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The Soviet 1801VM2 LSI-11 Processor

The Soviet 1801VM2 LSI-11 Processor

2024-01-30 13:24:29

The Soviet-made 1801VM2 CPU (a binary-compatible implementation of the PDP11 instruction set and QBUS interface) was developed in 1982. The 1801VM2 is an additional improvement of the sooner 1801VM1 doubling the unique 5MHz clock pace. From a constructive standpoint this CPU is a very impartial improvement.

1801VM2 die

1801VM2 die – 1983 dated

1801VM2 Specs

  • Variety of processor Instruction: 72
  • Manufacturing course of: 4 micron N-channel silicon gate MOS know-how
  • Die dimension 5.3 × 5.35 mm
  • Transistor depend: 18,500 lively transistors, 120,000 integral components
  • Clock charge: As much as 10 MHz
  • Efficiency: For register based mostly operations (like addition) as much as 1,000,000 instruction/s (1 MIPS) – for operations like multiplication, as much as 100,000 directions/s
  • Provide voltage + 5V
  • Energy consumption: as much as 1.7 W
  • The case is 40-lead, ceramic DIP (KM1801VM2) or plastic DIP (KR1801VM2). (a floor mount model was additionally made)

To extend noise immunity as compared with 1801VM1, further floor contacts have been made for the handle / information bus.
The 1801VM2 was manufactured at two factories: Angstrem and Solnechnogorsk Electromechanical Plant (SEMZ).  As was typical of the time pace grading was performed by including further marking to the chips post-testing.  Its very straightforward to overlook these, if a chip was examined at 10MHz and handed it obtained no further marking and was thought of an 1801VM’A.’  If the machine failed at 10MHz however ran at 8MHz a small dot was added to the package deal (and was thought of a grade ‘B’ machine).  This dot was to not be confused with the dot for the pin one marker, although typically positioned…subsequent to it.

Ceramic DIP 1801VM2A Angstrem – 1989 No further dot

Ceramic DIP 1801VM2B Angstrem – 1987 – Be aware the additional dot on this case by the date code

Plastic DIP 1801VM2A Angstrem – 1990

KN1801VM2- Angstrem 1985 CQFP Floor mount model (picture Baator)

Ceramic DIP 1801VM2 Solnechnogorsk Electromechanical Plant – 1990 – Further dot by pin 1 marker

Compared with 1801VM1, expanded arithmetic directions (MUL, DIV, ASH, ASHC – a part of a the set of PDP-11 EIS), and in addition operations from the floating level instruction set (FIS) have been added. The FIS directions (FADD, FSUB, FMUL, FDIV) are realized via subroutines – when performing these directions there’s a particular sort of interrupt and this system handler in reminiscence (“shadow” system ROM K1801RE2) of the console mode is executed, a ‘firmware’ fashion of FIS implementation, as its not really {hardware} (the ROMs break down the FIS directions into one thing the 1801VM2 can execute)
Throughout the design of the microprocessor, a microcode error was made, resulting in a malfunction of the processor when studying with addressing methodology 17 ( MOV (PC), R0).

DVK-1 Pc

The 1801VM2 was the guts of a quantity fashions of DVK pc. DVK was developed on the Analysis Institute of Precision Expertise , Zelenograd (simply outdoors of Moscow). The primary mannequin DVK-1 was developed in 1981, and launched in 1983. Architecturally DVK copies mini-computers from DEC PDC-11 and PDP-11. By 1990, 200,000 DVK computer systems of the 9 totally different fashions have been produced.

Romashka Phrase Processor

Use of the processor continued effectively into the 1990’s. The “Romashka” belonged to the most recent era of digital typewriters, which of their performance have been near pc textual content editors. This typewriter made it attainable to mechanically format textual content (set alignment, change the spacing between characters and between traces, use daring and underlined fonts, and so on.) and had an digital reminiscence of a minimum of one web page (3800 bytes).  Within the West these half typewriter half pc have been known as Phrase Processors, and have been fairly standard via the 1980’s.   The machine’s management unit was a microcomputer based mostly on the KM1801VM2 processor.
“Romashka” was produced by the Kursk PO “Schetmash” within the first half of the Nineteen Nineties.

“Electronics IM-05 “- Soviet chess pc, comprises 1801VM2 inside. It was a continuation of the road of chess computer systems “Electronics”. Produced by the Svetlana Affiliation, Leningrad.

In 1984, the military-grade microprocessor 1806VM2 was launched.
This microprocessor functionally corresponds to the 1801VM2, however is made utilizing CMOS know-how.

See Also

  • Clock charge: as much as 5 MHz
  • Variety of Directions: 77
  • Comprises 134,636 integral components
  • Energy consumption: as much as 0.025W

The 1806VM2 builders fastened the microcode bug current in 1801VM2 (a lot to the aid, or annoyance of programmers). The 1806VM2 was provided in a 42-lead twin in-line ceramic package deal with flat leads, N1806VM2 in a 64-lead CQFP. The rhombus marking on the chips denotes a military-grade machine.

1806VM2 – Angstrem 1991 within the good pink flat pack

N1806VM2 – Angstrem 1999 in a Ceramic quad flat pack

CQFP N1806BM2 on a ceramic substrate forming a navy Single Board Pc – circa 1987 (picture Baator)

These 1806VM2 are nonetheless being made by Angstrem, if it’s good to construct a PDP-11 pc to run Tetris on, or restore a Buran shuttle you might have laying round.

In 1990, a radiation-hardened microprocessor was launched, suitable with the 1806VM2, often known as the 1836VM2/N1836VM2.  Similar to in different international locations, current code base and identified reliability are extra of a driver of what the navy/trade makes use of than having the most recent and best.  There are nonetheless MIL-STD-1750A processors being made and used, rad-hard 8051s and 80186s, and Soviet PDP-11 processors proper there with them.

Pictures of microprocessors from the gathering of Perfiliev Andrey (Andreycpu).
Article written initially by Contributing Creator Vladimir Yakovlev (edited by cpushack)

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