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The Far-Reaching Penalties of LogoFAIL

The Far-Reaching Penalties of LogoFAIL

2023-12-04 04:14:35

The Binarly REsearch workforce investigates weak picture parsing elements throughout all the UEFI firmware ecosystem and finds all main machine producers are impacted on each x86 and ARM-based units.

Historical past ceaselessly repeats itself, and vulnerability analysis is not any exception. Earlier this 12 months, our analysis workforce checked out a number of the vulnerabilities found by the Binarly Transparency Platform and located that the variety of picture parsers have considerably elevated through the years. In the present day, the UEFI system firmware incorporates BMP, GIF, JPEG, PCX, and TGA parsers, considerably growing the assault floor in comparison with earlier analysis that has been accomplished on this space.

Essentially the most well-known assault was presented at Black Hat USA in 2009 by Rafal Wojtczuk and Alexander Tereshkin with the exploitation of a BMP parser bug within the UEFI reference code.

Figure 1

Slide from the unique Wojtczuk/Tereshkin presentation “Attacking Intel BIOS

Since then, we haven’t seen any public documentation of assault surfaces associated to graphic picture parsers embedded into the UEFI system firmware till a member of our analysis workforce had an ‘a-ha’ second when considering of provide chain safety issues from our earlier work “OpenSSL Usage in UEFI Firmware Exposes Weakness in SBOMs“.

What if the graphic picture parsers embedded into system firmware don’t replace ceaselessly and use not solely outdated but additionally custom-made variations of the frequent picture parsing libraries?

We dive deeper into this wormhole and are shocked by a number of high-impact discoveries that can be utilized by menace actors to ship a malicious payload and bypass Safe Boot, Intel Boot Guard, and different safety applied sciences by design. Extra importantly, it could actually open doorways for attackers to bypass trendy endpoint safety options and needs to be thought-about far more highly effective than the current BlackLotus bootkit.

The total technical particulars relating to LogoFAIL vulnerabilities are beneath embargo till December sixth. Binarly researchers will current “LogoFAIL: Security Implications of Image Parsing During System Boot” at Black Hat Europe.

LogoFail Logo

What’s LogoFAIL?

LogoFAIL is a newly found set of safety vulnerabilities affecting completely different picture parsing libraries used within the system firmware by numerous distributors throughout the machine boot course of. These vulnerabilities are current typically inside IBVs (Unbiased BIOS vendor) reverence code, impacting not a single vendor however all the ecosystem throughout this reference code and machine distributors the place it’s used (See “The Firmware Supply-Chain Security is Broken: Can we fix it?“).

One of the necessary discoveries is that LogoFAIL just isn’t silicon-specific and may influence x86 and ARM-based units. LogoFAIL is UEFI and IBV-specific due to the specifics of weak picture parsers which have been used. That exhibits a wider influence from the attitude of the discoveries that can be offered on Dec sixth.

The influence on all the UEFI ecosystem is illustrated within the determine beneath.

The impact on the entire UEFI ecosystem

Initially, we found LogoFAIL on Lenovo units with Insyde, AMI, and Phoenix reference codes on board and reported these vulnerabilities beneath advisory BRLY-2023-006.

We’ve got been closely centered on reporting vulnerabilities primarily found by the Binarly Transparency Platform product however the work on LogoFAIL was completely different and initially initiated as a small analysis mission only for enjoyable. After demonstrating a large variety of fascinating assault surfaces from image-parsing firmware elements, the mission grew into a large industry-wide disclosure. Preliminary vulnerabilities had been discovered by fuzzing the doubtless weak elements after we did a preliminary static evaluation of the regarding code flows in IDA with the assistance of efiXplorer plugin to convey UEFI context.

After preliminary fuzzing, we acquired so many crashes that triaging them manually was fairly difficult. We determined to automate triaging with Binarly’s inner program evaluation framework, which empowers our merchandise and helps instrumentation with emulation.

LogoFail CLI utility work proccess animation

Later, we discovered extra vulnerabilities in Insyde code and reported them with the BRLY-2022-018 advisory. After the conclusion that the influence goes approach past Lenovo units, we reported LogoFAIL-related safety points to the CERT/CC VINCE system. Based mostly on earlier expertise, this coordination could be very helpful for the industry-wide response to cross-vendor points.

BRLY ID CERT/CC ID Picture Library Impression CVSS Rating CWE
BRLY-2023-006 VU#811862 Embargo till
Dec sixth
Embargo till
Dec sixth
Excessive CWE-122: Heap-based
Buffer Overflow
BRLY-2023-018 VU#811862 Embargo till
Dec sixth
Embargo till
Dec sixth
Medium CWE-125: Out-of-bounds
Learn

How do LogoFAIL vulnerabilities work?

The vulnerabilities permit attackers to retailer malicious emblem pictures both on the EFI System Partition (ESP) or inside unsigned sections of a firmware replace. When these pictures are parsed throughout boot, the vulnerability may be triggered and an attacker-controlled payload can arbitrarily be executed to hijack the execution movement and bypass security measures like Safe Boot, together with hardware-based Verified Boot mechanisms (like Intel Boot Guard, AMD {Hardware}-Validated Boot or ARM TrustZone-based Safe Boot).

This assault vector may give an attacker a bonus in bypassing most endpoint safety options and delivering a stealth firmware bootkit that can persist in an ESP partition or firmware capsule with a modified emblem picture. Technically, from a high-level perspective, the assault may be simplified into three steps.

The total technical particulars relating to LogoFAIL vulnerabilities are beneath embargo till December sixth, when it will likely be offered “LogoFAIL: Security Implications of Image Parsing During System Boot” at Black Hat Europe.

What are the implications of LogoFAIL?

These vulnerabilities can compromise all the system’s safety, rendering “below-the-OS” safety measures like all shade of Safe Boot ineffective, together with Intel Boot Guard. This degree of compromise means attackers can achieve deep management over the affected methods.

See Also

We’ve beforehand seen attackers abusing ESP partitions a number of instances to change working system-related bootloaders to ship UEFI bootkits (together with BlackLotus). The LogoFAIL case creates a unique perspective on the ESP partition assault floor with data-only exploitation by modifying the emblem picture.

Assault Vector Vulnerability ID Exploited
In-The-Wild
Impression CVSS Rating CWE
LogoFAIL VU#811862 N/A Intel Boot Guard and
Safe Boot Bypass
Excessive
Medium
CWE-122: Heap-based Buffer Overflow
CWE-125: Out-of-bounds Learn
Baton Drop CVE-2022-21894
CVE-2023-24932
BlackLotus Safe Boot Bypass 6.7 Medium CWE-358: Improperly Applied
Safety Test for Normal
Third-party Bootloaders VU#309662 N/A Safe Boot Bypass 6.7 Medium CWE-358: Improperly Applied
Safety Test for Normal
BootHole VU#174059 N/A Safe Boot Bypass 8.2 Excessive CWE-120: Buffer Copy with out
Checking Dimension of Enter

LogoFAIL differs from BlackLotus or BootHole threats as a result of it doesn’t break runtime integrity by modifying the bootloader or firmware part. On this case, we’re coping with continued exploitation with a modified boot emblem picture, triggering the payload supply in runtime, the place all of the integrity and safety measurements occur earlier than the firmware elements are loaded.

UEFI Secure boot Root of Trust flow chart

We are able to see from the determine above that any compromised signed UEFI part can break safe boot integrity and bypass it with out being detected by platform integrity or Safe Boot associated mitigations. Current machine safety measurements can successfully detect different threats from the comparability desk.

Throughout our presentation at Black Hat Europe on December sixth, Binarly REsearch workforce will reveal new heap exploitation methods to set off LogoFAIL vulnerability that results in arbitrary code execution.

Photo of laptop with ASCII-art of text 'Greeting from Binarly Rearch and LogoFAIL!'

Which units are affected by LogoFAIL?

Tons of of client and enterprise-grade units from numerous distributors, together with Intel, Acer, and Lenovo, are doubtlessly weak. The precise record of affected units remains to be being decided nevertheless it’s essential to notice that every one three main IBVs are impacted — AMI, Insyde, and Phoenix resulting from a number of safety points associated to picture parsers they’re transport as part of their firmware.

Based mostly on this reference code influence, we estimate LogoFAIL impacts nearly any machine powered by these distributors in a technique or one other. Additionally, it’s not restricted to particular {hardware} and may be efficiently exploited on x86 or ARM-based units.

The categories — and sheer quantity — of safety vulnerabilities found by Binarly present pure product safety maturity and code high quality usually on IBVs reference code. Most of those firms grew up within the early 90s. They by no means change their mindset, being extra proactive than reactive and fixing solely recognized issues with out addressing full assault surfaces or implementing efficient mitigations.

Binarly Transparency Platform uniquely detects LogoFAIL weak elements in system firmware, and all our prospects are knowledgeable in regards to the influence on their code bases or enterprise infrastructure.

Our distinctive binary code evaluation know-how identifies weak elements not based mostly on integrity or easy model checking to scope the issues. All Binarly detection works on the binary code and exhibits the issue confirmed to be current within the analyzed firmware, dramatically lowering the false positives and making an actionable incident response potential.

Are you curious about studying extra about Binarly Transparency Platform or different options? Do not hesitate to contact us at fwhunt@binarly.io.

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