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Educating Apple Cyberdog 1.0 new tips (that includes OpenDoc)

Educating Apple Cyberdog 1.0 new tips (that includes OpenDoc)

2023-10-15 17:35:58

Within the distant nethermists of time, paperwork as soon as briefly dominated the earth (or at the very least Mac OS), and to that finish I managed to discover a verrry attention-grabbing e-book not too long ago, full with an unopened CD-ROM. However critically, although: what was Apple pondering with that title?

It isn’t this cyberdog (image credit).

Not that cyberdog, although that is one in all my favorite weirdo pinball machines.

Positively not that cyberdog.

However due to all these different cyberdogs, Apple’s personal Cyberdog — a seemingly odd net browser and Web suite with some uncommon capabilities — has since slid into search engine obscurity. Apple had some large plans for it, although, and even wished to provide builders a option to develop their very own elements they might run inside it. Not simply plugins, both: we’re speaking viewers, UI components and even whole protocol handlers, carried out utilizing Apple’s model of OpenDoc embedding.

Cyberdog’s preliminary launch belied some wild modifications afoot, for on this planet it inhabited, the doc advised the system what it wanted to show, and the components throughout the doc displayed it. The doc dominated all. The doc was king.

And all of this got here collectively in a particular Cyberdog software program improvement package, full with instance code and the very first 1.0 launch of the browser. Now that we’ve our PowerBook Duo 2300 rehabilitated, guess what we’re gonna have a look at?

At its core, Cyberdog was actually simply an overgrown demonstration of OpenDoc. We will essentially discover OpenDoc’s underpinnings on this article, however OpenDoc’s primary concept grew from what was initially only a standardized compound doc format to defining a complete object-oriented strategy, the place reusable viewer and editor elements could possibly be pulled as cases into such a doc and preserve their very own views and state. The doc, not the app you have been operating, thus decided its personal performance. Underneath John Sculley this idea grew to become “Venture Amber” in 1993 as a stepping stone to completely realizing Apple’s flavour of Taligent, the bundle of next-generation applied sciences to run on prime of their meant successor to System 7, Pink. Ultimately Taligent was to make use of it as its main compound doc format.

Taligent’s cross-platform focus made the Venture Amber idea cross-platform too: when you had the elements, an OpenDoc doc theoretically may work the identical on any OpenDoc platform. In June 1993 Apple, Novell, IBM and Borland formally introduced OpenDoc, and in September Apple, IBM and Novell, together with a bunch of secondary companions like Adobe, Lotus, Oracle and Taligent itself, established Part Integration Laboratories (CI Labs for brief) as a expertise supplier to assist OpenDoc and different element applied sciences like CORBA. Apple subsequently launched the primary Developer Launch of OpenDoc for System 7.5 in December 1994, with later variations developed by IBM for Home windows 95, NT, OS/2 and AIX.

As System 7 grew lengthy within the tooth, Pink transitioned to Copland and have become infamous for its deeply protracted improvement cycle. Years earlier than its formal demise, it was already painfully clear to Apple administration that Copland would by no means be appropriate to run Taligent on, and Apple couldn’t financially maintain the trouble. After over $100 million then invested to this point in Taligent by the Apple-IBM-HP partnership ($200 million in 2023), Apple minimize itself free and offered their stake in Taligent to IBM in December 1995. OpenDoc thus grew to become the remnant and on the time the one trendy object-oriented framework Apple had left. Apple shipped OpenDoc 1.0 in November 1995.

Regardless of Apple’s efforts to seed the expertise, OpenDoc did not get a whole lot of traction with builders and arguably even much less with customers, who did not perceive what it was good for. It was additionally seen as a direct competitor to Microsoft’s Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) expertise, inflicting Microsoft to wield its formidable inner synergies and powers of FUD to gradual OpenDoc’s market progress additional, irking IBM. Apple started work on OpenDoc Necessities, a set of primary elements for drawing, textual content and multimedia, however this in and of itself did not make a compelling present in comparison with present software program. However, Web suites have been the brand new hotness with finish customers and will present builders with a brand new gross sales phase, so a parallel group labored on one thing one thing OpenDoc one thing Web. In spite of everything, what could possibly be a warmer doc than an Web doc?

Thus was the nucleus of Cyberdog (named for the famous New Yorker cartoon), which entered public beta in February 1996. OpenDoc was in fact an absolute requirement, and no 68K Macs want apply: its first launch was strictly for Energy Macintosh.

This can be a screenshot from the beta displaying Apple’s “Web Pathfinder” dwelling display in Cyberdog, captured off a few of Apple’s instance developer movies. As was modern on the time, the suite had its personal inner “dwelling web page,” centering round Apple-provided providers (primarily hosted on the now-defunct, together with the cyberdog.* Usenet hierarchy), but in addition gathering person bookmarks and historical past into what Cyberdog known as a pocket book and log respectively. We’ll discover these ideas slightly later.

In contrast to most Web suites that both used a pre-rendered picture or some kind of markup language, the Pathfinder was nothing lower than an OpenDoc doc with buttons and GUI components composed from customary elements. Sharp eyes may have observed that the usual Macintosh File menu has been changed with Doc. We’ll come again to that as properly.

The core of Cyberdog beta was the browser, right here viewing (the title doubtless coming as a riff on Amber; this host is now misplaced, and never within the Wayback Machine), which seems to have been‘s direct ancestor. At first blush this does not look too completely different from every other mid-1990’s net browser, and in primary operation it largely is not. The place the expertise will get divergent is when it will get embedded. Additionally be aware of the Cyberdog, Mail/Information and Navigate menus, that are in actual fact offered and pushed by the browser’s elements.

It would not be an Web suite with out different protocols. We’re big fans of Gopherspace round right here, although Cyberdog wasn’t truly a very good Gopher shopper even for the time and is not the primary level of this text. However, out of the field Cyberdog supported Gopher, E-mail, Telnet, Usenet information and FTP as properly. Later variations may additionally view sources made accessible by way of AppleTalk — no HTTP required.

Nevertheless, one attention-grabbing trick it is displaying on this clip is the flexibility to tug and drop information from a Gopher server immediately onto the desktop as downloads. The identical factor works for shopping FTP websites, which from an interface perspective should not be very stunning, since Gopher was (at the very least initially) meant to be a friendlier FTP.

To the very best I can decide, Cyberdog was by no means a part of the Apple Web Connection Package CD-ROM, however it was nonetheless meant to combine with it (right here browsing an early model of AICK’s hub website WebCity). Notably, this construct nonetheless has the normal File, Edit and View menus which have been later eradicated within the beta. By the way, if this seems just like the prototype Cyberdog is operating on Mac OS 8, you are proper, besides this video is dated over a 12 months earlier than Mac OS 8 was formally launched — Apple wasn’t almost so secretive about future product leaks in these days. Additionally word that no matter pre-release construct of Mac OS 8 (7.7?) this was, it nonetheless had the System 7-era assist icon as a substitute of 8.0’s textual content Assist menu, and it actually wasn’t Copland.

Cyberdog reached 1.0 in Might 1996, however earlier than we get to truly operating it, let’s now spend a second speaking about OpenDoc’s internals.

OpenDoc elements, in OpenDoc lingo, are known as “components.” On the system degree, an OpenDoc half was primarily based on Apple’s implementation of IBM’s System Object Mannequin, a language-independent specification for object-oriented programming. IBM meant to make use of SOM all through its whole product line, most notably OS/2 the place it’s an integral portion of the Workplace Shell, and a few portion of it stays in z/OS by way of OS/390. It was designed for a pervasively object-oriented world the place purposes written in a single language would want to instantiate objects doubtlessly written in one other, and purposes utilizing such libraries would want to have an answer for the fragile binary interface problem or these libraries couldn’t be simply upgraded. To cope with these and different pitfalls, SOM had an interface definition language for describing strategies, made late-binding necessary in order that the runtime linker may mechanically apply fixups (at a startup efficiency value), offered extra object-oriented options than competing applied sciences corresponding to Microsoft COM — a/okay/a ActiveX — like a number of inheritance, metaclasses and dynamic dispatch, and supported bindings theoretically in any programming language (although C was the one one ever carried out). There was a whole lot of potential there, however many builders did not make the most of these options, and improvement of a element may contain a whole lot of boilerplate code. We’ll see this quickly sufficient.

Aside from extra summary lessons, concrete OpenDoc components fell mainly into two classes, specifically editors and viewers. Elements could possibly be hosted inside container purposes that introduced the doc which the half cases inhabited. Inside such paperwork, that they had a stacking order and will even clip or masks one another for complicated results. Nevertheless, this additionally meant container apps at minimal needed to be OpenDoc-aware and common purposes could not use them with out modification, one in all OpenDoc’s many issues, although OpenDoc offered a default shell out of the field that components may run in to keep away from a chicken-and-egg state of affairs. Half interfaces weren’t restricted to their spatial boundaries throughout the doc; an energetic half may additionally create international UI components, most notably menus. The Cyberdog, Mail/Information and Navigate menus above have been from Cyberdog’s navigator half operating in a doc that contained solely it. In additional complicated paperwork, OpenDoc components needed to all play good with one another very like common Mac OS purposes, which tended to amplify the already present deficiencies within the basic Mac OS’s restricted multitasking.

It was additionally attainable to bootstrap a doc from scratch with an energetic half able to go. System 7 launched the idea of stationery, the place a doc could possibly be saved as a template to create different paperwork, and OpenDoc expanded on this notion. For this and a lot of the remainder of the article, we’ll exhibit on the Duo 2300, operating Mac OS 8.1, which bundles OpenDoc 1.2.1 as a part of the working system.

Let’s take the venerable BBEdit Lite for example, which briefly existed as a fully-functional OpenDoc editor half known as BBEdit Lite·od. The Editors folder contained in the System Folder incorporates the varied energetic OpenDoc elements. You’ll be able to simply drag libraries out and in of it and OpenDoc will replace its components stock as vital; you needn’t restart the Mac. From BBEdit Lite·od, which does not precisely roll off the tongue, we dropped within the editor half and the Mercutio shell plugin it requires (equal with the Mercutio MDEF used for enhanced pull-down menus), and copied over the included stationery to the OpenDoc Stationery folder.

Like common Mac OS stationary acts as a doc manufacturing facility (like tearing sheets off a steno pad), OpenDoc stationery acts for example manufacturing facility. Stationery may be dragged (“torn off”) into present paperwork or, if supported, immediately opened to make new paperwork containing them. Conveniently you’ll be able to create paperwork from stationery proper within the Apple menu, or from the OpenDoc Stationery folder: since BBEdit Lite·od is a fully-fledged editor, opening its stationery will pop open a model new doc solely pushed by the BBEdit half.

Whereas OpenDoc has offered the brand new doc with a default container utility (known as the doc shell), this doc has only one half, and that half is all BBEdit. The editor half is ready to current almost its whole customary interface, even an About merchandise within the Apple menu.

Nonetheless, to customers a course of like this might look solely like a brand new and bizarre option to create paperwork; there’s nothing “compound” about what we simply did and no new capabilities have been clearly unlocked. Whilst you may actually put a BBEdit half into one other compound doc, that form of defeats the aim of a easy textual content editor. Naked Bones Software program by no means went any additional with the proof of idea, even earlier than OpenDoc began circling the drain, however Apple had different demos to indicate off.

On this demonstration, an interactive physics demo is a part of a compound doc with a dwell view and a “film controller” that manipulates the simulation’s time index. This product was known as Dock’Em and was truly offered and utilized in schooling. Take that, Jupyter notebooks.

One other demonstration doc was this one utilizing a dwell database viewer half; the opposite UI components on the doc have been additionally components. Right here Cyberdog’s browser element has moreover been embedded to permit the person to lookup the footwear listed within the database desk (utilizing, Jedi being one other early code title for OpenDoc).

An excessive instance is likely to be this one: this screenshot exhibits two pre-release packages, the OpenDoc-enabled model of ClarisWorks 5.0, codenamed “Mars” (ultimately scuttled on this kind and reworked into the non-OpenDoc AppleWorks 5.0 in 1997) operating on the pre-release model of Mac OS 8 we noticed earlier than. There are two Cyberdog-provided sections right here, the browser and a button above it, plus the opposite items of the doc created conventionally in ClarisWorks. We’ll play with each of these components in a while.

This results in an apparent query: what when you get a doc and do not have the components put in in your laptop to view what’s embedded in it? This is similar state of affairs individuals would have confronted with embedded net content material requiring a separate plugin; you’d want a plugin finder service to see what may deal with that exact MIME kind. Merchandise like Kantara’s Half Service provider have been meant to behave like an app retailer for OpenDoc components, permitting builders to buy and obtain components on demand, whereas their PM Finder would dynamically search out appropriate viewers and editors when an unsupported portion of a doc was encountered.

This screenshot was strictly a mockup from one in all their product circulars; PartMerchant remodeled into PartBank, which supplied not solely OpenDoc components — here’s their entry for BBEdit — but in addition Java, ActiveX and Netscape NSAPI Plugin downloads. It fizzled out late in 1997, turning into Java specialist Flashline, and was subsequently purchased out by Solar.

Failing these types of providers, such content material could possibly be referred to an present half on the system that advertises assist for it (a number of components to deal with the identical kind of content material could possibly be current on one laptop), or the content material would possibly embody cached knowledge in a normal format corresponding to PICT that the system may show, or fallback textual content explaining the wanted half may be proven to the person.

Now that we perceive a bit extra of what is occurring below the hood, let’s get again to Cyberdog. Nevertheless, first we’ll must make it a bit extra secure. Whereas OpenDoc was already considerably memory-hungry, you will see that the Cyberdog expertise considerably much less bumpy with greater allocations.

Earlier than doing the rest, go to the OpenDoc Setup management panel and improve the default doc measurement to at the very least 1440K, ideally 2048K. This may nonetheless match into our Duo 2300 with a full 56MB of bodily RAM and digital reminiscence pumped as much as 64MB. Do not begin OpenDoc at system setup in case one thing goes incorrect.

We’ll now double-click on the Cyberdog Beginning Level (changing the Web Pathfinder) doc’s goofy canine icon to open it from the Finder. The Beginning Level is an OpenDoc doc that incorporates the house display then in vogue for Web suites, however word properly: you could possibly open any doc and use that as your start line as a result of we’re not explicitly opening a Cyberdog utility. There is no spoon utility. The doc drives all by invoking Cyberdog components inside it.

In actual fact, there’s truly no option to open Cyberdog 1.0 immediately besides with a doc containing a Cyberdog half. This was the final Cyberdog launch the place that was true, by the best way.

Apart from a brand new, presumably much less charming title, the buttons and the issues they connect with are the identical. Once more, since Apple has lengthy since decommissioned the Cyberdog dwelling web page and server, a lot of the buttons do not do something anymore.

For instance, this was the Cyberdog 1.0 dwelling web page on Apple’s servers. The Wayback Machine does not have a replica of this earliest incarnation, so these screenshots from the developer documentation are all that survive from it.

Internally, arbitrary particular person browser home windows are OpenDoc paperwork and rendered by the Cyberdog Navigator half, which resides within the Cyberdog Libraries folder throughout the Editors folder we noticed earlier than. Elements can have subparts; Cyberdog’s HTML viewer half is the first subpart inside this window’s navigator, however its satellite tv for pc widgets are additionally components.

This window additionally factors out the present merchandise it is displaying, a core Cyberdog class that incorporates details about a given useful resource (net web page, Usenet newsgroup, E-mail tackle, and so forth). You’ll be able to consider it as a “URL on steroids”: it essentially features a URL, but in addition the title of the useful resource and an icon. Gadgets may be saved to the Finder, the place they act reasonably like bookmarks, or dedicated to different types of storage. When an merchandise is opened, the merchandise determines what Cyberdog half must be instantiated to deal with the useful resource the merchandise refers to.

These “different types of storage” embody Cyberdog notebooks and the log, that are the underside two home windows on this shot. Just like the navigator, the log and pocket book are Cyberdog components as properly. The default pocket book is kind of your bookmarks (to any protocol or service that Cyberdog helps), and the log incorporates your shopping historical past. Every terminal entry within the log and in a pocket book is a Cyberdog merchandise. A “finger” within the log signifies the person’s present place.

The highest window was the Apple-provided search web page on the time which simply forwarded by way of to Digital’s AltaVista, then the cutting-edge in net searches. (Keep in mind the Web earlier than Google? Cyberdog remembers.)

The Doc menu is the true core of Cyberdog, and we’ll have a look at what it means to create a New Doc additional in, however the Cyberdog menu is how you use the browser itself.

Discover there isn’t any Give up within the Doc menu: you give up by closing the doc. The doc, as soon as once more, is every thing.

When you press Command-T or select it from the Cyberdog menu, the Join window seems. You’ll be able to choose any supported protocol from the Service field, or just go to “URL” and enter a URL.

And right here is Cyberdog 1.0 browsing the Floodgap dwelling web page, which I deliberately preserve to be appropriate right down to Netscape Navigator 3.0 or so. Though Cyberdog has SSL assist, it doesn’t assist TLS (as Cyberdog predates TLS 1.0 in 1999), and I used to be not capable of finding a easy option to substitute in Crypto Ancienne. 1.0 is thought to have a infamous bug with proxies and safe websites anyway, which might trigger issues regardless for Crypto Ancienne’s proxied TLS strategy, so maybe we’ll hack on this assist in a future article.

If we choose Doc Information from the Doc menu, it explains extra in regards to the window we’re . Cyberdog Navigator is listed as each its “form” and editor. Sort, on this case, is OpenDoc’s equal of a filetype, normally internally specified to the system as a structured string like +//ISO 9070/ANSI::113722::US::CI LABS::Apple:Cyberdog:SomePart:Sort:SomeThing (together with one other string to be proven to the person, as on this case). There are sorts listed for all of the subparts as properly. The Dimension button allows you to alter the doc’s reminiscence allocation, blurring the strains additional between doc and common Mac utility.

Since Cyberdog was OpenDoc’s most high-profile demonstration utility, and every thing Web was scorching, Apple revealed an SDK shortly after 1.0’s launch in an try to construct a Cyberdog-centric ecosystem round it particularly. Referred to as the Cyberdog Programmer’s Package, that was the e-book I confirmed you again initially.

The Cyberdog 1.0 launch we simply performed briefly with, plus all the films with the beta screenshots, got here on the included disc with an icon that appears like Cujo on dope. It additionally consists of pattern code in C++, headers and libraries. As a result of Cyberdog 1.0 is PowerPC-only, it solely helps producing PowerPC OpenDoc components with an acceptable model of CodeWarrior or MPW. Because the disc consists of CodeWarrior undertaking information, CodeWarrior Gold 9 will do properly for our functions, which was additionally launched in 1996.

Cyberdog has 5 chief lessons, amongst others: the worldwide session (surfaced as an OpenDoc half with no interface) subsuming all open Cyberdog paperwork however not Cyberdog components in different non-Cyberdog paperwork, gadgets, providers to specify a specific protocol, streams to tug down knowledge for that protocol over the community, and show components to indicate that knowledge. Since Web suites typically subdivide their performance by protocol, let’s begin with how a service in Cyberdog for an arbitrary protocol is likely to be carried out.

Once I wish to do a easy Web TCP socket take a look at, my favorite service for instance functions is the finger protocol as set forth in RFC 742 et seq.: we connect with the server, we ship a single ASCII line, the server emits a reply, after which the server disconnects. (In a really actual implementational sense, Gopher is basically the following step up, as additionally it is a single command and reply however provides a structured menu format. A few of you’ll recall exploiting this property to build a Gopher client on the Alpha Micro from a hacked finger shopper.) It is a simple protocol to grasp and construct. Apple should have thought so too, as a result of they embody simply such an instance.

The Finger Service instance is split into three sections: the finger service correct, FSConnect as its linkage into the Cyberdog Join window to request a hostname and username, and FSPrefs for exposing its single desire saved in Web Config (to open the finger connection synchronously or asynchronously, which for the needs of this text we’ll merely handwave away).

Earlier than attempting to construct it, copy the examples to your onerous disk — I simply copied your complete disc over — and repair the entry paths in CodeWarrior, which by default seem like fully clean. The entire vital libraries and headers are included as both a part of CodeWarrior Gold 9 or on the SDK disc itself.

We’ll begin with FingerService. This incorporates every thing you’d assume could be wanted: a subclassed merchandise for references to finger sources and assist for understanding finger URLs, the stream class itself, and a useful resource and handler for an instance menu merchandise. The element is linked in opposition to varied stub dynamic libraries, notably Cyberdog’s stub shared library itself, and quite a lot of OpenDoc stub shlbs. Up to now, so good.

However it’s what else will get rolled into it that raises eyebrows considerably, and these items are unexpectedly linked in statically. Community entry, reasonably than utilizing MacTCP or OpenTransport immediately, makes use of Cyberdog-specific lessons corresponding to a specialised area title resolver and the tcp_endpoint, which is kind of a socket-like entity. These items do not seem like a part of Cyberdog’s shlb — we’ve to compile them in. OpenDoc is even worse, with a mass of utility lessons that additionally aren’t a part of its personal stubs.

The included useful resource file defines a srvc useful resource which factors to straightforward STR# string sources to supply the protocol’s title and URL scheme (finger), the finger service’s C++ class title (AppleCyberdog::FingerService), the finger merchandise’s class title (AppleCyberdog::FingerItem), and the OpenDoc sorts for its Join interface (“+//ISO 9070/ANSI::113722::US::CI LABS::Apple:Cyberdog:FingerSample:Sort:ConnectPanel“) and preferences interface (“+//ISO 9070/ANSI::113722::US::CI LABS::Apple:Cyberdog:FingerSample:Sort:PrefsPanel“). It additionally specifies strings for a single menu merchandise, known as “Finger Beep.”

And that merchandise beeps. Regardless of this being a C++ file, and regardless of implementing a C++ object backing the finger service, this perform is just not C++. FingerService__DoMenuItemSelectednot FingerService::DoMenuItemSelected — is definitely known as by way of SOM to override that methodology in SimpleCyberService (of which FingerService is a subclass), which is why we use a C declaration as a result of the title mangling is completely different and SOM bindings solely exist for C. Something that must be accessible to a SOM name will want a SOM-compatible declaration. Luckily, at the very least the pre-generated header information and stub glue code are all offered for you with the SDK, so you do not want the SOM IDL compiler merely to construct these demo tasks.

This perform takes an AppleCyberdog_FingerService (mainly a this pointer), an SOM Setting pointer, after which the index of the chosen menu merchandise relative to this half’s menu (ranging from 0), a pointer to the OpenDoc body (ODFrame) related to the menu occasion, and a pointer to the service’s menu knowledge (CyberMenuData). Represented in SOM Object IDL, the perform declaration is void DoMenuItemSelected (in lengthy index, in ODFrame body, in CyberMenuData menuData); (the self and atmosphere pointers are implied arguments to each SOM name).

Organising menus themselves isn’t any picnic both. The Cyberdog programmer’s handbook says that “[y]ou should anticipate modifications within the menu bar between activations of your half. You must re-create the menu bar every time your half is activated or its menus are adjusted.” You additionally should deal with deactivating or eradicating the Cyberdog menu when your half loses focus (and activating it once more when it does), and you must enable menu gadgets to regulate themselves and deal with their very own occasions. This turned out to be an exceptionally dangerous design alternative for all types of causes, which we’ll revisit on the finish.

However as soon as we’re previous all that, the precise code to deal with the menu occasion may be very easy and very like dealing with pull-down menus in any other case: if the index is 0, which is the one menu merchandise we offered within the srvc useful resource, then we name the Toolbox SysBeep routine. If we wished extra or completely different menu gadgets, we might add extra strings to the required menu merchandise STR# useful resource, and verify for and deal with these indices right here.

The implementation of the finger URL is fairly simple.

However then we begin getting right into a blizzard of SOM strategies once more after we implement the Cyberdog finger merchandise. There’s a C++ backing object, however every thing else is SOM, subclassing CyberItem. Every part will get overridden. Every part. (So as to add additional insult, ctopstr and pstrcpy deal with conversion between Macintosh Pascal strings and common C strings. You’d assume that might get dealt with for you on this courageous new OpenDoc world, however noooo.)

It will get even worse after we transfer to FSConnect. Since this has to worm itself into the Cyberdog Join window, you’d anticipate a whole lot of SOM-compliant strategies. And that is what you are gonna get, all proper, however we’ve to begin with its underlying C++ class first.

This C++ class handles all of the OpenDoc code to take care of and show its half inside that window, and it is a doozy. Did you anticipate this many strategies? I have never even proven you all of them.

However wait, there’s extra! Now (as a result of SOM does not have direct bindings for C++) we’ve to supply the SOM glue to truly name these C++ strategies. The IDL compiler would generate the scaffolding however you’d nonetheless should labouriously hook all of them up.

There are additionally varied utility strategies …

… a listing iterator (we’ve to supply our personal checklist iterator?) …

… after which this little blob of SOM glue for when the finger CyberItem is definitely generated by the Join window, so we are able to do one thing with it. Discover the pre-processor macros for SOM’s specific flavour of exception dealing with.

It is the identical story after we get to FSPrefs: an enormous C++ class and a whole lot of SOM glue, simply to wedge our personal trivial interface pane into Cyberdog’s.

I am going to spare you everything of it right here. Simply know, like with FSConnect, almost all these C++ strategies even have SOM glue, and naturally there’s the remainder of the boilerplate you noticed within the undertaking.

Having constructed all three tasks (or copied the pre-built ones), we deposit the ensuing binaries into the Cyberdog Libraries folder. The Cyberdog library itself, containing almost everything of the browser and its element components, is a comparatively svelte 2.8MB. Our chubby, freshly constructed and totally flabby little finger service, alternatively, summed over all three libraries is 427K — and 334K of that’s simply the items for the Join and Preferences home windows. We would blame a few of this on debugging and possibly some on CodeWarrior, however we will not ascribe all of it.

Our “Finger Beep” menu merchandise now duly seems within the Cyberdog menu, and does beep.

This is what all that code for the Join window truly purchased us — two awful textual content fields. (T-shirt concept: I compiled FSPrefs and all I bought was a label and a verify field!) They are surely awful too, as a result of when you press RETURN in them, they do not appear to acknowledge they should not be multi-line. The code then takes the outcomes from these fields and generates a Cyberdog merchandise to show finger info, which it then opens.

Luckily, opening the merchandise works just about seamlessly, right here fingering root on one in all my inner servers. The title within the title bar is the title saved within the generated merchandise. I am going to reproduce a part of the code from the FingerService right here that opens the finger merchandise, utilizing the synchronous model for readability.

SOM_Scope void  SOMLINK FingerItem__Open
                                    (AppleCyberdog_FingerItem *somSelf,
                                     Setting *ev,
                                     ParameterSet* theParams)
 // Extract the opener half (if any) from the parameter set.
 ODPart* openerPart = kODNULL;
   if(!theParams->GetParameter(ev, kCDInitialOpenerPartKey,
     theParams->GetParameter(ev, kCDObtainedOpenerPartKey,

 // Create the correct of half in the appropriate doc.
 CyberSession* cyberSession = ::GetCyberSession(ev);
 TempODPart cyberPart = cyberSession->CreateCyberPart(ev,
                                                      openerPart, kTextPlainKind, kODNULL);

 // If the show half handles the kTextPlain form of knowledge,
 // create a obtain half as a substitute.
 if(cyberPart == kODNULL)
   cyberPart = cyberSession->CreatePartInCyberDocument(ev,
                                                       kDownloadPartKind, kODNULL);

 // Open the Cyberdog merchandise.
   TempCyberPartExtension cyberPartExt(cyberPart, kCyberPartExtension);
   cyberPartExt->OpenCyberItem(ev, fingerItem, openerPart, params);

Amongst different issues, this primary tries to determine what needs to open it, after which requires a brand new half to show the information to be acquired. Discover how we’re treating these calls like common C++, which is able to give us this as the primary argument without cost, however we nonetheless should go the SOM atmosphere pointer.

CreateCyberPart is a technique offered by the worldwide Cyberdog session that determines what doc to insert a brand new show half into, be it inside or with out the present Cyberdog session correct, with an non-compulsory editor argument (right here we have handed a null pointer to make use of the default). If there is no doc to insert it into, we’ll create a “obtain half” to stream the information immediately right into a plain textual content show half in a model new doc. We then open the merchandise, which begins the community switch.

Asynchronous opening would spin off a separate thread to do most of this. When you have been connecting to the world’s slowest finger server and wished to cancel the connection earlier than it timed out, you’ll be able to verify for posted cease occasions with a Cyberdog progress broadcaster whereas your community transaction runs, which is what you’d do usually for user-facing code.

See Also

If all that for all that appeared as extreme to you because it did to me, it apparently did so to Apple as properly. However as a substitute of attempting to streamline the API and make it much less verbose, Apple’s resolution was to … semi-automate producing the bullshi boilerplate as a substitute. Aside from their implementation of the SOM IDL compiler — which initially solely ran as an MPW instrument, not in CodeWarrior — Apple offered a third-party instrument for this objective known as CodeSampler, which takes an element template you wish to modify and spits out a brand new one with primary modifications you could then go and edit.

I say “semi-automate” as a result of the template solely handles primary bikeshedding, and just for the templates which might be included. Even on these which might be, you continue to should cope with all of the strategies it subclassed, although at the very least you’d have a (theoretically) working scaffold to begin from reasonably than writing each agonizing bit from scratch.

Naturally, there have been extra sensible causes to create a Cyberdog service. Considered one of Cyberdog’s reasonably obnoxious deficiencies was the lack to immediately open a file from the UI; information may solely be referenced by typing in file: URLs (on domestically mounted disks, or by way of AppleTalk and/or Apple Submitting Protocol in later releases) or opening an merchandise referencing it that already existed. The OpenFileService part offered a menu choice which might dynamically generate a Cyberdog merchandise to a file reference utilizing the Customary Open dialogue, and you’ve got now seen sufficient from the finger service instance to grasp typically how that might be carried out. Sadly, this reasonably helpful element was saved on the Cyberdog FTP server, which I may discover no present mirrors or archives of, and thus to the very best of my information is now misplaced. Additionally discover this element says it was 68K appropriate — maintain that thought.

For the following undertaking within the SDK, we’ll first transfer on to Cyberdog’s most notable, most original and doubtless most underutilized characteristic: creating OpenDoc paperwork that might embed buttons and browser views. We begin up DocBuilder by creating a brand new doc from the Doc menu.

DocBuilder got here with each model of Cyberdog from the very starting, and is nothing lower than a full-blown OpenDoc doc editor lurking inside Cyberdog. It was written for Apple below contract by 6prime (who additionally wrote CodeSampler), a small software program firm based particularly to cater to OpenDoc on the Mac by Eric Soldan and Tantek Çelik, who beforehand labored on OpenDoc as an Apple worker. 6prime’s key product was REV, an auto-versioning instrument that bought purchased out by Aladdin Programs in 1997. Çelik ended up at Microsoft the place he developed Web Explorer for the Mac, and is now the Net requirements lead at Mozilla.

Sadly, DocBuilder is simply as memory-hungry as every thing else, and you will undoubtedly need 2MB for the doc when you did not already specify it (from Doc Information, click on the Dimension button).

Save the clean doc to disk in order that the reminiscence allocation sticks (I closed and reopened it for good measure). Discover that you could possibly save OpenDoc paperwork as stationery too. How meta.

Here’s a pattern doc I created in DocBuilder’s structure mode (the place the canine is “laying” down, get it?). Along with the usual drawing instruments on the higher floating palette, DocBuilder gives three core components supplied on the decrease one. The textual content labels have been created with the textual content editor half (left), which might additionally embody scrolling content material (right here I have never, and I’ve additionally made them read-only). The canine button comes from the button half (center), which oddly can solely present graphics in Cyberdog 1.0; I pasted within the goofy canine icon from the Finder and added the reason as a textual content blurb. You may also embed notebooks within the window to supply a hierarchical, collapsable checklist of hyperlinks (proper), in addition to drag or paste PICTs immediately into the doc. The Beginning Level is merely a Cyberdog doc created precisely thus, and you could possibly additionally use the DocBuilder for setting up wealthy E-mail messages — so long as the individual on the opposite finish additionally used Cyberdog.

Embedding a dwell browser, nonetheless, requires barely extra work: you drag the specified URL or merchandise from a separate navigator into the window after which alter advert lib. OpenDoc is “semi-modal” within the sense that you must activate — not simply choose, discover the unusually thick body — an element to convey up its menu(s), which cancels menus from different components and right here as a aspect impact hides the palettes till the general doc regains focus. The select-versus-activate distinction was one more one in all OpenDoc’s interface faults. Right here I’ve turned off the controls and placement bar within the embedded navigator, although you’ll be able to nonetheless click on on hyperlinks and use varieties.

Since browser components will mechanically strive to connect with their embedded places as quickly because the doc is opened, buttons function “deferred hyperlinks” (properly, actually, simply buttons) to keep away from cheesing off the dialup customers. Buttons have a restricted variety of issues they’ll connect with, largely URLs/gadgets and a few inner elements, and so they weren’t able to scripted behaviour.

Curiously, the Assist menu is dwell, and really brings up an Apple Information which is dynamically populated primarily based on what components are current within the doc. This may most likely be extra helpful in apply if the components have been higher documented, however it’s one other instance of how OpenDoc was designed to blur the borders between doc and app.

If you click on the operating canine (to run), the structure grid goes away and the doc turns into conventionally interactive. It can save you it to disk and share it along with your small variety of buddies who had OpenDoc, Cyberdog or one thing appropriate and the identical components you used, which for many individuals was roughly zero, even in 1996.

One of many demonstration movies on the CD confirmed off this pattern doc embedding a dwell, interactive view of many top-level Usenet newsgroup hierarchies, displaying the idea was certainly not restricted to typical Net, Gopher or FTP websites. What precisely this needed to do with Apple technical assist was not defined.

The truth that buttons solely took graphical photographs in Cyberdog 1.0 was an odd limitation for my part, and defeated creating traditional-looking hyperlinks in Cyberdog paperwork. However the second instance we’ll have a look at within the Cyberdog SDK appeared to handle this, known as the CybTxtBtn (quick for Cyberdog textual content button).

This element is definitely a modified instance object from the OpenDoc SDK utilizing its generic SamplePart undertaking. I will not undergo the code in nice element besides to indicate you the finger service was not an aberration: this codebase is simply as verbose.

With the library constructed (keep in mind to repair the undertaking paths) and put in within the Editors folder, drop the library on the OpenDoc doc shell hidden within the System Folder to emit stationery, after which put the ensuing stationery in its regular place, although in apply it ought to work from wherever.

Now drag the stationery to the doc to generate a brand new occasion. You may see a textual content URL seem, by default the Cyberdog dwelling web page.

It is a working hyperlink, so when you click on on it, it opens the referenced web page like common buttons do. Nevertheless, it could maintain any merchandise, and can show the title of the merchandise it represents (or if no title is obtainable, the URL). Right here, we’ll drop a Gopher merchandise from a navigator window on the textual content button …

… and it obligingly modifications, taking its new title from the title bar of the window we dragged the merchandise from. This half seems to be the one method you could possibly generate such a hyperlink in a Cyberdog doc with 1.0, and it by no means shipped with Cyberdog itself.

Apple did attempt to encourage constructing Cyberdog paperwork and shared some they discovered notably noteworthy, however these paperwork have been additionally saved on the Apple Cyberdog FTP server and are additionally believed misplaced. A few of Apple’s “Cyberdog Dogshow” winners are listed here.

Moreover, the entire docu-centrism idea bought reasonably muddled with Cyberdog 1.1 in September 1996, which turned issues on its head. As a substitute of, or at the very least along with, you opening the Beginning Level doc to open Cyberdog, 1.1 now had a stub app that you just opened conventionally and it opened the Beginning Level (now “Cyberdog Tour”). To make the ocean change even clearer, the Doc menu reverted to a normal File menu and stayed so for the remainder of Cyberdog’s existence, whereas concurrently the specific Give up choice returned. It was all a refined but stinging retcon of the OpenDoc method.

Cyberdog 1.1 required the brand new OpenDoc 1.1, a pace and bugfix launch that got here out simply earlier than in August of that 12 months. However a much bigger change in Cyberdog 1.1, moreover assist for NSAPI plugins, a number of pages in Cyberdog paperwork, accessing sources over AppleTalk and a primary AppleScript dictionary, was compatibility with 68K Macintoshes (68030 or higher). The SDK was duly up to date to incorporate assist for 68K, however the 68K stub library, headers and up to date examples have been all on the defunct Cyberdog FTP server too. Which means our PowerPC-only CD right here is outwardly the one model of the SDK that seems to nonetheless exist, and whereas elements we construct with it ought to work tremendous with later variations of PPC Cyberdog, they’ll by no means run on a 68K machine.

There are two different examples on the CD which I am merely going to say reasonably than exhibit, as they’re actually meant as templates and introduce no apparent new performance. CybTxtViewer is a Cyberdog show half that shows plain textual content; this isn’t too helpful as is, as Cyberdog already shows plain textual content simply tremendous, and is clearly meant for use as scaffolding for different issues (by way of CodeSampler). The opposite one, CybTxtNavViewer, exhibits how you’d embed such an element in a Cyberdog navigator, together with getting standing messages from the navigator and enabling saving and printing.

No matter all Cyberdog 1.1’s programs modifications, nonetheless, essentially the most seen one was a much more refined look. Gone was the dorky canine within the beta and 1.0; in got here the dignified painterly hound most individuals who’ve used Cyberdog affiliate with the browser immediately. This new look coalesced round a wonderfully elegant new Cyberdog Tour (changing the Beginning Level) which cleverly hid the oblong buttons by dressing them with irregular hand-drawn borders, pasted in as static graphics. There was little new performance apart from some further buttons, however the visible impact is beautiful and simply essentially the most creative chrome type from that period.

Cyberdog 1.2 was launched in December 1996. It was primarily a bug-fix and polish launch, but in addition expanded its AppleScript and drag and drop capabilities, supplied assist for buttons with labels for the primary time, and even may show clear buttons. Cyberdog 1.2.1 mounted a number of further bugs and appeared with Mac OS 7.6 in January 1997, proven operating right here on my clock-chipped Quadra 800 with Mac OS 8.1. OpenDoc got here as a part of the Mac OS beginning with 7.6, however that galling File menu in what ought to have been its killer app doc reminds you that Apple’s relationship with it was more and more difficult.

The Cyberdog SDK was additionally up to date each for 1.1 and 1.2, and new with the 1.2 SDK was specific support for CodeWarrior’s new Direct-To-SOM compiler, which dramatically minimize down the necessity to manually write SOM glue strategies. This piece of the Cyberdog SDK is misplaced too.

Within the meantime, Copland made its disastrous developer début (because the notorious “Developer Launch 0”) in August 1996, and conscious of its mortally flawed historical past, Gil Amelio employed Ellen Hancock as CTO to guage its future. Hancock rapidly concluded Copland would by no means be capable of ship and Amelio duly cancelled it, leaving a void to be finally stuffed by NeXT as Apple’s next-generation OS. With Rhapsody’s Yellow Field (i.e., Cocoa in Mac OS X) poised to develop into the unifying object-oriented framework Apple at all times wished, there was no additional want for OpenDoc at Apple — or to indicate it off with Cyberdog. (This realization cannot be merely coincidental with Cyberdog 1.1 turning about so out of the blue on 1.0’s docu-centrism: it was now time to show Cyberdog into “simply one other utility.”)

To that finish, on April 11, 1997 Apple said the quiet part out loud and minimize free their implementation of OpenDoc. Whereas OpenDoc would stay appropriate with the Blue Field compatibility atmosphere (and certainly stays appropriate with Basic below Tiger 10.4 and earlier), it will not be a part of Rhapsody. When the not too long ago returned Steve Jobs himself was asked at WWDC’97 “what about OpenDoc?” he famously quipped, “What about it?” Though he known as out Apple’s faults in engineering administration and acknowledged the work individuals within the viewers had executed with it and different failed Apple applied sciences, he refused to backtrack on OpenDoc’s cancellation, telling attendees that “focusing is about saying no.”

And so the final Cyberdog (actually a roll-up launch) was pushed out later that month, tagged as final version 2.0. Throughout the alpha releases 2.0a2 had a vacation theme which sadly by no means made it to the discharge.

Cyberdog 2 was the primary model I ever personally used, and I’ve it put in right here on my clock-chipped Quadra 800 additionally operating Mac OS 8.1. I’ve already bumped up the OpenDoc doc measurement for the screenshots, as with out it I’d get horrible crashes and system errors when OpenDoc shut down whereas quitting Cyberdog.

Cyberdog 2.0’s most important advance was a considerably improved Net browser element. It now supported frames, animated GIFs, shopper pulls, some further tags and attributes and variable textual content encoding, was quicker, and understood cookies. The mail and information assist was extra tunable for higher efficiency, and the default pocket book was subtly rearranged for no apparent purpose in comparison with 1.2.1.

In any other case, it supported what 1.2 did: FTP, Gopher, mail/information and AppleTalk have been all nonetheless first-class residents.

The interface was additionally just about unchanged, however the rendering is sort of fast, and noticeably quicker on the 36MHz Q800 than on the 100MHz Duo 2300. A part of this was the Duo’s gimped system bus and a part of that is the Quadra has over double the RAM within the Duo, however any method you sliced it (particularly since each these programs have the identical model of OpenDoc), Cyberdog 2.0 was so much quicker than 1.x.

You possibly can nonetheless create paperwork in 2.0 with DocBuilder, however the File menu was the File menu, and there was no going again. (Focus!) Discover the web page indicator, launched again in 1.1, which may seem as (nothing), arrows or a dog-eared web page. By some means the dog-ear sounds proper.

The swan tune was OpenDoc 1.2 (1.2.1 for Mac OS 8.0), which got here out in September 1997 because the final model Apple would launch and what our demonstration programs have been operating right here. And, properly, possibly there was one other good purpose for OpenDoc to die: it turned out customers simply did not get it. Virtually as a autopsy, Apple revealed an August 1997 journal article on “The Function of Person Research within the Design of OpenDoc” (Dykstra-Erickson and Curbow, doi:10.1145/263552.263588). Amongst its notable observations was that customers did not actually perceive the idea of stationery (in System 7 or OpenDoc), the select-versus-activate distinction was the basis of many person interface issues, and inexperienced customers tended to think about duties as much less complicated than they really have been.

However I believe the true bullet in OpenDoc’s head (as Jobs put it) was the authors’ discovery that essentially the most adept customers had a menu of methods to randomly try to simply ended up doing no matter labored, which is damning proof even these expert customers did not really grok OpenDoc, not to mention have a functioning psychological mannequin of its operation. Because the authors noticed, “Customers work out their very own method of doing issues and don’t adhere to our expectations for the way they’ll work with OpenDoc. … Recognizing a helpful technique and using it with out [emphasis theirs] a agency grasp of the underlying psychological mannequin requires the person to rethink methods each time they’re confronted with an issue.” Once I was constructing the Cyberdog Humane Society in DocBuilder, it actually took a whole lot of screwing round for me to get what I wished, and a number of the steps I ended up taking completely felt arbitrary. The authors concluded, “We’ve but to find out 1) how one can improve person comprehension of the mannequin; 2) how full the person’s psychological mannequin of OpenDoc must be in an effort to use it and be ok with it; and three) what instrument is greatest to measure learnability.”

These issues would by no means be addressed, for Cyberdog 2.0 was actually OpenDoc’s final stand on any platform, not simply the Mac. Whilst you may nonetheless obtain Cyberdog for some interval afterwards, Apple by no means launched any followups or bug fixes, and OpenDoc not got here bundled from Mac OS 8.5 on. SOM objects remained an integral a part of OS/2, however the Home windows and OS/2 releases of OpenDoc correct have been quietly dropped by IBM as properly, and thus the transient Nineties tyranny of the doc got here to an ignominious finish. Apps, as soon as once more, have been king.

Always remember. When you copied, or know the place to search out, the contents of the Cyberdog FTP server from any level in its prior existence, please submit within the feedback or E-mail me privately at ckaiser at floodgap dawt com.

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