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The Forme of Cury – Wikipedia

The Forme of Cury – Wikipedia

2023-04-15 20:21:33

14th century English information to cooking

The Forme of Cury (The Methodology of Cooking, cury from Middle French cuire: ‘to prepare dinner’)[2] is an in depth 14th-century assortment of medieval English recipes. Though the unique manuscript is misplaced, the textual content seems in 9 manuscripts, probably the most well-known within the type of a scroll with a headnote citing it because the work of “the chief Grasp Cooks of King Richard II“.[3][4] The title The Forme of Cury is mostly used for the household of recipes moderately than any single manuscript textual content. It’s among the many oldest extant English cookery books, and the earliest recognized to say olive oil, gourds, and spices comparable to mace and cloves.


The gathering was named The Forme of Cury by Samuel Pegge, who printed an version of one of many manuscripts in 1780 for a trustee of the British Museum, Gustavus Brander.[5] It is without doubt one of the best-known medieval guides to cooking. The Forme of Cury might have been written partly to compete with Le Viandier of Taillevent, a French cookery e-book created at about the identical time. This helps the concept that banquets have been an emblem of energy and status for medieval lords and kings.[6]


Within the preamble, the authors clarify that the recipes are supposed to educate a prepare dinner methods to make frequent dishes and weird or extravagant banquet dishes.[7] Additionally they be aware that the recipes have been written with the recommendation of the very best specialists in medication and philosophy.[6]

The Forme of Cury is the primary recognized English cookery e-book to say some substances comparable to cloves, olive oil, mace and gourds. Many recipes include what have been then uncommon and worthwhile spices, comparable to nutmeg, ginger, pepper, cinnamon and cardamom. Along with imparting flavour, lots of the spices referred to as for have been included particularly to impart wealthy colouring to the completed dishes for the aim of, as Pegge says, “gratifying the sight”.[8][9] There’s a explicit emphasis on yellows, reds and greens, however gilding and silvering have been additionally utilized in a number of of the recipes.[8] Yellow was achieved with saffron or egg yolk, pink with “sanders” (sandalwood) or alkanet, and inexperienced typically with minced parsley. There are recipes for making ready many kinds of animal meat, together with whale, crane, curlew, heron, seal and porpoise.[7] There are about ten vegetable recipes, together with one for a vinaigrette salad, which signifies affect from Portugal and Spain, as French cooks hardly ever used greens at the moment. There are additionally a number of pasta dishes, proof of Italian affect.[6]

Some recipes in The Forme of Cury seem to have been influenced by the Liber de Coquina, which had contributions from Arabic delicacies. For instance, the recipe for mawmenee (see illustration) corresponds to the Arabic mamuniyya (a wealthy semolina pudding). The confectionery-like payn ragoun confirms the reference to Sicily (which had been Arab, Catalan and Norman), because it makes use of the Arab strategy of cooking in comfortable ball syrup.[6]

Pattern recipe[edit]

Title web page of Samuel Pegge‘s 1780 model, the primary printed version

The next is a recipe from the fashionable vital version:

Sawse madame. Take sawge, persel, ysope and saueray, quinces and peeres, garlek and grapes, and fylle the gees þerwith; and sowe the outlet þat no grece come out, and roost hem wel, and kepe the grece þat fallith þerof. Take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet. Whan the gees buth rosted ynouh, take hem of & smyte hem on pecys, and take þat þat is withinne and do it in a possynet and put þerinne wyne, if or not it’s to thyk; do þerto powdour of galyngale, powdour douce, and salt and boyle the sawse, and dresse þe gees in disshes & lay þe sowe onoward.[10]

See Also

In trendy English:

Sauce Madame. Take sage, parsley, hyssop and savory, quinces and pears, garlic and grapes, and stuff the geese with them, and stitch the outlet in order that no dripping comes out, and roast them effectively and maintain the dripping that falls from them. Take the gelatin and dripping and place in a cooking-pot. When the geese are roasted sufficient, take them off and chop them in items, and take what’s inside and put it in a cooking-pot and put in wine whether it is too thick. Add to it powder of galangal, powder-douce and salt, and boil the sauce and costume the geese in dishes and lay the sauce on.[11]

Trendy recreations[edit]

The Café on the Rylands, in Manchester’s John Rylands Library the place the manuscript is saved, cooked Tart in Ymber Day, Compast, Payn Puff, Frumenty and Gingerbrede, accompanied by Piment (spiced wine), for invited visitors in 2009.[12]

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ The web page gives recipes for “Drepee” (“Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and mood hem up with gode broth take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do þerto. take smale bryddes parboyle hem and do þerto Pellydore and salt. and a lytel grece.” and “Mawmenee” (“Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell. and medle with sum of the wyne an forged to gydre. take pynes with Dates and frye hem a litell in grece oþer in oyle and forged hem to gydre. take clowes an flour of canel hool and forged þerto. take powdour gyngur. canel. clower, color it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede forged salt þerto. and lat it seeþ; warly with a slowe fyre and to not thyk, take brawn of Capouns yteysed. oþer of Fesauntes teysed small and forged þerto.”).[1])


  1. ^ “The Forme of Cury”. Undertaking Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  2. ^ “Thys fourme of cury ys compyled of þe mayster cokes of kyng Richard þe secund… by assent of Maysters of physik and of phylosophye”.–“Issues candy to style: choices from the Forme of Cury”. 1996 ISBN 0-86373-134-1
  3. ^ Hieatt & Butler 1985, pp. 20–30
  4. ^ Hieatt 1988, pp. 45–52
  5. ^ Wright, Clarissa Dickson (2011). A Historical past of English Meals. Random Home. pp. 46, 50–52. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  6. ^ a b c d Bouchut, Marie Josèphe Moncorgé; Bailey, Ian (trans.); Hunt, Leah (trans.). “Forme of Cury and cookery books in English”. Mediæval. Outdated prepare dinner. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  7. ^ a b “The Forme of cury – Pygg in sawse sawge”. British Library. The Grasp-Cooks of King Richard II. 1390. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  8. ^ a b The forme of cury, a roll of Ancient English cookery: compiled, about AD 1390, by the master-cooks of King Richard II. Pegge, Samuel, 1704–1796. Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-107-70727-6. OCLC 911037262.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ Woolgar, C. M. (1 January 2018). “Medieval food and colour”. Journal of Medieval Historical past. 44 (1): 10. doi:10.1080/03044181.2017.1401391. ISSN 0304-4181. S2CID 165273557.
  10. ^ Hieatt & Butler 1985, p. 104
  11. ^ As cooked by Clarissa Dickson Wright on the BBC Four present Clarissa and the King’s Cookbook
  12. ^ “Oldest English recipes cooked up at John Rylands”. Manchester College. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2015.


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