Implications of Later Roman Building”, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Society of Architectural Historians, 17 (4): 2–8, doi:10.2307/987944, JSTOR 987944

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