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Extremely Deep take a look at Messier 81 & 82

Extremely Deep take a look at Messier 81 & 82

2023-05-08 05:44:25

That is the results of my very first worldwide collab! 15 beginner astronomers contributed their information to this picture!
Be aware that the proven full-resolution photos on this web page have been barely modified by me in comparison with the unique. The principle issues I’ve accomplished are making use of some Sharpening (BlurXTerminator) and Noise Discount (NoiseXTerminator).
Via this course of, a number of the scientific worth might need been misplaced within the course of. To view the unique take a look at the submit on astrobin: (

The goal

The galaxy pair Messier 81/82 is a extremely popular goal for astrophotographers as it’s pretty simple to picture and incorporates many attention-grabbing options, akin to IFN (Built-in flux nebula) and faint background galaxies. Moreover, M81 and M82 have been violently gravitationally interacting for nearly 1.5 billion years. This gravitational push and pull almost certainly brought on big quantities of supernovae in M82’s starburst area, that are believed to finally gas M82’s bipolar Ha-outflow.

This bipolar outflow or Ha-stream was additionally the principle focus of our huge collaboration! Having been within the galaxy pair for a very long time, We discovered a number of deep photos of the area and have been particularly within the H-alpha cap of M82 (See picture). What intrigued me about this cover is that there’s probably not a visual connection between the principle outflows of M82 and its cap. Nonetheless, in a number of the deepest photos, it’s attainable to ever so barely make out a dim connection between the principle Ha stream and the Ha cap.

Since there exists no clear picture of this area, We wished to supply a picture deep sufficient to disclose this actual area, which finally resulted at first of this wonderful collaboration of Astrophotographers from everywhere in the world. With a purpose to reveal the lacking piece, we knew we needed to go DEEP. Beginning in February we had 6 folks within the group, however the quantity rapidly rose to now 17 folks: 1 Editor, 1 one who gave us his Bortle 1 information for MSGR, and 15 photographers.
By mid-April we had 173h 34min of broadband information and 243h 04min of Ha information which had us assured in realizing our purpose. With 416h 38min of complete integration gathered on the goal, of which 393h 10min (or over 16 days) have been successfully used, this additionally marks the longest integration time ever on M81/82, and the longest one-panel integration time on Astrobin!

Earlier than moving into any particulars within the image, I wish to thank all people who contributed to this mission. It was a pleasure working along with all people! Hopefully there’s extra to come back : )

Particular because of:

  • William, our editor and teacher on something processing associated and who additionally helped compose this textual content. He spent a staggering 40h+ hours processing the picture you see right here.
  • Carl, who was additionally an ideal assist in something technical associated and who stacked all of our over 9000+ Broadband information and 3000+ Ha information, which took over 4TB of area and a number of other days/weeks of processing.
  • Mark, who stacked all of our 3000+ Ha information which once more took a number of days and gave us a second possibility for the Ha-stack
  • Prashant, who gave us his glorious Bortle 1 information that was used for MSGR

Fascinating options in our picture

Initially after all the entire Ha stream, being captured by amateurs for the primary time ever! After the Ha cap was found by Devine and Bally in 1999, they discovered that it may both be a bow shock fashioned by the influence of the superwind, or it may very well be ionized Lyman alpha emission leaking from the M82 nuclear area by way of the new bipolar cavity produced by the starburst-driven superwind. Nonetheless, with no extra detailed spectroscopic evaluation, it’s laborious to favor one rationalization over the opposite. We hope that this picture will help in higher understanding the interplay between the 2 galaxies and M82’s exercise.

IFN (built-in Flux nebula), which might be known as nebulae clouds. This IFN is positioned in our personal galaxy, and is illuminated by the mixed vitality of all the celebs within the Milky Means. It’s best observable close to the celestial poles, making M81/82’s area preferrred for capturing it. Nonetheless, it’s not the simplest to {photograph}, as you both want tremendous darkish skies or a number of integration time (ideally each) attributable to it being tremendous dim (round 25 magazine/arcsec2). It’s primarily composed of mud particles, hydrogen (HI), and carbon monoxide but in addition varied different components. On this picture from Prashant R., who contributed his information for MSGR, the huge span of the IFN out of our body might be seen. Be aware that this nonetheless is simply a tiny portion of what’s to be discovered.

© @Prashant Ranganath – his picture exhibits the huge prominence of IFN on this area (

The HI mix utilizing VLA’s HI emission observations additional highlights the cosmic interplay between the 2 galaxies (and NGC3077, a galaxy not included in our closing FOV). The HI picture is mainly a map of gravitational interactions between the 2 galaxies, clearly displaying HI bridges that join the galaxies. Apparently sufficient there are clear similarities between the broadband IFN and narrower HI information. Ongoing analysis suggests two principal explanations for this: One rationalization could be that the IFN is definitely impartial emissions from the HI areas that seem much like H-alpha. Nonetheless, that is almost certainly not the case because the IFN within the area seems to be too widespread. Probably, the IFN is a mixture of true IFN and faint emissions from the stellar streams traced by the HU emissions. Nonetheless there’s no 100% sure reply to this as of proper now.

A blue stream on the south aspect of the Ha stream. This stream has been revealed in another deep photos as properly, however as we went additional deep for this picture, the element on this stream is fairly astonishing. The precise origin of this stream is but to be precisely decided. Two principal explanations are that it’s an interplay remnant or a shocked starburst stream, although almost certainly it’s a secondary results of a galactic low-velocity shock attributable to interplay with M81. The ensuing shock heats and compresses the gasoline to optimum star-forming situations, giving the stream its signature blue color.

Many fantastic particulars in our picture, akin to galaxy clusters.

See Also

Be aware that components of this textual content have been impressed by different collaborations on this area, such because the B.A.T’s and one the place William was a part of final 12 months.
For any additional questions concerning the mission, be happy to go away a remark!

For a extra technical overview of the modifying, please confer with Will’s web site:

Integration overview

Right here you discover a record of integration contribution from all 15 photographers

We hope that you simply get pleasure from this picture!

Textual content written by Tim @Tim Schaeffer , organizer and co-ordinator of the mission and reality checked & proofread by William @William Ostling.

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