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YJIT Is the Most Reminiscence-Environment friendly Ruby JIT

YJIT Is the Most Reminiscence-Environment friendly Ruby JIT

2023-11-14 10:46:32

This 12 months, the YJIT group and I’ve gotten a paper accepted at
MPLR 2023 (Managed Programming Languages and Runtimes),
which is now freely out there via ACM open access.
The paper, titled “Evaluating YJIT’s Efficiency in a Manufacturing Context: A Pragmatic Method”, goes
into particulars of the technique taken to guage YJIT’s efficiency in a manufacturing context.
One in every of our key findings, when evaluating YJIT towards different current Ruby JITs reminiscent of JRuby
and TruffleRuby, is that YJIT is essentially the most memory-efficient Ruby JIT (by a protracted shot).

A video recording of our presentation at MPLR can be
available on YouTube.


Many printed papers about JIT compilers solely take a look at peak efficiency when it comes to
working time on benchmarks after a specific amount of warm-up time.
This may be misleading as a result of the period of time wanted for a JIT compiler to heat up might be
arbitrarily lengthy. Usually, the JIT compiler implementation is given as many benchmark
iterations because it wants to succeed in peak efficiency, and the height efficiency as measured then
is reported. The period of time wanted to succeed in peak efficiency is commonly not mentioned.
The identical goes for reminiscence utilization.

I imagine that
these metrics are usually ignored by tutorial compiler researchers
as a result of they could reveal an inconvenient actuality. In the event you give your JIT compiler
an arbitrary period of time and reminiscence to succeed in peak efficiency, it’s simpler to throw all
potential identified optimizations at a bit of code and attain excessive peak efficiency numbers.
Nevertheless, in case your JIT compiler makes use of an arbitrarily excessive quantity of reminiscence and desires a really lengthy
time to heat up, despite the fact that it might have the quickest peak efficiency, it might be
unusable in most real-world manufacturing environments.

When deploying code into manufacturing, peak efficiency shouldn’t be the one factor that issues.
On our manufacturing servers at Shopify, there’s not an enormous quantity of reminiscence out there for
the JIT compiler to make use of. Nearly the entire reminiscence is used to run a number of server processes, and
additionally to cache varied sources in RAM. This has compelled us to spend a big quantity of
effort on optimizing YJIT’s reminiscence utilization to make the compiler extra resource-efficient.

At Shopify, we deploy often, with consecutive deployments typically lower than 20 minutes
aside. This provides an additional layer of problem as a result of, regardless of these frequent deployments,
we are able to’t tolerate important will increase in response time.
If a JIT compiler wants a big period of time to
heat up, or all of a sudden deoptimizes giant quantities of code, this will translate into requests timing out, and prospects
abandoning their buying carts, which finally would end in misplaced income. As such, clean,
predictable warm-up and steady efficiency are of vital significance.


In our paper, we take a look at YJIT’s warm-up, reminiscence utilization and peak efficiency on benchmarks,
in addition to on our deployment on Shopify’s StoreFront Renderer (SFR). For context, SFR
renders all Shopify storefronts, which is the very first thing consumers see after they navigate to a retailer hosted by Shopify.
It’s principally written in Ruby, is dependent upon over 220 Ruby gems, renders over 4.5
million Shopify shops in over 175 nations, and is served by a number of clusters distributed worldwide. It’s able to serving over 1.27
million requests per second, and has processed over 197 billion USD in transaction
quantity in 2022.
YJIT is at the moment deployed to all SFR servers. For this paper, we’ve carried out
experiments utilizing Ruby head on a subset of servers in all clusters. We’ve additionally
included some management servers which ran the identical Ruby commit with out YJIT. Knowledge
for the SFR experiments was gathered over a 48-hour interval.

For our experiments on benchmarks, we used 11 headline benchmarks from the
yjit-bench suite. These are all benchmarks which might be based mostly on real-world Ruby gems,
with a bias in direction of net workloads. This contains benchmarks reminiscent of railsbench,
hexapdf, activerecord and liquid-render, which is a benchmark utilizing Shopify’s liquid
template language gem.
We benchmarked YJIT, RJIT (Takashi Kokubun’s experimental Ruby JIT written
in Ruby), JRuby, in addition to each the JVM and native variations of TruffleRuby.
Extra particulars on our experimental setup
are supplied in the paper.

We additionally preserve a web site,, which tracks
YJIT’s efficiency and reminiscence overhead in addition to varied different statistics on this
benchmark suite over time. Lately, as we had been searching for more difficult and lifelike
benchmarks, we’ve additionally turned the codebase of the web site
into a benchmark as properly.

Key Findings

Efficiency on Benchmarks

The above graph reveals the typical execution time on every benchmark for every of the Ruby JIT
implementations we benchmarked. The time is normalized to the time taken by the CRuby interpreter,
the place the time taken by the interpreter has worth 1.0, with values under 1 being quicker than
the interpreter.
We had been very beneficiant when it comes to warm-up time. Every benchmark was run for 1000 iterations, and
the primary half of all of the iterations had been discarded as warm-up time, giving every JIT a extra
than honest likelihood to succeed in peak efficiency.

As might be seen, TruffleRuby has the most effective peak efficiency on most (however not all) benchmarks.
YJIT outperforms the CRuby interpreter on each benchmark by a large margin. We will additionally see
that YJIT performs very competitively in comparison with JRuby (a JVM-based Ruby JIT), outperforming
it on most benchmarks.

Heat-Up Time on Benchmarks

This graph reveals a plot of the efficiency over time for every Ruby JIT for the railsbench benchmark.
The x-axis is the overall execution time in seconds, whereas the y-axis is the time per benchmark iteration. This
permits us to visualise how the efficiency of every VM evolves over time. As might be seen, YJIT
nearly instantly outperforms the CRuby interpreter, with RJIT not too far behind. JRuby takes over a
minute to succeed in peak efficiency, however doesn’t reliably outperform CRuby on this benchmark.

TruffleRuby ultimately outperforms the opposite JITs, but it surely takes about two minutes to take action. It’s
additionally initially fairly a bit slower than the CRuby interpreter, taking up 110
seconds to catch as much as the interpreter’s velocity. This is able to be
problematic in a manufacturing context reminiscent of Shopify’s, as a result of it might probably result in a lot slower
response occasions for some prospects, which may translate into misplaced enterprise. Such huge variations
in efficiency can even make the scaling of server sources harder. We also needs to observe
that whereas railsbench is a considerably difficult benchmark, it’s a lot smaller than our precise
manufacturing deployment. Heat-up knowledge for different benchmarks is supplied within the paper.

Reminiscence Utilization on Benchmarks

The above graph is in my view essentially the most attention-grabbing graph of the paper. It’s a plot of the reminiscence
utilization (RSS) of every Ruby implementation for every benchmark.
Due to the broadly various scale between knowledge factors,
the usage of a logarithmic was thought-about .
Nevertheless, we now have determined to make use of a
linear scale to keep up a extra correct sense of proportions. Do observe, nonetheless, that there’s
a reduce within the graph between 5GiB and 17GiB.

As might be seen within the graph above, thanks largely to the work put in by our group to
optimize its reminiscence
overhead, YJIT has the bottom reminiscence overhead of any Ruby JIT by far. The JVM-based
Ruby implementations usually use one and even two orders of magnitude extra reminiscence than YJIT and the
CRuby interpreter. The reminiscence overhead in comparison with CRuby might be as a lot as a number of gigabytes.
That is on benchmarks that usually require lower than 100MiB to run with the CRuby interpreter,
which makes such a excessive quantity of reminiscence overhead appear disproportionate.

One important caveat right here is that we’re measuring the overall reminiscence utilization of every system. That
is, the reminiscence overhead of the JVM itself has an influence. The best way that JRuby and TruffleRuby
internally symbolize Ruby objects in reminiscence, which is completely different from the best way CRuby represents
objects in reminiscence, additionally has an influence.
Nevertheless, the underside line is identical. Utilizing a number of gigabytes extra reminiscence than CRuby to run easy
benchmarks possible bodes poorly for a lot of manufacturing deployments.
For smaller manufacturing deployments, for instance, a mission working on cheap Digital Personal Servers (VPS),
there could also be solely 1GiB or 2GiB of RAM out there in complete.
For an organization like Shopify working a big fleet of servers,
the quantity of server processes that may be run on a single machine, and the way a lot reminiscence can be utilized
for caching issues.

There may be one other caveat, which is that JRuby and TruffleRuby, not like CRuby, don’t use a GVL
(World VM Lock, analogous to Python’s GIL). In principle, because of this they will extra successfully
use multithreading, and amortize a few of their reminiscence overhead throughout a number of server threads.
Nonetheless, there’s a case to be made that the reminiscence overhead of JRuby and TruffleRuby is one thing
that’s usually missed and possibly needs to be higher optimized.
Except for manufacturing deployments, the ruby-lsp benchmark is a benchmark of the Ruby language
server, which can be utilized by code editors reminiscent of VSCode.
We will see that on this benchmark, the JVM-based Ruby implementations can use a number of gigabytes
of reminiscence, and regardless of that, carry out worse than the CRuby interpreter. That is removed from very best
for a Ruby gem that’s meant to be run on developer laptops.

I might additionally like to notice that RJIT, Takashi Kokubun’s experimental pure Ruby JIT, appears to be like
fairly good on this comparability. Nevertheless, within the earlier graph, the inclusion of the
JVM-based Ruby JITs distorts the sense of scale. The following graph under reveals the identical reminiscence
utilization comparability, however with solely CRuby, YJIT and RJIT included. At present, there are
conditions the place RJIT makes use of a number of occasions extra reminiscence than CRuby and YJIT:

See Also

YJIT, being that it’s written in Rust (a techniques language), has
entry to extra instruments to optimize reminiscence utilization in locations the place particular person bits rely. Matching
YJIT’s reminiscence utilization in a pure Ruby JIT could be tough and sure would necessitate
augmenting Ruby with particular techniques programming primitives. For instance, to have the ability to
effectively pack structs and bit fields in reminiscence and to additionally pack structs and
arrays inside different structs.
Encoding knowledge constructions in reminiscence as compactly as potential is probably going difficult to do
in a JVM-based JIT implementation as properly.

Efficiency In Manufacturing

The next graph appears to be like on the latency of YJIT on our SFR deployment when in comparison with
servers that run the identical Ruby commit with YJIT disabled. If you’re questioning why no different
Ruby JITs are included on this graph, it’s as a result of, right now, different Ruby JITs couldn’t
be deployed in manufacturing for this software, both because of compatibility points or because of reminiscence constraints.
On common, YJIT is 14.1% quicker than the CRuby interpreter through the interval examined.
Importantly, as a result of YJIT is ready to compile new code very quick, it’s also quicker than the
interpreter even on the slowest p99 requests.

If a 14.1% speedup appears underwhelming to you, do remember the fact that the latency numbers
supplied measure the overall time wanted to generate a response. This contains not solely
time spent in JIT-compiled code, but additionally time spent in C capabilities that we can not optimize,
and time the server spends ready for database requests and different I/O operations.

The graph above reveals the speedup supplied by YJIT over the interpreter. The purple vertical
traces symbolize deployments.
In the course of the time interval we examined, there have been 35 deployments of recent code to manufacturing,
and the shortest interval throughout consecutive deployments was simply 19 minutes 21 seconds.
The important thing takeaway right here is that despite the fact that we carry out frequent
deployments through the daytime, as a result of YJIT is ready to heat up very quick, it stays
constantly quicker than the interpreter.
Once more, extra info is supplied in the paper,
together with knowledge about YJIT’s reminiscence utilization in our manufacturing deployments.


We’ve just lately printed a paper about YJIT at MPLR 2023, wherein we consider YJIT’s efficiency
on each benchmarks in addition to on Shopify’s flagship manufacturing deployment, which serves an
huge quantity of visitors worldwide.
On this paper, we make it a degree to look at not simply peak efficiency, however to additionally talk about and
consider warm-up time and complete reminiscence utilization.

The YJIT group has spent a big quantity of effort optimizing YJIT in order that it doesn’t simply
present good peak efficiency numbers, but additionally does this whereas being memory-efficient.
This effort has paid off, with YJIT having the least reminiscence overhead of any Ruby JIT, which
has been essential in enabling YJIT to deal with Shopify’s SFR deployment.

Since our MPLR paper was printed, we’ve stored enhancing
YJIT’s efficiency.
As of this writing, I’m our inner dashboard, and YJIT is offering a 27.2% common
speedup over the interpreter on our SFR deployment.
With the Ruby 3.3 launch approaching, there will likely be rather a lot to be enthusiastic about this vacation season,
as we’re as soon as
once more gearing up for a really robust Ruby launch. This 12 months, YJIT 3.3 will ship higher efficiency,
whereas utilizing much less reminiscence, and in addition warming up quicker than YJIT 3.2.
Anticipate one other put up on the Rails at Scale blog with extra benchmark outcomes quickly!

For extra info on the way to use YJIT, see the YJIT README.
Must you want to cite our MPLR 2023 paper, I’ve additionally
included the bibtex snippet under:

creator = {Chevalier-Boisvert, Maxime and Kokubun, Takashi and Gibbs, Noah and Wu, Si Xing (Alan) and Patterson, Aaron and Issroff, Jemma},
title = {Evaluating YJIT’s Efficiency in a Manufacturing Context: A Pragmatic Method},
12 months = {2023},
isbn = {9798400703805},
writer = {Affiliation for Computing Equipment},
tackle = {New York, NY, USA},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/3617651.3622982},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the twentieth ACM SIGPLAN Worldwide Convention on Managed Programming Languages and Runtimes},
pages = {20–33},
numpages = {14},
key phrases = {dynamically typed, optimization, just-in-time, digital machine, ruby, compiler, bytecode},
location = {Cascais, Portugal},
collection = {MPLR 2023}

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